Page images

CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED EHRENBERG, the great with all its empty pageant, blazoned high German naturalist, especially distinguished by

Around the master's name forever shine! his investigations through the microscope, cele So shines thy name illumined in the skybrated his fiftieth anniversary as Doctor of Med

Such joys, such triumphs, such remembrance

thine! icine, at Berlin, Prussia, on the 5th of November.

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. The correspondent of the New York Tribune says

Boston, Mass., U. S. A., Sept. 10, 1868. that congratulatory addresses were presented to him in behalf of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and other learned soci

The money needed for completing the memoeties, and the following poem by Oliver Wendell Durham will proceed at once to finish his de

rial to Leigh Hunt has been collected, and Mr. Holmes :

sign. The inscription adopted by the committee TO CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED EHRENBERG. is the line from "Abou ben Adhem " Thou who hast taught the teachers of mankind

“ Write me as one that loves his fellow-men," How from the least of things the mightiest - a phrase which, standing by itself, has no grow,

meaning whatever. Surely it would be better to What marvel jealous nature made thee blind, leave the name Leigh Hunt to tell its own story Lest man should learn what angels long to to a passer-by.

know? Thou in the flinty rock, the river's flow,

In the thick-moted sunbeams' sifted light, A New theatre has been recently opened at Hast trained thy downward-pointed tube to show Warsaw, called the “Israelitish ” Theatre. It Worlds within worlds unveiled to mortal is reported to be a very solid and handsome sight;

structure, splendidly decorated within, and most Even as the patient watchers of the night - comfortably arranged, throughout. It holds

The cyclope gleaners of the fruitful skies - about 800 people. The pieces to be produced Show the wide misty way where heaven is white, will consist exclusively of episodes taken from the All paved with suns that daze our wondering Old Testament. The language is to be pure Gereyes.

man. The company comprises about thirty JewFar o'er the stormy deep an empire lies, ish actors, all men or lads, the latter for the fe

Beyond the storied islands of the blest, male rôles. This is considered a very signifiThat waits to see the lingering day-star rise cant surrender on the part of the ultra-orthodox

The forest-cinctured Eden of the West ; party, from whom the whole project has emaWhose queen, fair Freedom, twines her iron crest nated. The prejudice among them against " theWith leaves from every wreath that mortals atres and circuses”-a prejudice dating as far wear,

back as the period of utter debasement in the But loves the sober garland ever best

Græco-Roman stage performances — seems by That Science lends the sage's silvered hair : degrees to give way, even as among ourselves Science, who makes life's heritage more fair, Puritanic prejudices are beginning to fade. Forging for every lock its mastering key,

Pall Mall Gazette. Filling with life and hope the stagnant air,

Pouring the light of Heaven o'er land and sea! From her unsceptered realm we come to thee, SENSATIONS are not monopolized by play-goers

Bearing our slender tribute in our hands; and novel-readers, for metallurgists have reDeem it not worthless, humble though it be, cently been favoured with one, perhaps the most

Set by the larger gifts of older lands; exciting since Bessemer made known his method The smallest fibres weave the strongest bands, of producing steel. That method, observes the In narrowest tubes the sovereign nerves are Atheneum, could be applied only to iron of the spun

first quality, and the common “pig" made in A little cord along the deep sea-sands

East Yorkshire (Cleveland) and in NorthampMakes the live thought of severed nations one: tonshire, with its many impurities was quite unThy fame has journeyed westering with the sun, fit for what our French neighbours call aciera

Prairies and long sierras know thy name, tion. But Mr. Heaton, an iron manufacturer in And the long day of service nobly done the Erewash Valley, takes the common “ pig," That crowns thy darkened evening with its melts it, pours it upon a bed of nitre at the botflame!

tom of a cupola, leaves it there for a few minOne with the grateful world, we own thy claim — utes, then, opening the cupola, finds the whole

Nay, rather claim our rights to join the throng mass, from twelve hundredweight to a ton, coWho come with varied tongues, but hearts the verted into steel. This steel is itself useful for same,

many purposes, and, by rolling, hammering, To hail thy festal morn with smiles and song; and other manipulations and processes, can be Ah, happy they to whom the joys belong improved into other kinds of steel as may be de

Of peaceful triumphs that can never die sired. Here we have another illustration of the From history's record — not of gilded wrong, truth that the greatest discoveries are ofttimes

But golden truths that while the world goes by the simplest.

From The Westminster Review. received, we shall devote a few pages to its THE SUPPRESSED SEX.

discussion. The Times has, of course, 1. Life of Horace Mann. By his Wife. drawn the terrible picture of a university in

Boston: Walker, Fuller and Co. which young men and young women are 1865.

found freely associating and conversing, 2. The College, the Market, and the Court; and shudderingly hints the dread moral re

or, Woman's Relation to Education, sults to be anticipated from such a state of Labour, and Law. By CAROLINE H. things. So much was to be expected from DALL. Boston: Lee and Shepard. the severe puritanism of Printing-house

1867. 3. On some Supposed Differences in the Square. But the silence of many of those

Minds of Men and Women with Refer- who have supported the general position
ence to Educational Necessities. A taken by Miss Becker on the particular
Paper read in Section F of the British point alluded to, indicates that many liberal
Association at Norwich, by Miss minds are as yet unacquainted with the

present position of the movement for the 4. Macmillan's Magazine. September, 1868. educational equality of women. It is imArt. 1. Women Physicians.

portant that it should be universally known The meeting of the British Association that the co-education of men and women is at Norwich is chiefly memorable on account no longer in the region of speculation to of a Paper read there by a woman in de- which the Times has relegated it, but that fence of the equality of her own to what it has for a generation been tried in the some journalists, unconscious of the satire, United States, where no fewer than twentystill call the “opposite ” sex. The essay nine large collegiate institutions are at this itself was mainly valuable for the vigour of day conducted on that principle. Before its protest against an assumption by man referring, however, to the important expeof a superiority which he persistently de- riences of these institutions, it may be well clines to submit to the ordinary tests of to take a brief survey of the origin and truth. Witholding from her the keys of character of the influences that have brought knowledge, he insists that she is mentally about those changes in the position of woinferior; banishing her from age to age man in America, which have already had a from political life, he claims of her an à very potent effect upon public opinion in priori admission of her unfitness for it. this country. The earnest discussion which followed the It is now a truism to say that the exPaper in the Association, and still more the tremest degradation of woman has always comments of the press, showed its timeli- been found among nations whose normal ness. It is plain that the public mind is state is that of war. The severity of the ripening toward a radical change in the so- struggle for existence which decided the cial and civil position of woman. The sa- habits and ideas of the human race amid lient and impressive fact underlying and the rocks and sands of Asia — where for overlying the whole discussion — one which every grain of corn there were many claimConservatism cannot argue out of it — is ants — made fighting the chief end of man, this, that the most educated and intelligent physical strength the only virtue, physical women of the present day are profoundly weakness the only crime. This originated dissatisfied with the present relations of law that social position of woman which is fairly and society to their sex. All experience represented by the saying in Vishnu Sarma warns us that such dissatisfaction cannot -"A man of straw is worth a woman of continue unproductive.

gold.” This cause was enhanced also by The injustice of the laws relating to wo- the fact that, already more numerous than men has been repeatedly shown in this Re- men, women in the remote East grew in view, and as one demand brought forward number out of all proportion with men, by in Miss Becker's paper - the opening of reason of the great westward male migraall educational institutions to women on the tions to the more fruitful soils formed by same terms as to men - is worthy of a their rivers. The emigrant of that day, more careful consideration than it has yet even more than of this, preferred to leave


the women behind when starting on his un- | When men bad migrated to more fruitful tried way. And this, together with the de- lands their struggle for existence was not cimation of men by constant wars, enor so hard ; and as Nature became less cruel mously increased the number of women, man became less so. Warlike he was, but who consequently became cheap; a man not so warlike. When the cultivation of could have as many wives as he pleased; the earth began, it was discovered that and there was a competition which should soldiering was not the only important occubecome his favourite by being most his pation; animal courage was no longer the slave.

only kind of courage; and it was found that But it is certain that, with every step of woman might have her uses. man's migration westward, the position of There are some indications (derived from woman was improved. For this there were Tacitus and other writers) that, in the early two causes. The chief was that the emi- planting of Europe, woman

rose under grants, having left their women behind these influences to a higher relative position them, found few in the countries to which than she now occupies. If so, she sank they went to take their places. Women from it through a repetition in Europe of were not cheap in Europe, but rare and some of those conditions by which she had valuable. Many men wished to marry each been degraded in Asia. That is, Europe

The ancient chronicle of the Picts also became crowded; men emigrated and relates that they were originally six broth- left a superfluity of women; warlike ages ers who left Thrace with their adherents, came to the West, and the comparative unbecause the king insisted on marrying their importance and bodily weakness of woman sister. They came to France, bringing the told against her. She was not reduced to lady with them, and built the city of Poic- be a domestic slave, but she was a domestic tiers. But the king of France also pressed drudge. It must, however, be said that the his suit for the sister, which led them to put decline of the influence of woman in Westto sea again. But before they landed on ern Europe was in great part due to her this island she died. When they came to own inadequacy to turn to good account Cornwall, or thereabout, they had reason the position to which circumstances had to appreciate the feelings of the kings to raised her. Ages of degradation had left whom they had refused their sister's band; her without education, and the re-action for the people they found here, whoever from a servile condition turned her head. they were, absolutely refused to allow these Her ambition was directed toward merely Picts to take any wives among them. They glittering in society. To be the idols of then petitioned the king of Ireland for wives, knights, to be the toys of the Court, was and he consented, on certain conditions. enough for those who had been held in conThe chronicle says

tempt. Instead of being able to secure “ Three hundred women were given

such educational and other permanent adTo them, they were agreeable,

vantages as would have enabled her to But they were most cunning,

maintain for ever the position gained, she Each woman with her brother.

frittered away in frivolity the opportunity There were oaths imposed on them

that must close with the growth of Europe. By the stars and by the Earth,

The door was finally shut, and these foolish That from the nobility of the mother virgins left out. From that time she has Should always be the right of sovereignty."

been, not, as Blackstone says, • the faSo they left Ireland with their wives and vourite of the English law," but its favourite established their kingdom in Scotland. This victim. tradition, whether mythical or not, is sig But with the early settlement of America nificant. The scarcity of women in these those influences which had led to the imwestern lands had certainly raised their proved position of women in Europe were position, and affected the primitive govern- again set to work. Those who first emimental arrangements of this country. But grated to America took but few women. there was a second cause why, in the west, The Puritan pilgrims took twenty-eight; the estimation of woman should be higher. Other English colonists took fewer; the

Spaniards, French, and Dutch took none. that sex had been secured beyond any seEven now the number of female emigrants rious reaction. to America is far beneath that of the male ; The people who settled New England but in the time when America was thought were very peculiarly trained: they were of 'only as a wilderness full of savages, people of refinement and education reduced every woman who went voluntarily was a to poverty, and compelled to do hard work. heroine. With the exception of those of That work was an important part of their the Spaniards in the south-west of America, tuition, and the idea was handed down as a the Indian squaws were not inclined to fa- law that the thinker must work and the vour the advances of the European adven- worker must think. It was thus from the turers. So great inducements were offered earliest days held that women should unite to European women to go to Virginia and the highest intellectual culture with domesNew England, and a system of importation tic duties — which, in a land of few sersomething like that by which Miss Rye is vants, are generally arduous. The Yankee supplying Australia was devised. Many girls have thus had real powers and practiof the women who followed the pilgrims to cal qualities trained in them; and they were New England were moved to do so by their much more ready to march westward by the religious sympathies with them, and thus side of man, than their sisters of the old that region began with a somewhat superior world had ever been. Nevertheless, destiny class of women. Nevertheless, in all the was not to be swerved from its old method early settlements of America, women were of elevating woman. The discovery of for several generations rare enough to be gold in California, and other regions of of great importance, and obtained a con- the Pacific coast, and the wars attending sideration in society far beyond that which the settlement of Texas and Kansas, led to they enjoyed in Europe. The reader of another vast male emigration beyond the the early histories of the American colonies Mississippi. At one time a woman could will find that women were mixed up with hardly walk through the streets of San some of their most inportant public affairs. Francisco without having every one pause Indeed, it is almost certain that women would to gaze on her; and a child was so rare that have been enfranchised in New England - as once at a theatre in the same city, where a they were for a time in New Jersey — but woman had taken her infant, when it began for something in Paul's writings about their to cry, just as the orchestra began to play, keeping silence in the churches, -- and the a man in the pit cried out— “Stop those Puritan State was a kind of church. How- fiddles and let the baby cry. I haven't ever, fortunately for women in America, heard such a sound for ten years !” The the high value which the people of New audience applauded this sentiment; the orEngland placed upon their mothers took a chestra stopped ; and the baby continued better form even than enfranchisement. It its performance amid unbounded enthutook the form of giving the girls a good and siasm. Into such communities as these sound education. The Puritans placed women are now following; and in them reading the Bible above all other things; they are finding a position and influence, the school thus was to them a part of the enhanced by their scarcity, which is still plan of salvation; and since the hard soil very remarkable. In America men exceed and the Indians demanded all the energies women in number by a million; and in the of the men, it was necessary that the wo- West the disproportion is extreme. In men should be trained as educators of the California there is one woman to three men; young. And to this day two-thirds of the in Nevada one to eight; in Colorado one to school-teachers throughout America are twenty.* And if the women there had not women. Under education women were shown to have as various and as valuable

The Daily News has recently shown, by the

corresponding statistics of the Eastern States, the endowments as men. And thus it was that error of the theory that the lowness of the birthwhen the young men of the Eastern States rate in some of those states is attributable to a growbegan to settle in the far West - leaving shows that the result is due to the vast disproportion the women behind them — the elevation of many thousands of women for whom no husbands

gained in moral and intellectual power, we other lands and ages, have “ builded better should see them again having their heads than they knew." A great republic and turned and hearts corrupted by the poor the abolition of slavery were their unforeambition of outshining each other in soci- seen results. The Puritans established ety. But the various important movements free schools to teach people to read the in the West for securing equal educational Bible, and so save them from hell; the reand political privileges, show that they sult is a grand system of universal secular have the ability and virtue to seize this education. fresh opportunity for securing the emanci Similarly, to return to the theme of Miss pation of their sex from the thraldom of Becker's memoir, the plan of educating ages.

men and women in the same universities We cannot pause to particularize all the and colleges is not at all eccentric – is not changes which have resulted from the in- due to the whim of some visonary - but fluences described. We may sum them up originated in the economy of some Western in one direction by saying that, in 1829, the farmers. They wished to have their daughWestern State of Illinois began the work ters thoroughly educated, so that, in regions of reforming the provisions of the common as yet too thinly settled to have many law which America inherited from England schools, the daughter might be qualified to as it affects women that work which Mr. teach the rest of the family. And of course Lefevre has recently begun in the House of they wished to have their sons educated, for Commons; - and since that young State in America particularly — an uneducated took this step, the laws which give up a man is hardly a man at all. These farmers married woman, body, soul, and property were generally well-to-do but not wealthy, to the absolute ownership of her husband, and they put to themselves the question, have been modified in nineteen of the Why should we build two colleges - one for American States, and in many of them en- men, another for women

en — when one will tirely stricken out of the statute book. No answer? These boys and girls grow up toone dreams that in any of the new States gether in their homes, in neighbourhoods, that are forming in the distant West any in children's schools, Sunday schools, law will reappear that affects the equality churches ; and when educated they will of woman as regards property. And in pass their lives in each other's society. none of these nineteen States has any man Why should there be an interval of four arisen to suggest that the home is less se- years, when the boys and girls shall be sepcure, or the domestic relations of men and arated into two educational monasteries? women less happy, than before the house- They saw a double expense in it and no hold tyranny was overthrown; in not one common sense. And to this primarily we has there been any reactionary movement owe it that there are now twenty-nine flourtowards its restoration.

ishing colleges in America where the youth The equality of women has been idly of both sexes study together, recite togethe called an American idea ;” but that is er, and are in every respect upon an equalreally to say it is the product of the ages ity. These are not small' institutions. of experience which have passed into man Some of them have as many as a thousand since first from the rocks of Asia he turned pupils, and they are generally well-endowed. his face Westward. Every genuine Amer-Again, it is important to consider that ican idea is a fruit in which has garnered no American colleges or universities are the light and flush of every dawn that has conducted upon the principle of the Eng. arisen on mankind. We sometimes meet lish institutions. The students do not with people in Europe who fancy that be- merely listen to lectures, and cram for anyond the Atlantic men are engaged in nual examinations; they are examined from evolving reforms out of their inner con- day to day. Consequently, in nearly all sciousness, and carrying them out for the of the colleges mentioned, the students of sake of experiment; but humanity is the both sexes are resident, the dormitories for same there as in all lands and ages, and the two

being in separate buildings. In all what it does is rooted in the need of the other respects they mingle as freely as in the hour. America took up arms against drawing-room. The professors are both men George III. not for democracy, but against and women. American experience in this heavy taxes; she took up arms lately not co-education of men and women stretches for humanity, but to save the Union. In over forty years, so that we know some these things Americans, like the people of thing of what the general effects are. And are possible. As compared with the marriage-rate, in America may be gathered from the fact

what the public estimate of those effects is the birth-rate of New England is as high as it is elsewhere.

that the great State of Kansas has passed

« EelmineJätka »