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- not seeming to talk, save when one old kirkyard, and the graves of the dead makes a kind of grunting observation, and therein are as the waves of the sea. stretches out his limbs a little further. In a place apart lies the wooden bier, Some one comes and says, “There are with handspokes, on which they carry the plenty of herring over in Loch Scavaig - cold men and women hither; and by its a Skye boat got a great haul last night." side, a sight indeed to dim the eyes, is anPerhaps the loungers go off to try their other smaller bier, smaller and lighter, used luck, but very likely they say, “Wait till for little children. Well, there is not such to-morrow - it may be all untrue;" and a long way between parents and offspring; in all probability before they get over to - the old here are children too, silly in the fishing ground the herring have disap- worldly matters, loving, sensitive, credpeared.
ulous of strange tales. They are coming Yet they can work, too, and with a will, hither, faster and faster; bier after bier, when they are fairly set on to work. They shadow after shadow. It is the Saxon's can't speculate, they can't search for profit; day now, the day of progress, the day of the shrewd man outwits them at every turn. civilization, the day of shops; but high as They keep poor — but keeping poor, they may be your respect for the commercial keep good. Their worst fault is their glory of the nation, stand for a moment in dreaminess; but surely, as there is light in imagination among these graves, and join heaven, if there be blame here, God is to me in a prayer for the poor Celts, whom blame here, who gave them dreamy souls ! they are carrying, here and in a thousand For our part, keep us from the man who other kirkyards, to the rest that is without could be born in Canna, live on and on knowledge, and the sleep that is without with that ocean murmur around him, and dream. elude dreaminess and a melancholy like theirs ! “Bah!” cries a good soul from a city,
* From The Spectator. "they are lazy, like the Irish, like Jamaica
DOLLS. niggers; they are behind the age — let them die!” You are quite right, my good We have sometimes wondered that more soul, and if it will be any comfort to you has not been written about Dolls, who are to hear it, they, and such as they, are dy- surely very important members of the faming fast. They can't keep up with you; ily. For they are nothing less than the you are too clever, too great. You, we children of the children, of the mothers of have no doubt, could live at Canna, and es- the future, who rehearse with them the detablish a manufactory for getting the sea lights and cares of after years. There is no turned into salt for export. You wouldn't play, not even the business-like plays of dream, not you! Ere long these poor manhood, that is more serious. To careHighlanders will die out, and with them less older persons, even to some children, will die out gentleness, hospitality, charity, it seems a peculiarly senseless amusement; and a few other lazy habits of the race. it really is a miniature life, earnest and
In a pensive mood, with a prayer on our even anxious to a degree which is sometimes lips for the future of a noble race destined alarming. “There never," writes a friend, to perish, we wander across the island till " was a more sobered, care-crazed mother we come to the little graveyard where the than I, from a mere baby-child up to the lapeople of Canna go to sleep. It is a deso- mentably advanced age of sixteen." The Iate spot, with a distant view of the West- relation between such girls and their dolls, ern Ocean. A rude stone wall, with a girls to whom they are not playthings but clumsy gate, surrounds a small square, so children, is worth study, full as it is of psywild, so like the stone-covered hillside all chological and moral interest, and affordround, that we should not guess its use ing sure tests and prognostics of character. without being guided by the fine stone Few things are more curious than to see mausoleum in the midst. That is the last how the little creatures, sometimes before home of the Lairds of Canna and their kin; they are able to articulate, pitch upon some it is quite modern and respectable. Around, object which is to satisfy the maternal incovered knee-deep with grass, are the stinct in them. The strangest object it graves of the islanders, with no other me- often is. Like savages when they worship, morial stones than simple pieces of rock, they are content with the rudesť imitation large and small, brought from the sea-shore of the human figure. One young lady of and placed as footstones and headstones. our acquaintance, then not two years old, Rugged as water tossing in the wind is the set her affections on a stone seltzer-water
bottle, which she wrapped in flannel, and a sad night closed a day of penitence. Afstaggered about with, to the alarm of her ter being punished, I. could conceive no mother, who was in constant fear for the consolation equal to taking my child to bed little one's toes. Another bas adopted a with me. When I drew her shivering hot-water can, on which she bestows a pas- from her miserable hiding-place, I would sionate affection, and with which she holds burst into tears and cover her with kisses. endless dialogue. These objects, of course, When we were alone in the garden are exchanged, as time goes on, for others we held endless dialogues. I scolded her a which better satisfy newly developed tastes little, but I never punished her. To send and feelings. A girl of six will generally her early to bed, to feed her with dry not be satisfied except her baby bears some bread, or, worse still, to strike her little resemblance to her mother's. Helped by tender body, seemed to me too cruel; it this concession to reality, the imagination would have been punishment to myself to knows no bound in its inventions. But it do it. When I was in trouble I never told is checked, on the other hand, by too her of it, but I could think of none but the studied an imitation of life. The splendid, saddest tales with which to warn her, as elaborately dressed creature of wax is how a little girl had been lost who had never really loved. Its tameness chills the wandered out into the woods, far, far away. fancy. It is imposed upon the affections, At night search was made with lanterns, not created by them. And too large a doll and shouts were heard; but the disobedient is seldom much liked. Of course there are child was lost forever." Her love was not exceptions ; but a small doll, not too hand- | lessened, but it was troubled by the uncouth some, is generally the favourite. With appearance of her child, which she was conthese darlings about them, some girls, like tinually endeavouring to improve. But she actors, who are said to look upon the world found in it at least one consolation. Disas a show and upon the stage as a world, turbed about her own looks, which did live a life which is more real to them than is not promise well, she could compare hertheir daily existence.
self with her dolly. “Here I was certainly Madame Michelet, in her charming book the handsomer of the two; and, although Í the Story of my Childhood, which was loved her, I was not sorry to be prettier lately noticed in this journal, has some in-than my daughter. Many mothers are teresting chapters about her dolls. Every- | equally to blame.” For her other experithing in her circumstances favoured the de- ences with her first child, and for the story velopment of the taste, or, to speak more of the handsomer Margarido, a young lady correctly, the passion. An imaginative who had the advantage of being born in a child, thrown much upon herself, neglected fashionable shop, and who in course of time by her mother, who bestowed all the affec- engrossed the young mother's affections, tion she had to spare for her daughters upon the reader must be referred to Madame an elder sister, she was driven and found it Michelet's book, with which, indeed, he will easy to create a world of love for herself. be glad for many reasons to have made Her first doll she had to make. Wood was acquaintance. too hard. Clay was too cold. Linen and There is nothing remarkable in these exbran were the materials chosen. “I was periences beyond the grace and skill with like the savages,” she says, “ who desire a which the writer has given expression to little god to worship. It must have a head them. They may be matched in households with eyes, and with ears to listen; and it without end; our own limited inquiries must have a breast to bold its heart. All have given us an embarrassing choice of the rest is less important, and remains un- materials. Of these phenomena the first defined.” How she worked on this model; and chief cause is obviously the motherhow she breathed on what she made in the instinct. Hence the satisfaction of the very hope that it might live, remembering how young child, whose faculties of observation the breath of God had given life to Adam; and comparison are as yet feeble, with the what a troubled, anxious life she and her rudest effigies of the human form, and hence daughter led, but what endless joy and sol- the partiality ;- a touching suggestion of a ace she found in her society, she tells with familiar fact in real life, - on the part of wonderful grace and truthfulness. “I was older children for the weakest and leastobliged to hide her in a dark corner of a favoured of the doll family. Sometimes shed, where the waggons and carriages other feelings, the sense of beauty, for inwere kept. It was winter-time, and our stance, in an unusually early development, meetings were precarious and rare. comes into contlict with this instinct.' So it There were some occasions when I had an is with one young lady of our acquaintance. absolute need to have her near me, as when She, being then two years old, had placed
her dolls in a row, and among them one, dragged the dolls sboeless on the ground, Miss Betsy by name, of preternatural ugli- in the hope I might but once before I died
She was seen, as she held a spoon with have to darn · baby's 'socks.” How genuine food to the mouths of each of her family in and thorough the illusion was in this case turn, to administer a slap on the face to her may be judged from a little trait which ill-favoured daughter. A short time, how- every mother will appreciate. “I never ever, wrought a marvellous change. About woke in the night without getting up to a year after this event she had placed her turn my dolls in their beds." But even so little family, after their Saturday wash, to lively an imagination as this did not disdain warm before the fire. One who had a deli- assistance from without. There was a siscate india-rubber constitution shrivelled be- ter very clever at imitating sounds. fore the blaze. Returning to them, she . When, at my own request, she would imicaught sight of the horrible face of her once tate for me a sick or sulfering fretting baby, comely child. With a shriek of grief and I declare I felt my heart ache, and felt aged terror, she ran to her mother, crying, and worn with care as I lulled my · Freddy' * Take it; don't let me see it again; oh, or . Selina.' on my lap." We cannot remy poor Mary!” But in the midst of her frain from giving one more extract from the agony she remembered the others, and letter of our friend, who, we ought, permastering her horror of their possible con- haps, to tell our readers has had from babydition, ran off to their rescue, and happily hood a passion for books at least equal to found them unhurt. The injured Mary was her passion for dolls. “I once cried mysent to the hospital and cured; that is, a self nearly ill because my brothers had to fac-simile was with infinite difficulty pro- perform a surgical operation on my doll. cured. Happily it had a little scar on its its winking machine would not go, and toneck, which passed as the remains of hospi- tal blindness or permanent leer and hopetal treatment and cure. Another epoch in less squint were threatened. I would not the child's moral growth was marked by a abandon iny doll, but, mother-like, stood catastrophe which happened to a later fa- by while my brothers, with infinite skill, vourite. “Katie” had her cheek torn open beheaded my baby, and wound up its eyes by the mischievous fingers of a baby brother. to go right, and then sewed the head and Too old now to be imposed upon by offers shoulders on for me. I do not think agony of hospital cure, the child wept inconsolably is too violent a word for my grief at the for days. Alarmed at the violence of her sight which my headless babe presented." grief, her mother attempted consolation. The purely domestic life to which these She should have a new doll, the image of experiences belong satisfies most children. that which she had lost. With a reproach- Some, indeed, like to realize in their dolls ful glance, the child said, still weeping bit- the wider interests which are awakened by terly, “Oh, it will never be my own, own their reading, to reproduce incidents of Katie!" “ And," writes the mother, “I travel or of history. " Ile,” said a young felt positively ashamed of myself at having lady of our acquaintance, when questioned suggested such a thing; I saw that Katie about the disappearance of a favourite doll, was dead to the child, and that I had –“ he has fallen down that crack, but they wronged the child as much as if, instead of the other dolls) don't know it. They burying some woman's dead child and weep- think he has gone to India.” We have ing with her over it, I had offered to buy or heard of the niece of a distinguished historian, borrow another baby in its place.” accustomed to hear of great personages, who
An observer of course asks, how can an identified her dolls with kings and queens, affection so passionate contrive to maintain and who, when the Revolution of 1848 ocitself, in spite of the utter passivity of the curred, promptly accepted the situation, objects on which it is bestowed ? Doubt- and treated her Louis Philippe with indigless this is the crux. Where the imagina- nity, as a monarch who could not keep himtion of the child is less active it is overpow- self upon his throne. ered by the difficulty. In the genuine lover Ilere we must bring to an end our record of dolls it is vigorous enough entirely to of experiences, which many, doubtless, of overcome it. “I was never désillusionnée," our readers will be able to supplement with writes the friend whom we have quoted be- others equally strange and significant. Affore, " because my dolls did not eat. I had ter the fashion of some teachers, who like a wash of my doll's clothes every week, and to conclude their prelections with some thanked Heaven that they did get really problem which seems likely to puzzle their dirty. If they would only have worn out aydience, we shall give an anecdote which as well, everything would have been per- the friend so often quoted before relucfect. I rubbed the tiny socks very hard and I tantly supplies : — "I can vouch for the
fact of a dog once taking so desperate a fancy ter. But that is precisely the strongest to a large wax doll, that she abandoned her proof of our need. The imitative faculty, puppies, and they were nearly starved to as exercised in the learning of one's own death, because, in spite of all beatings and tongue, is too apt to be content with whatchasings, she would take every opportunity ever is first presented for imitation, however of stealing up to the room where her favour- imperfect it may be as a vehicle of thought ite was, and lying down to sleep by its side. or feeling. Happily, a change is coming I hope this won't degrade my love of dolls slowly over the spirit of our grammatical in your eyes; but I feel a little uneasy dreams. With the spread of Liberal ideas,
the desire for a purer English is being also more widely diffused; and there has gone
forth a deeply-uttered demand that every From The London Review.
British child 'shall not only be taught the BAD ENGLISH.
greatest of living languages, but shall be
taught it in its utmost purity. Men like A PROFESSED grammarian is not necessa- Mr. Moon, in acting as literary police, or rily a good writer, any more than a pro- as grammatical scavengers, exercise a usefessed moralist is necessarily a good man. ful function in helping to keep undefiled the A man who is the one may possibly be the pure well of English; and in the little volother as well; but, as the two are not iden- ume before us the critic of “ The Dean's tical, they are not inseparable. There is English " shows how much garbage may be the same difference between them that there picked from streams which have hitherto is between knowing and doing. Having al- been regarded as comparatively pure. ready, in his book on “ The Dean's Eng- Taking the edition of Lindley Murray's lish,' proved the truth of this position, Mr. Grammar (1816), which received the auWashington Moon has again thrown a flood thor's latest touches, and which is described of light upon the same subject, in exposing on the title-page as “ corrected," Mr. Moon the bad English ” of no less a grammarian proves, by the selection of numerous examthan Lindley Murray, besides exhibiting for ples of bad English, that even that edition the edification of students the vicious gram- stands itself in need of extensive correction. mar of two American writers on the Eng- As a literary phenomenon, the mere fact of lish language. Will Mr. Moon take it as false grammar is so common that it has an offence if we confess that in reading his ceased to be remarkable. But it certainly present volume we bad feelings which might is remarkable when it is found in a book have been produced by seeing a strong man which professes to teach the art of speaking slaughtering flies with a razor? Of course, and writing the English language correctly. such feelings are slightly foolish, for as flies That Tom, Dick, and Harry should mangle are a nuisance, worthy only of abolition, their mother tongue, is a thing to be exthe minutest blunders in gramwar are equal-pected from gentlemen who are above gramly offensive, and deserve no quarter from mar; but it is impossible for fathers and any lover of a pure style. We therefore mothers to be satisfied when they find the accept Mr. Moon's criticisms, microscopical national grammarian following the example though they sometimes seem to be, as a new of Harry, Dick, and Tom. Yet Lindley series of lessons on the grammatical minu- Murray offends against the correct use of tiæ of the Queen's English. Presuming every part of speech, as a few examples that a man's native language is, of all oth- will show. For instance, when two nomiers, of most importance to him, we may natives, different in number, occur in a senfairly conclude that, to an Englishman, the tence, it is not allowable to suppress one of study of English is more imperative than the corresponding verbs; because, in that the study of any other language, living or case, a piece of false grammar would be the dead. Hitherto, however, it has almost result. Thus, when Lindley Murray says, appeared as if the mere fact of English be- “Many sentences are miserably mangled, ing the language of the British isles, war- and the force of the emphasis totally lost," ranted the deliberate neglect of it as a daily he clearly leads us to believe that the secstudy. We have too long imagined that, ond verb is the same in number as the first, because we are born muttering what is noth- which would make the sentence read “ Many ing but a nebulous imitation of English, we sentences are miserably mangled, and the have, therefore, no need of the schoolmas- force of the emphasis (are] totally lost ; ” * The Bad English of Lindley Murray and Other whereas, the latter part of the sentence Writers on the English Language. A Series of Criticiemş. By G. Washington Moon, F.R.S.L., author emphasis is totally lost." In part of anothof " The Dean's English." London: Hatchard & Co.
| er sentence, he expressly employs a. wrong LIVING AGE. VOL. XI. 439
verb when he says, “Yet their general | which are therefore the most proper to be scope and tendency, having never been committed to memory, are printed with a clearly apprehended, is [are not remem- larger type.” Besides the “and which" bered at all.” Although Murray is per-error, this sentence contains another misfectly acquainted with the law which de- take in the fact that the relative adverb termines the position of an adverb in a sen- " therefore ” has no antecedent grammatitence, yet in practice he violates it repeat-cally connected with it. Mr. Moon thus edly. Thus, * A term which only implies amends the sentence, -" The rules, defithe idea of persons," is corrected by Mr. nitions, and observations which are the more Moon into "A term which implies the idea important, and which are therefore the most of persons only." Some readers may think proper to be committed to memory, are that such a correction is more finical than printed in larger type." A worse instance valuable; but as it is an improvement, it is than the foregoing of the “and which " a distinct gain, however slight. The ad- error occurs in Murray's Grammar, and is, verb “ botħ” is misplaced by Murray in of course, thoroughly exposed by Mr. Moon, this sentence: “ The perfect tense and the who shows also that the famous English imperfect tense both denote a thing that is grammarian frequently misuses even the past.”. Of course, as the adverb was meant articles. “The importance of obtaining, to apply, not to the verb “denote," but to in early life, a clear, distinct, and accurate the perfect and imperfect tenses, the sen- knowledge,” is equal to saying " a clear, [a] tence should have been, “ Both the perfect, distinct, and [a] accurate knowledge." He tense and the imperfect tense denote a thing speaks also of " an oration or discourse," that is past.” Again, Murray says, “We which is just saying " an oration or [an] shall consider each of these three objects in discourse." In another sentence, Murray versification, both with respect to the feet says, “It is difficult, in some cases, to disand the pauses ;," and Mr. Moon, correct- tinguish between an interrogative and exing him, puts the sentence thus — “We clamatory sentence," of which Mr. Moon shall consider each of these three objects in gives the following emendation, -.“ It is versification, with respect both to the feet difficult to discriminate between an interroand to the pauses.” Such errors occur fre- gatory and an exclamatory sentence," addquently in Murray's Grammar. Superlative ing in explanation, that's we distinguish adverbs, such as “totally," " supremely," one thing from another, but we discriminate “ absolutely," and "universally," are often between two or more things.". Again, the misused in being qualified by words imply- grammarian speaks of “explaining the dising comparison, such as “so," “ more," or tinction between the powers of sense and “most." But there are no degrees of su- imagination," upon which Mr. Moon makes perlativeness; so that if we say regarding the comment, — “We make a distinction, anything, that it is more universal or so to- but it is a difference which we explain.” So taily, our expression, as Mr. Moon remarks, much for Lindley Murray. To say now “ amounts to the absurdity of saying that that he is not the man we took him for bea whole may be cither less or more than it-fore reading these criticisms, would hardly self!" Yet Lindley Murray, in spite of be correct, for we have never believed in his own knowledge, speaks of certain ob- his infallibility as a grammarian. He has jects as being “ so totally unknown." "With many merits, no doubt, but intuitive preother grammarians, Murray lays down the cision as a writer of English is not one of rule that “Pronouns must always agree them; and therefore it is that, as Mr. Moon with their antecedents, and the nouns for remarks, “almost every kind of fault in which they stand, in gender and number;" composition may be found in Lindley Mur yet in speaking about the separation of a ray's own writings,” though the critic adds subject into paragraphs, he unhesitatingly that “he is not more incorrect in his lanviolates his own rule when he says, “and guage than ninety-nine men out of every each of these, when of great length, will hundred. He knew what was right; but again require subdivision at their most dis- his practice was strongly at variance with tinctive parts.” The “and which ” error, his precepts." that is, employing the words " and which " The second and third parts of Mr. Moon's in a sentence that does not contain, in the volume consist of criticisms contributed to previous part of it, the word “which," the New York Round Table, the former either expressed or understood, is one often series on the “Essays " of the Hon. George committed by young writers. But Lindley P. Marsh, and the latter on Edward S. Murray himself falls into the mistake in the Gould's “Good English." Mr, Marsh's following sentence: - "The more impor- Essays, which were published, under the tant rules, definitions, and observations, and title of “Notes on the New Edition of