« EelmineJätka »
a law that no school or college connected ber of the United States Congress and the with its government shall refuse women on founder of the public school system of New the same terms with men, or in any respect England in its modern shape, is final. Mr. educate them differently. Indeed this ex- Mann was for many years by far the most perience of the Western colleges has so re- eminent educator in America, and be had, acted upon the Eastern States,
where the in pursuance of his duties as superintendent separate plan — inherited from England of the schools of Massachusetts, travelled prevailed, that some of the finest of its through Europe and made himself personinstitutions have pulled down the ancient ally acquainted with all of its systems and barriers. It is even reported that the Vas- seats of learning. In 1853 this able and sar Institute – the largest, wealthiest, and accomplished man was induced to accept even most aristocratic female college of the position of president of Antioch ColNew York — has decided to admit young lege, which had just been established in men hereafter; and the founder of the new Central Ohio on the co-educational plan. State University of New York, the “* Cor- He was a severe moralist, and his wide acnell University,” has declared it to be his quaintance with schools and colleges indesire to have it opened to women equally spired him with very serious misgivings as with men. This then is the verdict on the to the prudence of this new plan. But subject after forty years of experience, after he had been there about five years, marked by the critical vigilance of people devoting himself to a personal supervision who have as much anxiety for the purity over the college, President Mann wrote to and welfare of their sons and daughters as his friend Mr. Combe of Edinburgh in these any in the world. Indeed, so rapidly are terms :transatlantic institutions falling into this line that co-education may already be called
“We really have the most orderly, sober, dilthe American system.
igent, and exemplary institution in the country. But its advocates are not content that the than half through the present; and I have not
We passed through the last term, and are more matter should rest upon the mere suppo- had occasion to make a single entry of any missition that the plan answers, without any demeanour in our record book — not a case for drawback, the simple purpose of educating any serious discipline. There is no rowdyism young men and women for which it was in- in the village, no nocturnal rambles, making stituted. They distinctly declare that it has night hideous. All is quiet, peaceful ; and the resulted in advantages far higher than any women of the village feel the presence of our contemplated by the economical farmers students, when met in the streets in the evening, who devised it. When it began the pro- to be a protection rather than an exposure It phets of evil did not fail to shriek out their is now almost five years since I came here, and warnings that the system would produce 18 yet I have had no « practical joke' or "colhorrible results. The girls would become lege prank,' as they are called, played upon me coarse, the young men coarser, and the —not in a single instance.” project end in licentiousness. It is remarkable how often things have turned out the woman is of equal importance; and this we
But in such a case the testimony of a exact reverse of what was theorized con- have from Mrs. Mann, a lady of the highest cerning them. Theory said the sun moved culture, who shared her husband's toils and around the earth; the truth shows that the triumphs. This lady was in fact partly earth moves around the sun. It said the President of the College, and gave her time earth is tlat; we know it is round. It said and extraordinary talents to promoting its the sky is solid; we know it to be a vapour. social welfare. She writes as follows:This reversal of old beliefs has been too common for wise men to accept at once “No one conversant with the daily life and even obvious theories. The experience of walk of Antioch College can deny that the purthe American plan has not only shown that ity and high tone of its morals and manners, in the apprehensions amid which it began both departments, were unequalled by those of were unfounded, but just the reverse of all any other known institution. There are many that was predicted or apprehended has colleges at the West, in whose neighbourhood really come to pass. It is the estimate of schools for young ladies have sprung up, in order persons who have been intimately associated former may be made available in the latter; and
that the services of teachers and professors in the as patrons and professors with these co-edu- in such cases there have always been regulations cational colleges that in refinement and prohibiting any intercourse whatever between morals they are infinitely higher than others the two. "But it is the universal testimony of in which persons of either sex are exclusively those acquainted with the subject, that loss of educated. On this point the testimony of reputation, and even of character, are not unfrethe Hon. Horace Mann, some time mem- quent in such places, growing out of clandes
tine correspondences and meetings. Mr. Mann connection with any student in it. And in thought the monkish error of repressing nat- short, through personal observations of that ural sentiments should be swept away with other and other co-educational institutions in the errors of the same nature, and a generous cul- United States, we have become convinced that ture should enlist them in the interests of purity. the purification and elevation of the educaYoung people are thoughtless rather than vi- tional systems of the world are to be wrongbt cious; and it is cruel to put them into circum- by carrying into them that influence which has stances where they can learn wisdom only from a fatal experience. . . At Antioch the dining, it has gone – the influence of woman. We
never failed to civilize and refine wherever hall, which was the commons of both sexes, was a charming scene of social enjoyment and inno- are convinced that young men are never so cent hilarity — a scene which Mr. Mann spec- animated to high endeavours, never so put ially enjoyed for its beneficent influences upon upon their manliness, as when in the presmanners and happiness. . . In American society ence of women; and, equally, that women the freedom of intercourse between the young has are never so inspired by womanly sentiever been found compatible with virtue, in strik- ment, or so raised to noble efforts, as by ing contrast with the system of repression that the presence of true gentlemen. The two exists in the older societies of the world, even of sexes are meant to sustain and encourage modern Europe.”
each other, and their separation during the
period in which principally each is forming This was lately written, some years since its mind and character, is the relic of an President Mann's death, and when his age of monks and nuns — an age which widow had ceased to have any personal branded all relations between the sexes as connection with the Institution.
impure. Antioch College has been visited by Em În a recent address the Bishop of Oxford, erson, Theodore Parker, Oliver Wendell in maintaining the need of religious instrucHolmes, Dr. Bellows, and other dis- tion in the universities, said: - *A college tinguished men. The testimonies as to its life is to be a house in which the family life superior character have been uniform. A of England is to be exhibited on a larger member of the Massachusetts Legislature scale; where young men are brought to who visited it said that he left it with a bet- gether, exposed necessarily by that very ter opinion of human nature than he had circumstance to a multitude of temptations when he entered it.
to expense, as to the indulgence of natural About twelve years ago the writer of this appetites, as to intercourse with one anarticle, at that time very little interested in other, where they may make utter shipthe subject of it, went to reside in the wreck of life, if there is not a wholesome neighbourhood of Antioch College under influence brought to bear upon them." circumstances which furnished ample oppor- But how is the college to be the larger tunities for forming an acquaintance with English home, with all the pure influences its plan, professors, and students. And of the family pervading it, if that particular although he is quite familiar with the Uni- influence which has made the English home versity of Virginia, Harvard, and to some what it is, is carefully excluded from it? extent with English universities, he bas an It was prophesied in America tbat when entire conviction that in none of those male young men and women were brought to institutions can there be found anything gether in colleges, there would be many comparable to the moral elevation, the re- love affairs; and that these would be often finement, or the intellectual enthusiasm, imprudent, and lead to the neglect of which characterize the students of Antioch. studies. The experience of the American In our estimates, male students were first colleges shows that though there were tewer called gentlemen at Antioch. The young cases of this kind than had been anticimen were none the less chivalrous because pated, they rather incited those concerned they did not drink or smoke; while their to better conduct and more earnest study, personal neatness, courtesy, and delicacy Both man and maid aspire to make the best of behaviour, showed that under the refin- appearance in the eyes of those they love, ing influence around them a certain manli- and not to be surpassed by others. And ness, very rare in college students, had ap- why should such attachments be impripeared in their characters. The college dent? Where does society offer the young had the grace of a refined houschold. On better opportunities for knowing each oththe other hand, the finest and most womanly er's minds and characters, than is implied traits were visible in the young women. in studying side by side for years? The During the seven years of the present chief source of domestic unhappiness is that writer's intimacy with Antioch College, he the young, fresh from their monastic enkat no time knew or heard of any scandal in leges, rush heedlessly into life-long relas
tions with persons of whose minds and the other to long beards. It would be characters they know little or nothing, or strange indeed if by the same mental diet, else enter into heartless marriages of con- the same intellectual sun and atmosphere, venience. There is too much levity associ- women should be made too masculine or ated with this subject; human happiness men too effeminate. The fact is, this is absoand welfare are more deeply involved in it lutely a phantom, It ought to be needless than any other; and to a thoughtful man or at this date to affirm to English people that woman it will be no disparagement of the the broad culture and profound psychologico-educational plan that it may lead to at- cal penetration of George Eliot, the severe tachments which, surviving the test of years scholarship of Elizabeth Browning, the politof associated study, may end in marriage. ical insight of Harriet Martineau, and the
In none of these colleges has the standard science of Maria Mitchell, coexist with the of study been in the slightest degree low- utmost womanly feeling and refinement. ered beneath that of those in which young We are not, however, disposed to evade, men alone are taught. The girls have not but rather to rejoice in the fact, upon which asked or received any favour. And they is based much of the opposition to the eduhave shown their entire competency to hold cation of women in directions hitherto retheir own in the same field with the other served for men — namely, that it must tend sex, whether as pupils or professors. Miss to extend their occupations to employments Mitchell is as good an astronomer as any in hitherto monopolized by men. That there America; and the professor of mathematics are occupations for which men and women at Antioch- a woman — taught without are respectively endowed we have book the most abstruse portions of her sci- doubt; as little do we doubt that Nature ence with a clearness which the best male has in such cases set barriers which, though professors acknowledged could not be sur- they may be overleaped by peculiar natures passed. The writer has often been in the in long intervals, neither sex can destroy. recitation-rooms, and can testify that the Fortunately, however, we are not without girls in nowise were inferior in their per- the means of knowing the directions in formances to the young men; and at the which the larger education which some commencement the public essays read by women have managed to secure has tended the female graduates dealt with sul of to widen their sphere of employment. The general interest quite as ably as the ora- age in which we live has prevailed against tions of the male graduates. Indeed, the our hereditary theories, and many women uniform testimony of these co-educational have gained strength to contend successfully colleges confirms that of the examiners at with the prejudices and sentimentalisms Cambridge, England, that if there has been which still imprison the majority of their any difference between the examinations of sex. It is remarkable how little of reacthe young men and young women, it has tionary defiance has attended the movements been in favour of the latter.
of those who have thus been liberated. The undeniable facts reported from Cam- They have not only not sought to become bridge have compelled the opponents of all sea captains or military generals, but have such steps to shift their ground. Forced to not even tried to become lawyers or ambasadmit that women can pursue with equal sadors. Politically they have been content success the same studies with men, they to demand the franchise; while the only now say—“Yes, but they are not proper profession before monopolized by men studies for woman; they do not fit her for which they have invaded is that of medicine. her true sphere; and consequently they un The " female physician," in our judgsex her.” * Now it must be admitted that it ment, represents so well the healthiness and would be a strange anomaly in Nature if the safety of the “woman's rights" movethis were true. Women daily sit at the ment, that we propose to devote some porsame table with men, and partake of the tion of our present article to reviewing the same food; Nature has not provided one present relation of that sex to the medical kind of beef and mutton for women and profession, and the more recent steps by another kind for men; and yet the same which it has been reached. Before the meat and bread are converted by one sex female physician had made her appearance, into woman, by the other into man. The it was a conservative platitude that woman's two are not unsexed by breathing the same place was in the sick-room. Conservatism, air, or by the same sunshine; there is not a however, meant that she should be there in female and a male air or sunshine; and yet the capacity of Mrs. Gamp, and had no idea one frame converts these to long tresses, that a Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell was dis
None of the colleges to which we are referring guised in the nurse who relieved the physipermit students to marry while in college. cian of the more disagreeable duties of the
sick-room without sharing his fees. Never-| to come. But even with the door thus actheless so it was; whether derived from cidentally left open before her, it was only long experience, or natural gift, or from through trials which would have baffled a both of these, woman has manifested a less persevering person that she was able special inclination and ability for the study to enter it. She had limited and uncerand practice of medicine. At various times tain pecuniary resources, though the rewithin the past two centuries there had ap- verse was generally supposed to be the peared women who gained eminence in case — and yet, in order to obtain medical special departments of medical knowledge; instruction, she was compelled virtually to and when seen in the lecture-rooms of Ger-establish a college of which she was to be many, Italy, or France, through the mists the only pupil. That she was enabled to of intervening generations, they seemed not do this reflects great credit on her instrucformidable, but somewhat imposing figures, tors, Drs. Aldis and Fraser. Since obtaineven to the eye of medical conservatism. ing her diploma, she has been engaged in Even Mr. Hosea Biglow, though a defender establishing a Dispensary for Women and of slavery in America, had a strong sympa- Children, which we hear has a fair prospect thy with liberty in other lands.
of success. “I du believe in Freedum's cause,
Another step towards opening the medi
cal profession in England to women was the Ez fur away ez Paris is ;
establishment in 1864 of the “ Female MedI love tu see her stick her claws In them infarnal Pharisees."
ical Society," of which the Marquis of
Townshend was President, and to which He concludes, however, that Liberty's a Drs. Edmunds, Aldis, Murphy, and Dryskind o’thing that don't agree with niggers." | dale, have devoted their ability and energy, There are also many eyes which can recog- Immediately upon the opening of the instinise the heroes and heroines of the sixteenth tution established by this society; fourteen century, but cannot perceive those of the women presented themselves for instruction, nineteenth, though they meet them daily. and the number has steadily increased. Nothing can be more certain than that Hy- The institution has, however, no charter, patia and Olympia Morata are to-day strug- and its students can only work on in the gling against every, discouragement and hope that their cause will prevail, and with prejudice to give their contribution to the the certainty that the knowledge they gain welfare of mankind, and that some who find cannot be taken away from them. It is the them romantic in the past sneer at thein unanimous testimony of the medical gentlenow as “strong-minded."
men connected with this institution that the In this country Miss Elizabeth Garrett ladies in it are studious, earnest, and enwas the first to obtain a diploma from one tirely capable of comprehending the subof our recognised institutions - Apothe-jects comprised in the departments of medcaries' Hall. As we had no medical college icine to which they devote themselves, viz., for women, and the medical colleges for obstetrics, and the diseases of children. men did not favour the idea of being in France and Germany have thus far giyen strumental in qualifying women to compete us only schools for midwives proper, who, with them in scholarship and practice, Miss though acting independently as accoucheurs Garrett's privileges were of a very limited in all normal cases of confinement, are not character, and she could only obtain in- allowed to write any prescription or to instruction in a very ardcous and unsatisfac- terfere surgically. They are really adjuncts tory way. Hospital advantages were ham- of the physicians, who gladly avail thempered with so many annoyances, that she selves of the services of the sage-femme sought the London Dispensary, Spitalfields, when the work is heavy and the pay light, as a dernier ressort for obtaining practical but set them aside when the hardship is instruction. She was particularly fortunate nearly passed and the happy consummation in securing for this end the aid of two phy- of a fee near at hand. And yet the trainsicians connected with the establishment. ing at the Maternity Hospital in Paris proAfter many unsuccessful efforts, she was at duces such excellent physicians as Mesdames last permitted to come before the examining Boivin and Lachapelle! Last year a French board of Apothecaries' Hall
, and passed woman having passed the Baccalaureate, creditably. Her success in coming before requested permission to study medicine s the board was due to some technical infor- a whole in France. The faculty at Montmality in its constitution, which has been pellier refused. She then forwarded bet since®doctored," so that she is the only request to the Minister of the Interior ** female licensed apothecary likely to be Paris. He acceded on condition that she made by that institution for some time I would only practise in Algeria, whence she
came! But this year he has ennobled him- New York city many of the large hospitals self by acting the part of a Minister of have since allowed women to attend the
Justice as well as of the Interior. By physicians on their rounds through them. virtue of his decision, and “ in spite of the For the last five years the Bellevue Hospital opinion expressed by the professors, the had been compelled to admit female students American lady who last year applied for a who have matriculated in New York, bedegree has been empowered to pass her cause their charter does not refer to the sex first examination, which she achieved suc- of students. It does not seem so easy to cessfully; and as a natural consequence, a take a backward step there as in ApotheFrench lady has now entered her name caries' Hall, London. The women who inupon the books, and may even now be seen sisted upon having their rights in the Belledissecting with the other students at the vue Hospital were at first unhandsomely Ecole Practique." * In 1865. about twelve treated by both professors and students'; ladies applied for admission into a medical but annoyance from this source has now college for males at St. Petersburgh, and ceased. However, there are many priviwere refused. Last year two Russian ladies leges — such, for instance, as the reception were admitted into the medical university in advance of information as to the operafor men at Zurich, Switzerland, - an excel- tions for the day – which the women have lent institution, whose conversion to the found themselves unable to obtain in instifaith in the admissibility of women to the tutions which have long been arranged for profession has been a fruitful topic of dis- the use of men alone. There were some cussion in the old world and the new. women also who shrank from prosecuting
America is likely to furnish the largest all the studies incidental to a medical eduquota of medical women for some time to cation in the same room with young men. come. They have there fully chartered And so they resolved to have hospitals and colleges for their instruction, one at least operating-rooms of their own. in each of the principal cities of the East About twenty years ago, at Boston, ern States – New York, Philadelphia, and Massachusetts, the first American Female Boston. Prior to their establishment, one Medical College was established. Like the or two of the medical colleges for men ad- English college, they began in a small way, mitted a limited number of women to their with but two professors, and a course of lecture-rooms. The first to do this, and instruction limited to the object of " qualicall upon itself the ire of the whole medical fying women to become midwives, and treat profession, was the college located at Ge- the diseases of women and children." In neva, New York. Elizabeth Blackwell, an 1847, Mr. Samuel Gregory, of Boston, had Englishwoman, was received there for in- lectured in Boston and its vicinity on the struction in 1847, after having applied in importance of educating women to practise vain to many other institutioạs. "Various medicine; and at the close of one of his eminent physicians tried to persuade her lectures a petition was signed praying the that her idea was eccentric, utopian, and Legislature to license a college for that purimpracticable. The ladies of Geneva at pose. In November, 1848, twelve ladies first declared she must be crazy, and that met and formed a medical class. Drs. they never would employ a female physician. Cornell and Ralfs were engaged to give the After her graduation, in 1852, she had the lectures. About the same time a number utmost difficulty in finding in New York, of gentlemen formed a society to assist the where she had resolved to locate, a board- movement. In 1850 an Act passed the ing-house willing to have her name and title Legislature of Massachusetts incorporating displayed. She was refused a position in the Female Education Society,” for “ the the department for women and children of purpose of providing for the education of a dispensary, although she presented high inidwives, nurses, and female physicians," certificates of qualification. Her applica- empowering it to hold property and to grant tion to visit merely the female wards of a degrees. The society grew rapidly in numhospital was laid on the table as unworthy bers, and outgrew its former limitations of of notice. This was the attitude toward study, so that it has for many years had a women-physicians in America so late as full corps of professors teaching every 1852. Since then, twelve medical schools branch of medicine and surgery. A few established for men have admitted women years ago the Legislature granted it ten and granted them degrees. These were thousand dollars for the erection of a buildchiefly in Cincinnati and Cleveland, large ing, and it has received about forty thoucities in the Western State of Ohio. In sand dollars from bequests and donations.
It has thus become self-supporting, and has • Medical Times and Gazette, August 29, 1868. supported a dispensary for several years,