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singular features. The seas connected by the south-eastern extremity of Delarue Oudemann's Inlet probably form a twin pair Ocean, he could visit all the lands which of seas of this sort. Two very remarkable surround the southern temperate zone. seas, closely resembling each other in figure, In this intricate labyrinthine fashion are and each of which is separated from Dela- the lands and seas of Mars intertwined. rue Ocean by a narrow curved strait, are And perhaps, if we consider the physical very noteworthy features. Were it not for relations of the planet, we shall recognise their enormous real dimensions – each sea the adaptation of this arrangement to the is at least 300 miles long by 150 broad, and wants of the planet's inhabitants. It must the channels which connect them with Dela- be remembered that if the lands and seas rue Ocean are fully 250 miles long - one of Mars had been arranged as those of our would be disposed to detect in their singu- own earth, the large ocean masses correslar resemblance the evidence of artificial ponding to our Pacific and Indian Oceans construction. The same remark applies to would never have been swayed by a tidal two closely resembling flask-shaped seas, wave. If Mars has a satellite, it must be which flow into Tycho Sea. Another well- an exceedingly minute one; for the most marked sea of this sort flows into the powerful telescopes have been directed Hour-glass,' or Kaiser Sea.
towards the planet without discovering any. On our earth the oceans are three times The effects of the sun in producing tides as extensive as the continents. It may be must be almost inappreciable on Mars. noticed that Europe, Asia, and Africa form These effects, it is well-known, depend on a single large island, so to speak; while the relation which a planet's diameter bears another large island is formed by the two to its distance from the sun. Our earth's Americas. On Mars a very different ar- diameter is about 8,000 miles, and its disrangement prevails. In the first place, tance from the sun 91,500,000 miles; and there is little disparity between the extent the solar tide upon our earth is very small. of oceans and continents; and then, these we can conceive, then, how small the Marare mixed up in the most complex manner. tial tides would be, when we remember that A traveller either by land or water could his diameter is less than 5,000 miles, and visit almost every quarter of the planet his distance from the sun upwards of 150, without leaving the element on which he 000,000 miles. Large oceans, unswayed by had commenced his journeyings. Thus, he tides, would become stagnant and impure. might proceed by water along Nasmyth In- It seems probable that the waters on Mars let for some 2,000 miles ; thence southwards are sufficiently moderate in quantity to cirfor some 1,500 miles along the Kaiser Sea culate freely by the mere processes of evapinto Dawes Ocean; thence he might coast oration and downfall. along the four seas, which extend for up We have been assuming that the dark wards of 5,000 miles around the southern spots on Mars are really seas, and the light temperate zone; thence, after circumnavi- ochrish-coloured spots continents. Some gating Jacob Island and Phillips Island (a astronomers have expressed doubts on this journey of about 6,000 miles), he could point; but such doubts may surely be looked sail into Delarue Ocean, and visit the three on as unreasonable. We can neveri of open seas and the five bottle-necked seas course, feel absolutely certain respecting which are connected with it, a journey of the habitudes of so distant a globe; but some 6,000 miles. After this he could sail there are many sound reasons for concluddown Dawes Strait into the sea which sur- ing that the surface of Mars is really diverrounds the northern temperate zone, and sitied by land and water. after circumnavigating this zone he could In the first place, there is the colour of sail up Bessel Inlet; the journey, after leav- the spots. It was formerly supposed that ing Delarue Ocean, being fully 10,000 miles the greenish tint of the dark spots might be in length. Thus he would have visited al- merely the effect of contrast with the brightmost every quarter of the Martial globe, er spots which give to Mars its ruddy tint, and journeyed upwards of 30,000 miles, and earned for it the title of ó. Topoets always in sight of land, and generally with among the Greeks. But this opinion bas land in view on both sides. Again, a trav- been found to be erroneous, and all modern eller by land, starting from Dawes Conti- observers agree that the green tint really nent, could round the extremity of Nasmyth belongs to the dark spots. In fact, more Inlet and pass by a long neck of land called doubt rests on the reality of the orange Mädler Land into Herschel Continent; tint than on that of the green. Astronothence rounding Huggins Inlet to Secchi mers have been disposed to ascribe the Continent; thence rounding Bessel Inlet to orange colour to the absorptive qualities of Mädler Continent; and finally, rounding the Martial atmosphere, and it is only with
in the last few years that the improbability Mars, partially modifying the aspect of the of this view has been established
fundamental features and even in some cases Then we have the evidence drawn from disguising them under new lights and shades, the white spots which cap the Martial poles. which present no constancy, - a thin vaIf these are really masses of ice, resembling porous atmosphere probably resting on a those which surround the poles of our own surface of land, snow, and water. It is earth, the question must of course be an- also remarked that the outer parts of the swered in the affirmative; for whence could disc are nearly always much more indistinct such enormous masses of snow and ice be than the central parts; the former shine formed, save from large seas? Now we can with that white light which we receive from hardly see on what grounds it can reasona- the cloud-belts of Jupiter; and if we rebly be doubted that those white spots are member that the other parts of the disc conrightly called
tain those regions of Mars which have lately The snowy poles of moonless Mars.
come into sunshine, or are about to pass
out of it, we see the meaning of the pheTheir variation has been found to correspond nomenon to be this, that the morning and exactly with the progress of the Martial sea- evening skies of the Martialists are more sons — and this not for one or two Martial clouded than the midday sky — a condition years, but ever since Sir W. Herschel first which is known to prevail in certain seasons called attention to the periodicity of the va- and latitudes on our own earth also. The riation. There is something singularly strik- indistinctness of the wintry hemisphere ing in the contrast between the small sharply points to the prevalence of cloudy skies defined ellipse of white light round the pole during the Martial winter; and this peculiof that hemisphere which is enjoying the arity is not only conformable with recogMartial summer, and the irregular and wide- nised habitudes on our earth, but correspreading tracts of snowy light round the sponds with the variations of the Polar snowcold pole. In the winter these tracts ex- caps. •The enormous transfer of moisture tend as far from the pole as latitude 45°, a from one hemisphere to the other,' writes circumstance which indicates an extent of Professor Phillips, while the snows are snow-fall corresponding very closely to that melting round one pole and forming round which in winter covers the northern tracts the other, must generate over a great part of Asia and America. In summer, on the of the planet heavy storms and great breadths other hand, the icy circle is reduced within of fluctuating clouds, which would not, as a range of about 8° or 10° from the pole; on the quickly rotating mass of Jupiter, so that arctic travellers on Mars are not gather into equatorial bands, but be more likely to approach either pole more closely under the influence of prominent land and than Sir Edward Parry approached the irregular tracts of ocean.' North Pole of the earth in his celebrated But the strorgest argument in favour of * boat and sledge' journey in 1837. Now, similarity in general physical relations bewhen we see features corresponding so tween Mars and our earth, is drawn from closely with those presented by our own the revelations wbich have been afforded by earth, and consider further the à priori the spectroscope. We regret that space probability that our nearest neighbour will not permit us to dwell on this evidence among the planets should be constituted so fully as its interest deserves. Those of much as the earth is, we are led at once to our readers who are anxious to examine the the conclusion that these white patches are subject more at length, should read Mr. in reality snowy masses, and therefore that Huggins' paper on the spectrum of Mars, in there must exist large seas and oceans the Monthly Notices for 1867. The main whence the vapours are raised from which facts pointed to by his researches are the these snows have been condensed.
following:- First, the red colour of Mars But, further, we have distinct evidence is not due to an absorptive power in his atof the existence of a cloud-bearing atmos- mosphere; resembling that in our own air phere around Mars. The features of the which causes the ruddy skies of twilight. If planet are often blurred and indistinct when this were so, the snowy poles would lose every circumstance is favourable for ob- their white colour, since we see them through servation. And it is especially noteworthy the densest strata of the Martial atmosphere. that the wintry hemisphere is always much But, secondly, although the atmosphere less distinct than the hemisphere which is around the planet is not so abnormally enjoying the Martial summer. • A variable dense as to produce the ruddy tint of the envelope,' writes Professor Phillips, ' gath- planet, yet that atmosphere does contain ers and fuctuates over a permanent basis gases and vapours corresponding to those of bright and dusky tracts on the surface of which are present in our own air; for lines
appear in the spectrum which correspond is due to a real ruddiness of substance (corwith those which appear in the solar spec- responding to the tint of certain soils upon trum when the sun's light traverses the lower our own earth), we cannot but recognise strata of the earth's atmosphere. That the extreme probability that in all essential these lines,' says Mr. Huggins, “were not habitudes the planet Mars resembles our own produced by the portion of the earth's at- earth. One circumstance may at first excite mosphere through which the light of Mars surprise: the fact, namely, that in a planet had passed, was shown by the absence of so much farther from the sun than our similar lines in the spectrum of the moon, earth, there should exist so close a resemwhich at the time of observation had a blance, as respects climatic relations. But smaller altitude than Mars;' so that, if the if we consider the results of Tyndall's relines had been due to the earth's atmos- searches on the Radiation of Heat, and rephere, they should have been stronger in member that a very moderate increase in the moon's spectrum than in that of the the quantity of certain vapours present in planet.
our atmosphere, would suffice to render the It appears, then, from the searching scru-climate of the earth intolerable through the tiny of the spectroscope, that the planet has excess of heat (just as glass walls cause a hotan'atmosphere, and that that atmosphere house to be as an oven long after the sun most probably resembles.our own in general has set), we shall not fail to see that Mars constitution. Combining this evidence with may readily be compensated by a corthat which we already possess of the presence responding arrangement for his increased of water in its liquid, vaporous, and solid distance from the vivifying centre of the sostates, upon the surface, and with the cer- lar system. tainty that the red tint of parts of the planet
RAILWAYS IN RUSSIA. - Difficult as it may be to will be more attackable from the fact that its get at the truth about Russia, the nature and natural obstacles to locomotion have been overbearing of such a material fact as the extensive come, and like other civilised States it will feel construction of railroads is easily enough esti- more keenly the effect of disasters: it is difficult mated: and it is apparent that the fact is of such to injure it now on account of its low organisation magnitude as to concern a good deal all the but the higher organisation which gives it the neighbours of Russia. With its immense distances force of concentration will make it much more and want of other roads, Russia is just the country susceptible, and accumulate the effects of its in which the making of railways will have the wounds. Not improbably it may lose in this most striking effect on its advancement. It may way much more than it gains, both through its really gain less than a more settled country like neighbours being
more fitted to profit by railEngland, which only gets railways as the climax ways from their higher civilisation, and through to an efficient system of communication, and has their having had the start for many years. In a large population in narrow room; but in a cer- any case, whatever may be the speculation about tain sense, and in appearance, it gains more. this topic, the railway movement in Russia clearIt is a great step from no facilities of conveyance ly ought to be observed. at all to a comparatively perfect system, - to
Economist, 18 July. become quite compact, instead of hardly holding together. The change is almost one of kind, whereas in a country like England it is only one of degree. We have only to note what the position of Russia is to appreciate the effect of a An enthusiastic reception was recently given change so great. A people of between sixty and at Cologne to the German poet Freilgrath on the seventy millions, geographically on the verge of occasion of his first setting foot on German soil afWestern Europe, but in reality remote and inac- ter a residence of many years in London, where he cessible, all at once enters upon intimate rela- was held in deserved esteem by a large circle of tions with its neighbours. It buys and sells much friends. About two hundred persons from varimore; its merchants go farther a field, and more ous parts of Germany assembled at a banquet frequently, and in turn it is more frequently given in honour of the poet by his friends and traversed; its civilisation being much less ad- admirers in the Rhine provinces. The principal vanced, it is exposed to a host of new influences toast was given by Herr Classen-Kappelmann, and ideas. It is also material, so long as nations well known for the prominent part he took in have reason to measure each other by their re- the anti-Bismarchian demonstration of the Prns. spective forces, to remark that Russia must sian Parliament in 1866, and at the conclusion of weigh more heavily in the calculation. It will his speech he presented Freilgrath with a handbe more compact, and its army more easily some silver goblet two feet high, on which was moved, while it will have better roads by which an inscription in versé welcoming the poet back to approach its frontier. In turn, of course it to his native country.
had for the genial widower. With the perA TRUST DISCHARGED.
verse senitiveness which was a part of his
nature, Henry Hurst resented the look, and WHEN Henry Hurst presented himself at returned it with a black frown, which his Mr. Eliot Foster's chambers, the external face still wore when he confronted Mr. Eliot aspect of the place was pretty much the Foster, and which rendered him more than same as it had been when Julia Peyton sent ever unprepossessing to the old gentleman, her peremptory demand for an interview who was not disposed to regard him with with the eminently-respectable solicitor. much favour already. The walls were dirtier, the furniture shab * An ill-looking fellow,' he thought ; 'a bier, and the clerks, who now led a life of sullen, ill-conditioned lad. And though he seemingly-perpetual pen-mending in the shook hands with him, and told him to take outer-room, were not the same as the clerks a chair politely enough, there was no warmth who had suspended that delightful occupa- in his manner, nothing whatever to foster tion in curiosity and admiration when the the hope, the almost expectation, which handsome, imperious, unbusiness-like client Hugh Gaynor's words had encouraged him had presented herself. Mr. Clithero was to form, that the mystery of his life was no longer there. That gentleman had long about to be dispelled ago set up in business for himself, and gone Time, which had done his habitation but considerably ahead of his former employer. little injury, had wrought in the lawyer the The age of go-aheadativeness' had set in inevitable change which it brings to that by this time, and an enterprising solicitor ephemeral work of the Creator, Man. When appertaining to the smart-man'species had Julia Peyton had made with Mr. Eliot Foster chances such as Mr. Eliot Foster and his the compact which it was his intention now contemporaries had never contemplated. to complete and free himself from, the lawMr. Clithero was a smart man, and was now yer was a middle-aged man, remarkably prospering well in a West-end' concern well-preserved, and of a vigorous and enerand connection, wherein legitimate plodding getic presence. He was an old man now; legal business was largely dashed with mon- he had passed the period of middle life, and ey-lending, and was apt to speak of the the downward way had begun to be trodden. old gent as a sound man, sir; but slow, The clearness of preception and the decision quite behind the times.' To all appearance, 1 of manner which had characterised him still the same flies were travelling across the remained unaltered; but the energy, aptisame dust and rain-tracks on the windows, tude, and taste for the duties of his lot had the same scraps of paper littered the floor, declined, and it was easy to see that the ruthe same orderly bundles of documents en- mour which prevailed among people likecumbered the heavy table, whose leather ly to know, that Mr. Eliot Foster would top was not much more ragged and stained, soon retire from business, was not unfounpussibly because there had been little room ded. He did think of the boy's mother as for such a development. Mr. Eliot Fos- he coldly greeted him, he did remember ter's present visitor was totally unconscious their interview in that same room, but there of any association with the place which he was no emotion in the remembrance; and now saw for the first time, and experienced the strongest feeling he now had in connecno sentiment stronger than vexation at the tion with the affair, which had been the most delay which ensued between his giving his exciting and romantic episode in a life suffiname to the clerk, who sat in the place erst- ciently prosaic and prosperous, was, that he while occupied by Mr. Clithero, and his be- was glad that his responsibility concerning ing admitted to the presence of Mr. Eliot the boy had come to an end. Foster. At length the door of the inner During the first few desultory phrases of room opened, and a stout, florid gentleman, the conversation between Mr. Eliot Foster with a frank, pleasant expression, came out, and Henry Hurst, the lawyer looked narfinishing a sentence and a laugh as he did so. rowly through his silver-rimmed glasses at Mr. Eliot Foster came no farther than the bis visitor. He had emerged from childhood door-sill, whence he addressed the clerk. since he had seen him last, and his personal
* Let Mr. Burdett have those papers, appearance was as decided, as matured, as Morris,' he said; and show the young man his disposition. Mr. Eliot Foster began to in.'
change his mind about his being ill-looking, The handsome, fresh face of the lad, with when the boy's face cleared up and brighta country bloom upon it, caught Frank ened as he answered the questions put to Burdett's attention as he passed him by; him with regard to Mrs. Wood and Alice. and he looked at him with the kindly interest He gave a satisfactory account of them, which everything human except a poacher confirmed Mr. Eliot Foster's supposition
that the pretty child had grown up into a one's business but my own. Please to tell still prettier girl. At this point the conver- me, sir, what I have to receive from you.' sation languished, and then Mr. Eliot Fos As the boy spoke thus, Mr. Eliot Foster ter suddenly gave it the direction which saw his face change into so striking a reHenry Hurst desired, towards himself. As semblance of what he remembered his mothhe did so his manner became entirely busi-er's, that for the moment he was startled nesslike, and that of the young man assumed into a throb of the old feeling which had somewhat of a defiant, inimical tone, as of been familiar to him when he was under one standing on his guard gainst possible Julia Peyton's spell. encroachment, injustice, or impertinence. Not so fast, not so fast,' he said. You The sense of injury that was in him, deep- shall know all about that time. I should ened and embittered by the impossibility of like to hear something of your plans first.' charging any one in particular with the in You implied unmistakably that you had Aiction of the injury, rendered him constant- no such wish, sir,' said Henry Hurst, in a ly suspicious, and made him assume the as- somewhat softer tone; and I don't want pect and tone of anger and doubt at the to intrude upon you. You sent for me, and smallest approach to a discussion of his I am here, as you are the only person I private interests and affairs, even when have ever known who seemed to know anysuch discussion was most desirable and thing about me; but it now appears that might prove most satisfactory.
you have nothing to tell me, nothing to say I am informed by Mr. Cheavers that you to me, but that I can go where I like and have given him no cause for complaint with do what I like. Well, this means liberty, respect to your studies,' said Mr. Eliot Fos- to be sure ; but ? ter, and that he considers you fairly edu He said no more, but the pause was ex cated, but with no special aptitude for any- pressive, and the lawyer, for all his feelings thing but painting. Is this so?'
were dulled and Julia's son was antipa• Yes,' replied the young man curtly, 'it thetic to him, felt it so.. This was a melanis. I intend to be an artist.'
choly sort of charter under which to sail on H-m,' said Mr. Foster in a deliberative life's high seas. There had been a good tone. Well, I have no right and no incli- deal of loneliness in Mr. Eliot Foster's own nation to interfere with your intention. I life, though of course he did not mind it don't know much about art myself, and I now, and though equally of course it had know still less about artists. They are not never been such loneliness as this, and he in my way; but I suppose there's no reason felt for the young man. why they shouldn't be steady and respect • You must not be so ready to take ofable members of society if they have good fense,' he said. You must learn and resense and good principles. You can please member that business is business; even as yourself, of course; my share in the busi- an artist, you will find that worth rememness is easily despatched. It concerns 'ex- bering. I said I had neither the right nor clusively' (Mr. Eliot Foster laid a hard em- the inclination to interfere with you; nor phasis on the word), the small sum of have I; but I did not say I take no interest money placed in my hands as a provision in you, and do not care where you go or for you.'
what you do. Try to see things correctly, Nothing could be more unsympathetic than and to represent them in words as they are, the lawyer's voice, nothing less kind or in- not according to your own imagination. terested than his manner. With all his You will find the world hard enough to get hard selfishness, his incredulity and prema- through without taking up imaginary grievture cynicism, Henry Hurst was young, and ances.' had some of the keen susceptibility of youth. The reproof was kindly meant; it was, His feelings as well as his pride might be indeed, the kindest thing Mr. Eliot Foster hurt, and Mr. Eliot Foster's tone did it. had yet said to the young man; but still it
He takes good care to let me understand was a reproof, and as such Henry Hurst that I am nothing to him, that he does not resented it. He hardened himself immedicare for me, the young man thought; “and ately against the impulse which had been I will show him I don't want him or any- urging him to appeal to Mr. Eliot Foster, body.' Thus thinking, in the illogical heat and replied in a tone which at once disposed of youth, that indifference can be suscepti- of his chance of exciting friendly interest in ble to scorn and indifference, he replied, the lawyer's mind. while the tell-tale colour varied in his dark "I don't think I have misrepresented cheek,
either your words or your feelings, sir. 'I quite understand that my future is no You have no interest in me beyond that of