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tite, danced with undiminished spirit, | rising diplomatist, and contrived to keep laughed quite as much as usual; in short, her cousins in a very good humour without she did not make herself a nuisance to every- making any sacrifices of a painful nature. body, and was, in consequence, totally un It was in the course of the second week like the engaged young lady whose friends after the autumn festivities at Meriton had are debarred by circumstances from antici- commenced, that Stephen Haviland told his pating the happy release of her speedy mar- wife he had been requested by Messrs. G-, riage.
the well-known engravers, to permit an arMadeleine was less exceptional in the tist in their employment to make drawings hearty and undisguised pleasure with which of the house and grounds of Meriton, for she received the tribute of admiration so the purpose of giving them a place in a generally paid her. It has occurred a few work designed to illustrate the architectural times to on-lookers at the game of life, to and landscape beauties of England, and observe that the most sentimental and even which was destined to be the finest work of lugubrious young ladies in the engaged con- the kind in existence. This was the sort of dition have no objection to flirtations more request that Stephen Haviland liked to have or less mild, and entertain liberal notions made to him. It flattered his sense of selfconcerning permissible «friendships, and importance and his pride in all his possesthe good which their influence is calculated sions. Julia did not care particularly about to do to impressible mankind. Madeleine the matter, but her invariable good taste bad no theories upon this point; but her led her to a graceful acquiescence; and practice was to make herself very charming also to signify her assent to her husband's to all comers, and to let them take the con- proposition that it would be well to offer sequences. If Verner Bingham had been some attention to the artist, who would present, she would not have made the small- probably arrive soon after the necessary est difference in her manner; in his absence formality of his reply, Madeleine, who she had more time to make herself generally had been listening with her usual lively inagreeable, that was all. But it will be terest, intervened at this point by saying: easily understood that the young-lady sec I wonder if he would give me some tion of the community explained Madeleine's drawing-lessons while he is down here, un charming manner by declaring her to be a cle? Do you think he is too high and flirt; and would have described it still more mighty, an artist on too grand a scale, for harshly had they known the truth.
that sort of thing?? For all this, Madeleine was not generally I don't know indeed, my dear,' anunpopular with women. There were many swered Stephen; 'I am inclined to imagine sufficiently generous to like and admire the not, however. A commission of this kind fair, bright young girl, and she was just as does not bespeak much importance. I can charming to the women who were her friends find
out as soon as I see hiin. as to the men; while the dislike of her • Thank you, uncle,' said Madeleine. It cousins troubled her not in the least. She will be so delightful it' he should not object had heard some of the strictures passed to giving me lessons. I was getting on so upon her conduct by Angelina and Clemen- nicely with that dear old Colebrook — the tína; and even a few of their prognostica- only thing I really regretted leaving town tions of the inevitable evil termination of for was my drawing. - You don't object, what they more tersely than elegantly called do you, aunt ?' she added, turning with a her 'goings on. But she was too happy, smile of security to Julia, as well as too generous, to care for anything Certainly not, Maddy, if your uncle can of the kind, and would have been genuinely manage it for you. – Who is this person, delighted if society would have accepted Stephen ? Anyone one knows anything Angelina and Clementina according to the about ? Do the Messrs. G- name him?' Haviland valuation. That fraction of so *Yes,' said Stephen, they do. I think ciety which formed the autumn party at I have the letter here, but I don't know the Meriton did not so accept them; but Made- name at all. Ah, yes, here it is '- he had leine exerted the tact which she possessed taken a letter from his breast-pocket, and in a degree calculated to be of much use to was looking hurriedly through it -- " bis her as the wife of a --- it was to be hoped - name is Horace Holmes.'
From The Pall Mall Gazette. mischief, however, does not even stop here.
The whole theory of swearing rests upon JUDICIAL OATHS OF HEATHEN WITNESSES, *
the notion that the person taking the oath
believes in its binding efficacy; but we, it MR. CHISHOLM ANSTEY has just pub-appears, have got hold of a set of misbelished an interesting and even amusing gotten ceremonies which have no meaning pamphlet on the subject of the system at all to the Chinese or to any one else, but adopted in our courts of law at home and which we absurdly suppose to be binding in most of the colonies of administering on their consciences. Mr. Anstey declares judicial oaths to people who are not Chris- that the ceremony of breaking a saucer and tians. He proposes that such oaths should telling the witness that in case of perjury be altogether abolished, and we think that his soul ” (it used to be his body, but no one who reads his pamphlet can doubt “ soul” was regarded as a more pious exthat, if his facts are correct - and he ap- pression). “would be cracked like the pears to have taken great pains to ascertain saucer” is a proceeding as idiotic in the their correctness — his inference follows eyes of a Chinaman as in the eyes of an from them. Mr. Anstey very fairly says Englishman. He shows, indeed, by an inthat he objects to all oaths, promissory, vestigation which we have not room to folcompurgatory, or assertory, and whether low out, that the form was originally adopted the witnesses be Christians or heathens, on the strength of a cock and a bull story but, without entering upon so wide and told by one Antonio at the Old Bailey in well worn a discussion, his special objec- 1804 on the prosecution of a man named tions to oaths administered to heathen wit- Alsey for stealing money from a Chinese. nesses deserve the careful attention of all The form was completely unknown, and persons interested in the reform of the never used in China itself. In the treaty law.
ports they used at one time to burn “paper The theory upon which the use of oaths of imprecation,” which, says Mr. Anstey, is justified is that the person who takes the always made the Chinamen laugh. The conoath is impressed with the belief that Divine sequences were at once so absurd and so vengeance will overtake him here or here- injurious that in the years 1856 and 1857 after if he commits perjury, and no doubt all judicial oaths were abolished by a Hong the practice of taking oaths has been so Kong ordinance, a warning as to the temmuch mixed up with our political and social poral penalties of perjury being substituted arrangements that most people are more or for them. less open to such impressions. But how There is one objection to the administraever this may be with European Christians, tion of heathenish oaths which Mr. Anstey bred up to believe in one God, essentially works out with great force, and which would holy and an enemy to falsehood, it is far not probably occur to any one who had not otherwise with regard to the innumerable had the practical advantage which he has mass of heathens, who have no such belief. enjoyed for many years of seeing the sys“ Amongst the people of China,” says Mr. tem at work. At best we take advantage Anstey, ' oaths are utterly unknown except of a degraded superstition which directly to such of them as may have visited our encourages the grossest idolatry; but, as a own courts of justice.” Swearing, he says, rule, we fail to get our mess of pottage. is contrary to the principles of Buddhism, When ignorant heathen people attach imand according to the principles of the fol- portance to an oath, as they often do, their lowers of Confucius it is a mere absurdity. view of its character is just as abject as that It might naturally be supposed, however, of the ignorant English or Irish man who that it is at worst useless. Mr. Anstey kisses his thumb instead of kissing " the takes from us this rag of comfort. He calfskin of King James's Bible,” as Mr. Ansays, and with the greatest plausibility, stey puts it. that it makes the administration of justice The heathen's god is perfectly indifferent ridiculous in the eyes of the Chinese, and to perjury, unless it is committed in violain particular conveys to their minds the tion of a strictly prescribed formula. If natural impression that perjury is no crime you say pocus hocus instead of hocus pocus in a temporal point of view, inasmuch as the path is utterly null and void. Now it we trust to the efficacy of charms to ensure is almost impossible to ascertain whether the truthfulness of our witnesses. The hocus pocus or pocus hocus is the true
charm, and “ Asiatics in general and the "On Judicial Oaths as Administered to Heathen Chinese in particular take a singular Barrister-at-Law. (London: Maxwell and Sons. | law of ceremonial imposed upon them by Witnesses." By Thomas Chisholm Anstey, Esq., pleasure in evading and overreaching any 1868.)
foreigners from Europe or America.” | false witness ?" He very properly con“What," says Mr. Anstey elsewhere, cludes that we ought to leave the charms " are we to say to the wild tribes scattered alone, and rely upon the real, substantial over Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, sanction of temporal punishment. He and many another outlying dominion of the makes several good suggestions as to inQueen, swearing some by thunder and creasing the efficiency of this, the true lightning, some by the falling tree of the sanction; and he might in particular have forest, some by earth, some by old iron, added that perjury in England is not punsome by the missile of death and so forth, ished with nearly enough severity. It may each after their kind, yet one and all con- be doubted whether à judge should be sentient in two things only - 1, that they allowed to pass a lighter sentence than that fear no other ordeal and are always ready of penal servitude for a crime so enormous, to swear with hilarity in whatsoever spirit- so mischievous, so difficult to detect, and, ual name they fear not; and 2, that they we fear we must add, so common. hold in the greatest dread the temporal The pamphlet is in every way well worth power and its chastisements of the crime of reading.
From The Sunday Magazine. In a parish of Cambridgeshire, consisting of 18,000
acres, the whole of which is the property of the THE GANG CHILDREN.
Duke of Bedford, labour for its cultivation can only
be obtained at the distance of seven or eight miles. “Woe unto them that lay field to field till there be no place, that they may make themselves alone EARLY, early, they rise, in the midst of the earth."- Book of the Prophet In the twilight cold and grey Isaiah.
"Am I my brother's keeper ?"- The Saying of They rub their sleepy eyes, Cain.
"Is it morning so soon?” they say. “The principal seats of the agrarian evil which Early, early, the children rise, threatens to extend itself over a considerable por And yet they are not merry nor wise, tion of the rural districts of England are Norfolk, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, but especially Healthy nor wealthy are theyLincolnshire, which may be considered, in an agri Late, late, in the evening grey, cultural sense, as almost a new creation; a great As they trudge on their homeward track, part of it, which was within the memory of living man a waste, has been brought into a state of the
From the fields where they've worked all day, finest cultivation, and has added at least 230,000 You may meet them coming back. acres to the corn-producing area of England. The low level of Norfolk, which was a hundred years ago They have worked in the fields all day,
They are cold, perhaps they are wet, but one vast bed of sedge and sallow bushes, now glows with red clover and the golden mustard and They must surely be tired -- and yet gladdens the eye with the verdure of turnip-fields and They sing : are the children gay? heavy crops of grain. In this reclaimed portion of England,
farmhouses, barns, stables, and all that is required for agricultural prosperity, have been erect- They woke at the voice of the bird; ed, but no thought has been taken for the labourer. In the fields, the whole day long, No cottages
have been built for his accommodation; They have been where the heavens were stirred in many cases, he must walk miles
to his work; even on estates where he had been so fortunate as to se
And thrilled by the lark's clear song; cure an humble shelter
he has been dispossessed of Have they learnt of the lark to sing ? it lest he should become a pauper and a burden to The lark from the grassy sod, the
parish, and has been driven to find a home where with the dew on his breast and wing, and how he could. In the eastern districts of Eng. land many farms of 300 acres do not possess a single
That soars to the throne of God, resident labourer.”— The Quarterly Review, July, Have they followed his upward way? 1867. Eight appears to be the ordinary age at which chil.
But no ! it would be a crime dren join the agricultural gangs; in some instances, Almost as bad as to play, they have been known to do so even at four. It is So to idle their precious time. a common practice with parents to stipulate that if What flowers in the fields may blow, the elder children are hired to the gangmaster he must take the younger ones too. The distances they What joys in the hedgerows lurk, have to walk, or rather run, before the labours of They do not ask or know, the day begin, are astounding; sometimes eight They come to the fields to work : miles a day, as in a case near Peterborough. They leave at five in the morning, under the care of the And labour is such a boon, gangmaster, and return at five at night. They work In our world of sorrow and sin, eight or nine hours; and during the last hour they It cannot matter how soon are at work they will ask, said an old gangmaster, forty times what o'clock it is.
The little children begin.* The atmosphere of moral corruption which surrounds agricultural gang-work is such as can be * At a meeting of the Norfolk Chamber of Comparalleled only in the interior of Africa ; the behav-merce, on Saturday, October 11th, 1867, Mr. C. s. four and language of the girls and women is such Read,'M. P., said: -"The employment in which that no respectable man can speak to them or even women and children employed in agriculture were look at them without being shocked, and any
decent occupied was light, and the hours during which female would shrink from meeting them as they walk they were employed were not long. A great deal homewards from the fields.
of what might be called sentimental twaddle had
They have been in the fields all day,
And with each of earth's nameless shames Where the vetch and the orchis grow,
They've been acquainted long. Yet these children do not play,
They've heard no sweet story told Nor the dandelion blow
By the fire as the shadows fell, Seed after seed away,
But of evil - new and oldThe hour of the clock to show;
They can give you the chronicle; Yet often the children ask to know
For they've learnt, and more quickly too, What is the time of day.
For oaths, and for jeers, and for blows,
All that the pagan knew,
And all that the savage knows.
What matter ! the world grows old,
To toil, to sin, and to die, To be tucked in their little beds
Is a story so often told By a mother's loving care,
It never need make us sigh. For at night they lay down their heads
What is it ?- a girl and a boy And sleep — just anywhere. *
They are poor — they were never meant
To be the light and the joy Perhaps they have never heard
Of the homes to which they were sent. Of Christ or of God, nor could tell
In our nation's mighty schemes, Who made them; not a word
In the world's great working plan, Can the children read nor spell;
There was no room left, it seems, Yet they are not dull nor slow
For a woman, or for a man; Though they've gone to no village school,
Blighted before they are blown, There's many a thing they know
Let them sink to the earth like weeds, That is not learnt by rule.
So long as our crops are grown,
So long as the sea recedes. They play at no little games,
“What shall it profit a man," But they've learnt the wicked song,
Is a saying widely known,
“ Let him win and gain all he can, been talked on this subject. Some gentlemen said that when a poor girl went to field-work she was
If he lose his soul — his own ?” contaminated and spoiled, but he contended that, But speed to the giant plough, in all probability, she was contaminated and spoiled And the harrow that grinds and rolls before she got there. He thought a girl of eleven or O'er the broad smooth levels, now fuehre was as strong as a boy of about that age, and he contended that there was no good farming with Over other people's souls. out this juvenile and female labour. There were certain fiddling operations on a farm for which Oh! cruel lords of the soil, the nimble fingers of children were particularly
No wonder your harvests glow adapted. With regard to the educational part of the question, he knew that some thought it desira- With ruddy and golden spoil, ble that children should not be employed in work When the earth is so fat below; before nine years of age. He was sure, however, When you joy in your harvest won, that unless a boy went to work when he was nine or ten years of age, he would not make a good labourer.
Do you think of your harvest lost, It was important to remember that all restrictions And hid from the ripening sun ? as to the employment of children would fall heavily on their parents; the farmers would hardly feel of the precious seeds forgot,
Have you counted up the cost them. The farmers were not opposed to education; on the contrary, they wished their labourers to be Flung in with heedless scorn, educated - for, all other things being equal the In your furrows deep to rot, educated labourer was certainly the best. He did
That will not come up with the corn? not think the guardians of Norfolk could be charged with having neglected the education of pauper child-Girlhood, wifehood, youth, ren. The charge of id. per week was so trifling it did And love, and all that was lent not enter into their calculations. With regard to Or given to make heaven a truth, school attendance on alternate days or weeks, such a system for children employed in agriculture would
And life a sweet content. be useless to the farmer; it must be something like so Manhood and strength and joy, many hours in the years. We must still look to the
The image divine of God; Sunday-Schools and night-schools for perfecting and keeping up education among our rural popula. It is but a girl and a boy
Ye have trampled back to the clod! • It is occasionally the practice of private gangs, organized and superintended by the farmers, to pass Then look o'er your lordly plains, the night on the farms where they work; they then sleep in a barn or stable. One farmer used to
And go to your crowded mart, turn in tifty boys and girls together, like so many And when ye tell o'er your gains, sheep into a pen, and lock the door upon them for the night. But then," observes Mr. C. S. Read,
Fling in many a broken heart M.P., in the speech already quoted from, “you And blighted life, with the aches cannot go into any village street at nine or 'ten And pangs of a childish frame, o'clock at night without seeing great boys and girls with the waste and the loss that makes larking about, and in all probability some of these great girls and boys slept in the same room when
The tale of a woman's shame; they got home."
With another cry in the streets,
And another ruffian jeer,
What comfort meant since the day And the laugh one so often meets,
That left them naught for their own Far sadder than is the tear.
When ye took their homes away. Go ! count up the cost of all
When the little daisy died That fell with the stones that fell,
That the cottage garden grew, When ye shook down the cottage wall
Withered a nation's pride, To build up the felon's cell !
With the rosemary, thrift, and rue. Go number the weary feet
Hollow the harvest joy That roam on an aimless track
Of the land where the reapers mourn; Of ruin and wrong, nor meet
Where the poor man's girl and his boy With aught that can lure them back;
Count for less than the rich man's corn. Because they have never known
WITCHES AND THEIR CRAFT.- Considering how were prepared by Robert of Artois for the defearfully and inevitably witches were punished, struction of his principal enemies. In this way it does seem astonishing that any, much less such Euguerrand de Marigny was said to have slain myriads, should have professed them of the craft. Philip the Fair. Thus, too, Eleanor Cobham, But, on the other hand, it must be borne in mind wife of Duke Humphrey, was held to have atthat the acquisition of power to inflict storm and tempted the life of Henry VI., and was supposed devastation, disease and death-in short, to wield by a good many to have enfeebled his intellect. all the weapons of destruction at will — was an So also certain seminary priests were accused of irresistible temptation to the savage nature that working against Queen Elizabeth in Lincoln's then predominated in the lower classes, but not Inn. And thus one of that monarch's courtiers, in the lower classes only, especially as the credit Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, was generally believed of that power was fraught, for a time at least, to have been murdered. “He died thinking himwith very substantial results. For everybody self bewitched,” says our authority, "an opinsought the fraternity. Those who suffered, or ion in which very many, and some of them very who apprehended suffering, bought their services learned men, concurred. During his last sickequally with those who desired to have suffering ness a homely wise woman was found mumbling inflicted. The latter, however, were by far the in a corner in his chamber, but what, God more numerous, and the witches had very sin- knoweth. About midnight was found by Mr. gular means of gratifying them. One of the Hallsall an image of wax, with hair like unto strangest was to fashion an image of the hated the hair of his honour's head, twisted through individual during the celebration of certain in- the belly thereof. And he fell twice into a trance, fernal rites. The simulacrum was usually of not able to move hand or foot, when he would virgin wax; but when it was meant to make the have taken physic to do him good. In the end work of vengeance thoroughly sure, the clay he cried out often against all witches and witchtaken from the depth of a well-used grave was craft.” Ofcourse the witches had counter-spells generally preferred. The image being moulded for this, as for every other contrivance; and according to rule, and baptised by a properly these were as precise, disgusting, and blasphequalified priest, whatever injury was inflicted mous, too, as anything they were intended to on the model, was believed to have a similar ef- neutralize. But the image was not always fect on the original. Did they tie up a member shaped to work destruction : it was accounted of the effigy, paralysis attacked the correspond- equally infallible in exciting love. Indeed, the ing limb of the person represented, and contin- licentious freaks of every high-born dame that ued to fetter it so long as the ligature retained way given, were invariably set down to the its place. Intense pain and fearful mutilation credit of these contrivances, and the sinner herwere thus assumed to be produced. Nor was self was excused and pitied as the unfortunate viceven death itself beyond the wizard's reach. To tim of some malignant hag or unprincipled lover; secure this fatal result there were many approved a theory which was marvellously convenient to the recipes. Some pierced the heart of the statuette demi-rep, but by no means so to her admirers with a new needle; others melted it slowly before and confidants. Leicester is said to have wrought a fire; a third set interred it at dead of night in thus on Queen Elizabeth, Bothwell on Mary consecrated ground with horrible burlesque of Stuart, half a score of her lovers on Margaret the burial service; and a fourth gathered the of Navarre, a long line of Spanish favourites on hair into the stomach of the model, and concealed a succession of Peninsular queens, &c., &c. it in the chamber — if possible under the pil
Cornhill Magazine. low of the intended victim. Such images