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together, but we do not know why. Were is equally helpless. If you ask him whence our minds and senses so expanded, strength- is this matter” of which we have been disened, and illuminated as to enable us to see coursing, who or what divided it into moleand feel the very molecules of the brain; cules, who or what impressed upon them were we capable of following all their mo- this necessity of running into organic forms, tions, all their groupings, all their electric he has no answer. Science also is mute in discharges, if such there be, and were we reply to these questions. But if the mateintimately acquainted with the correspond-rialist is confounded and science rendered ing states of thought and feeling, we should dumb, who else is entitled to answer? To be as far as ever from the solution of the whom has the secret been revealed? Let problem. “How are these physical pro- us lower our heads and acknowledge our cesses connected with the facts of con- ignorance one and all. Perhaps the myssciousness ? " The chasm between the two tery may resolve itself into knowledge at classes of phenomena would still remain some future day. The process of things intellectually impassable. Let the con- upon this earth has been one of ameliorasciousness of love, for example, be associ- tion. It is a long way from the iguanodon ated with a right-handed spiral motion of and his contemporaries to the President and the molecules of the brain, and the con- members of the British Association. And sciousness of hate with a left-hand spiral whether we regard the improvement from motion. We should then know when we the scientific or from the theological point love that the motion is in one direction, of view, as the result of progressive develand when we hate that the motion is in the opment, or as the result of successive exother; but the "why ?” would still remain hibitions of creative energy, neither view unanswered.
entitles us to assume that man's present In affirming that the growth of the body faculties end the series — that the process is mechanical, and that thought, as exer- of amelioration stops at him. A time may cised by us, has its correlative, in the phys- therefore come when this ultra-scientific ics of the brain, I think the position of the region by which we are now enfolded may “ Materialist " is stated as far as that posi- offer itself to terrestrial, if not to human intion is a tenable one. I think the materi- vestigation. Two-thirds of the rays emitalist will be able finally to maintain this ted by the sun fail to arouse in the eye the position against all attacks; but I do not sense of vision. The rays exist, but the think, as the human mind is at present visual organ requisite for their translation constituted, that he can pass beyond it. I into light does not exist. And so from this do not think, he is entitled to say that his region of darkness and mystery which surmolecular groupings and his molecular mo- rounds us, rays may now be darting which tions explain everything. In reality they require but the development of the proper explain nothing. The utmost he can affirm intellectual organs to translate them into is the association of two classes of phenom- knowledge as far surpassing ours as ours ena, of whose real bond of union he is in does that of the wallowing reptiles which absolute ignorance. The problem of the once held possession of this planet. Meanconnection of body and soul is as insoluble while the mystery is not without its use; in its modern form as it was in the pre- it certainly may be made a power in the scientific ages. Phosphorus is known to human soul; but a power which has feelenter into the composition of the human ing, not knowledge, for its base. · It can brain, and a courageous writer has ex- be, and will be, and we hope is turned to claimed, in his trenchant German, “Ohne account, by steadying and strengthening Phosphor kein Gedanke.” That may or the intellect, and in rescuing it from that may not be the case; but even if we knew littleness to which, in the struggle for existit to be the case, the knowledge would not ence for precedence in the world, he is conlighten our darkness. On both sides of tinually prone. the zone here assigned to the materialist he
From The Gentleman's Magazine. rants to their subjects and puppets in the EUROPE IN TRANSITION.
hands of their powerful neighbours. Ger
many was also parcelled out into such diviIn the midst of the tranquillity that now sions, great and small, that her national reigns throughout Europe it is difficult to power was completely destroyed. The realise the fact that we have only reached a second, and third, and fourth, and fifth-rate pause in a mighty revolution. From one states were useful only for the two great end of the continent to the other perfect German powers to quarrel over; and those peace prevails. Busy as the armourers may two great powers were so well balanced, be in making needle-guns, Chassepots, or and so full of mutual jealousy, that they Sniders, and in finding out the most de- could safely be left to neutralise each other's structive kinds of cannon, not an angry influence. And so Germany, powerful shot is heard in Europe. Busy as the great enough united to take an equal share in the military powers may be, conscripting and highest business of nations, was conquered drilling and overtaxing their harassed citi- by division, and made of no account in zens, not a single sentinel is called upon to Europe. perform the actual duties of war. Even Yet a strong national feeling existed the wordy warfare of diplomacy seems to throughout both countries. It was perhaps have ceased. The rumours that float on more latent in Italy than in Germany; but the air show only the uneasiness of men's it was more passionate, and it was sed by minds, for there is no mention of any mat- the deeper degradation into which her petty ter of serious contention among the powers sovereigns had led the Italian people. The of Europe. The tomahawk lies buried, love of Fatherland was at once a sentiment and the pipe of peace sends up its calmest and a creed in the minds of the Germans; wreaths. How long this deep tranquillity and despite a national tendency to waste is likely to last may best be judged of by their patriotism in sounding speeches, there taking a glance at what has been accom- was genuine revolutionary spirit apparent plished, and comparing it with that which in the men who supported the National remains to be done.
verein. Here, then, were two nations posThe changes that have been effected in sessing within themselves all the elements the state of Europe during the past ten of national life and greatness, divided into years exceed in importance the changes ac- parcels and shorn of their national existcomplished in any former decade of modern ence by an artificial system of government. times. Even when the great Napoleon They were as two strong Gullivers, bound carried his victorious arms over Continental by swarms of Lilliputian princes. Their Europe, and made and unmade kings, no natural aspirations were to unity and nasuch changes were effected as the recon- tional greatness; but in order that petty struction of Italy and Germany out of the Italian and German princes might have scattered fragments of those ancient na- thrones to sit upon, and that the patrons of tions. The sword of the conqueror did in- those princes might have puppets to work, deed give new dynasties and new laws to Italian was arrayed against Italian, German vast masses of the human race; but the against German, and both nations were rerevolutions so accomplished were destitute duced to utter impotence. of the moral accompaniments that make the Fortune and the Emperor Napoleon derecent changes in Europe so important in cided that Italy should first break her themselves and so significant of results in bonds. Divided as she was, Italy was but the future. In the one case, the face of the vassal of Austria, and a very meek and Europe was temporarily changed by an ir- obedient vassal. The Kaiser set off one resistible overflow of the military power of Italian sovereign against another in such a France, led by a man of singular daring manner that he could do what he liked in and wonderful genius as a soldier; in the Italy. Himself at the time the bumble other, the face of Europe has been changed slave of Rome, Francis Joseph used all his by a series of events that have their roots influence to keep Italy sunk in the lowest in a deep and powerful current of human condition of civil and religious bondage. opinion.
The Italian prince who showed himself the Ten years ago neither Italy nor Germany most tyrannical and intolerant gained for had any national existence. Those grand himself the highest favour at Vienna. old nations of the past had been broken up The Emperor Napoleon saw danger to into innumerable fragments, and in the himself in this state of matters. Knowing weakness of division their national power bimself to be the creature of a revolution, had passed away. Italy was divided into he could not see without emotion the forces petty sovereignties, whose rulers were ty-1 of reaction and bigotry arrayed on every
side of France. He determined to break | kings into the leader of the German people the power of Austria in Italy, and the cele in their assault upon the kingly rights that brated New Year's-day speech heralded the prevented the accomplishment of the naapproach of mighty changes. The decla- tional unity. It turned out that the very ration of war against Austria gave the first cause of Count Bismarck's conflicts with impetus to a movement that has astonished popular opinion was a desire to advance the him who made it by its power — a move- interests dearest to that popular opinion. ment that has already effected vast changes, His arrogant and unconstitutional attempts and that seems destined to effect yet greater to increase the military force of the counchanges in the future. In an unguarded try without the assent of Parliament were moment the Emperor Napoleon proclaimed made in the secret and incommunicable the doctrine of nationalities, little dreaming knowledge that the future destinies of the that the seed he then threw into the ground Fatherland would soon be determined by would grow up so speedily into something the strength of that force in contlict with that he himself should fear.
the armies of Austria. He had resolved to The sagacious French ruler understood break the power of Austria in Germany, only partially the strength of the spirit he but he could not publicly avow his determiwas evoking. He saw that the desire for nation. national unity in Italy was strong enough The work Bismarck had to do was a work to form a powerful revolutionary weapon; that could only be satisfactorily done by an but he did not see that it was too strong and irresponsible government; and in order to heavy to be guided by any man's hand. He do it, he ignored the constitution, and carlet loose this spirit as a servant, and has ried on the government of Prussia in the found it a master. He meant to substitute spirit of autocracy. The strong-willed minhis own power for that of Austria in Italy. ister carried his point amid the execrations He contemplated a confederation of weak of Liberal Europe; and when · Prussia met Italian states, of which he should be the Austria in decisive conflict it was with the virtual head; but the national feeling that immense and well-equipped army created he had himself evoked made such a scheme by him in spite of parliamentary opposition. impossible, and caused the different parts For once unconstitutional conduct proved of liberated Italy to rush together like song- advantageous to the country. The power divided lovers.
of Austria in Germany was utterly crushed, Meanwhile, the desire for national unity and North Germany was left free to constiwas working strongly in the hearts of the tute herself a nation under the headship of German people. But they had no leader, Prussia. and the aspirations which ended in patriotic It is perfectly evident, we think, that all speeches could not destroy that balance of this has been accomplished, both in Italy power between Austria and Prussia wherein and Germany, by something more than a mere lay the weakness of the nation. So long as fortuitous concourse of circumstances. It that balance of power existed it was felt to has been effected by the power of a strong be impossible to make Germany great or current of opinion in favour of that docunited. Each of those two powers had in- trine of nationalities of which the Emperor fluence enough to make any scheme of con- Napoleon made himself the mouth-piece, federation proposed by the other impracti- and of which he has since become the praccable, and the only hope for Germany lay tical opponent. Such a current of thought in the possibility that the rival leaders might could never have existed had not human one day fight until the one should reduce opinion respecting the relationship between the other to subjection. The Germans had sovereign and subject undergone a complete no Napoleon to do for them what had been revolution. Formerly, it was practically done for Italy; and in fact all the influence held that subjects existed only for the conof that potentate was exerted to perpetuate venience of sovereigns; and in all territothe duality that reduced Garmany to impo- rial arrangements it was the interests of tence.
kings and not of peoples that were held to But the time came, and the man. Amin- be of primary importance. The reverse is ister, who by bis harsh and despotic domes- now the dominant doctrine in Europe. tic policy had offended the dearest aspira- Sovereigns are held to exist only for the tions of the liberal party in Germany, sud- convenience of their subjects, and territodenly showed himself as the leader of the rial arrangements may be made in the innational movement. No more startling terest of the communities affected. metamorphosis was ever effected on the Men perceive that for the protection of pantomimic stage than that which converted their best interests it is necessary that the the stern upholder of the divine right of communities of which they are members
should be powerful enough to defend and provinces; and the southern states of Bauphold their own laws; and wherever a race varia and Wurtemburg retain their indeis divided by artificial arrangements it is pendence. Any one who speaks of Gernatural that this desire for aggregation man unity as an accomplished thing must, should lead them to break down those bar- therefore, be understood only as asserting riers, so that all who speak the same lan- that a substantial foundation of national guage and have a community of national unity has been laid. This three-fold particharacteristics and interests, should unite tion leaves Germany yet much divided; but to form a single nation. Respect for royal it concentrates the vitality and power of interests has for centuries allowed those the nation so entirely in one of the sections, artificial divisions to split nations into sec- that we may regard the complete unification tions, but that respect is no longer power of the country as practically accomplished. ful enough to induce nations to sacrifice So completely does Prussia command the their national greatness in order that many national power of Germany that, foreign sovereigns may have separate kingdoms. interference apart, she could at any moment Military force has of course done the rough complete the unification of the Fatherland. work of unification in Italy and Germany, The Southern States, who owe their nombut we see in both countries indubitable inal independence to the interference of proofs that military force has only acted as France, which procured the insertion of a the instrument of the national will. When clause into the treaty of Prague, binding the military power of the first Napoleon Prussia not to cross the Maine, have hasoverthrew ancient dynasties, and made new tened to show their own estimate of the nations, it could not rally to its support the power of Prussia by placing themselves patriotism and talent of the conquered coun- under her military protection, and banding tries in the way that the military force of over their armies to her control. They King Victor Emmanuel and King William know that they lie at the disposal of Count has done in Italy and Germany. In the Bismarck. Indeed that astute statesman one case, military force was the instrument made but little concession when he agreed of an ambitious man's will, and in the other to leave Bavaria and Wurtemburg alone for it is the instrument of a nation's will. a time. Those states are now so thorough
A clear understanding of the cause of the ly isolated that national influences will comaccomplished changes is the best means of pel them, sooner or later, to seek admission enabling one to form a judgment respecting to the Northern Confederation; and meanthe changes that are likely to be brought while Prussia commands the armed forces about in the future. We have seen that of those States, without being embarrassed the moving spirit of the past has been a by the circumstances attendant upon a closer passionate desire for national unity on the connection. Besides the convenience of part of divided peoples. There are still being able to please France by an apparent divided peoples, and there is still the desire concession, Count Bismarck had very good for unity. We have no reason to suppose reasons for deferring the inclusion of the that that desire has been satiated by the Southern States in the Confederation. His partial success it has achieved. On the object is not so much to unify Germany as contrary, we have every reason to believe to aggrandise Prussia, and that object is that, like jealousy, such a desire must grow distinctly favoured by delay. He has alon what it feeds on. The aggregations that ready a powerful parliamentary opposition have already taken place have greatly to contend with, and were the Southern strengthened the champions of nationalities. States admitted, that opposition might beItaly is much stronger than Piedmont was, come strong enough to endanger his policy: and North Germany than Prussia ; and it is Aware that he can at any moment put such reasonable to suppose that the wish to com- a pressure on the people of those States as plete their unity has not decreased as their would immediately bring them into the Conpower to gratify it has grown. There is, federation, it is convenient that he should therefore, much yet to be done. Italy longs leave them outside until he gets the existing for Rome as lover longs for his mistress, members of the Bund well in hand. When and the German has much to do before he Hanover has been sufficiently Prussianised, can say that the Fatherland is one and in- Count Bismarck may begin to think seriousdivisible.
ly of Bavaria and Wurtemburg. Germany remains divided into three por Then, there are the Austro-German protions. The victories of Prussia have given vinces. Is it likely that eight millions of ber all Germany north of the Maine, and Germans will forget their national aspirashe has formed of it the North German tions and neglect their material advantages, Confederation; Austria retains her German to remain true to the throne of the Kaiser ?
Does there remain any such bond of union of a conventional loyalty tieing them to a between German-Austria and Hungary, strange and semi-barbarous people. with her Sclavonian neighbours, as will neu Were there no foreign influence to disturb tralise the attractions of the Fatherland ? the operation of the nationalities doctrine It must be remembered that the Austrian in Germany, it would be easy to trace its empire of to-day is altogether different from future progress. The Southern States and the Austrian empire of three years ago. the Austrian provinces would fall like ripe Its centre of gravity has been removed from plums into the lap of the North German Vienna to Pesth, and the predominance of Confederation. But he who was the first to races is undergoing an entire revolution. proclaim that doctrine has arrayed himself Hitherto Hungary has been but a humble against its propagation, and much of the dependent of Austria. By using his great immediate future of Europe depends upon power as a leading member of the Germanic the extent of his power to arrest its progress. Confederation, the Emperor of Austria has We saw in the Luxemburg affair the nature hitherto been able to keep Hungary in the of French policy. The Emperor was firmly position of a subject country. The com- determined to prevent, as far as might be mon legislation of the empire has always in his power, any further unification of Gerbeen in the interests of the German pro- many, and indeed it was only a clear pervinces, and has frequently borne hard upon ception of the inferiority of his armaments the interests of Hungary and the Sclavonian that prevented him attempting to undo by provinces. All this must be changed. The force of arms that which Prussia had accomHungarians now hold the balance of the plished in the previous summer. Nor bas empire, and the course of common legisla- anything occurred to warrant us in thinking tion will be primarily in their interests. that a different policy now prevails at the The newly-discovered importance of IIun- Tuileries. The time that has elapsed has gary is shown by the amount of attention been diligently employed in military prebestowed upon her by the Imperial Govern- paration. Additional powers of conscripment, and by the reported determination to tion have been taken by the Government in call the empire henceforth by the name of the face of such signs of popular discontent the “ Austro-Hungarian monarchy.". as would not be lightly evoked by a govern
When the common legislation of the em- ment that avowedly rests upon the suffrages pire changes its primary object, and the of the masses ; and the armourers of VincenAustrians begin to feel in their turn those nes have been working night and day, conevils of subjection that more than once verting muzzle-loading rifles into Chassecaused the Hungarians to revolt, they will pots. The preparations of Prussia have naturally cast their eyes towards the main been less ostentatious, but not less effective. body of their own nation. A cry of distress, Her work has been to organise the material ever so faint, would bring them such assist- forces of the new provinces and the new ance, that the Austro-Hungarian king would tributaries; and the successful accomplishbe powerless to prevent their entry into the ment of that work should give her an inConfederation. That some such desire will crease of military power at least equal to grow up ere long, it is reasonable to sup- that which the new conscription laws have pose. The Hungarians must, from the new given to France. The common possession conditions of the polyglot monarchy, get of the needle-gun by both France and Prusthe chief command of the common legisla- sia marks, however, a special advantage lost tion; and there is sufficient difference in by the latter. the interests of Austria and Ilungary to The motive of the Emperor Napoleon in make it morally certain that something that attempting to prevent the completion of is deemed advantageous to the one, will German unity, looked at from the point of prove sufficiently disadvantageous to the view of personal or national ambition, is other to produce active discontent. There strong enough to make us anticipate very is, therefore, on the one side of the Austrian desperate efforts to sustain that policy. provinces a country peopled by a strange The question invplves the supremacy of race with which they have no community of France in Europe. Up to the moment when interests, of language, or of literature; and Prussia showed herself so bold and so sucthere is on the other side a country peopled cessful, France was practically supreme in by their own race, in whose interests and Continental Europe. She was surrounded language and literature they have full com- by weak neighbours. Spain, too feeble to munity. In short, on the one side there are resist her slightest suggestion; Italy, with all the powerful attractions of kindred blood, her unity incomplete, and the hand of while on the other there are only the bonds France at her throat; Germany divided, so