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vier have acquired the happiest influence and the Austrian Provinces would be disat home over the mind of the French Em- tracted, if not persuaded, by the spectacle peror. Everything will once more neces- of a crusade for the cause of nationalities. sarily blow over, and the French nation be Even Garibaldi would feel a little uncertain consoled with the promise for the twentieth as to the path of duty, as he could not head time that the Edifice is now at last about at one and the same moment a guerilla war to be crowned, and a new law introduced in Poland and in Italy. To head such a about the public press. It is singular that Catholic league as this would be the Ema politician of the Emperor's grasp of mind perur's delight -- that is to say, if it did not should be incessantly exhausting his own cost too many lives, and if he could calcutreasury and the patience of Europe by late with absolute certainty on its success. these indefinite prolongations and postpone- To have the Pope and the French Empress ments. War, it would seem, never is, but crying with joy at the news of alternate always is to be. The explanation is that Te Deums at Warsaw and Baden-Baden, to the Emperor cannot but perceive that the see French Marshals proudly prancing about war programme on which he is constantly at the head of military contingents from forcing himself to ponder is unsuited to the Catholic Spain and even Catholic Belgium, real wants of his age and country. He is and to be able to hope that the excitement by no means inaccessible to ideas of right about Poland might make the Roman quesand wrong, and a grain of conscience easily tion easier of solution, in which case Italian makes him sour. Those who are best ac- legions might yet be fighting with enthusiquainted with his habits and disposition ap- asm in the Polish forests side by side with pear agreed in thinking that he has no nat- the French Zouaves - all this is a sort of ural turn or inclination for engaging in a political picture which the Emperor of great and hazardous campaign. Handling course has often drawn at times in his rothe powder-barrel, and calculating the ef- mantic soul. The reconciliation of the Pafects of its explosion, is an occupation for pacy and of democracy would seem thus to which he has even a predilection, but firing be complete ; and France would get the it would be an act of fury from which his Rhine, with the approval both of the patribetter nature, at well as his ordinary in- ots and the priests of Southern Europe. stincts, both equally recoil. Napoleon III., This dreamy, misty, Napoleonic fancy has like Hamlet, might continue through whole been ruined, as it was sure in the ordinary years to brood over an enterprise which he course of things to be, by a very commoncould not bring himself to execute, if it place event. The Queen of Spain, who was were not for the natural tendency of political to have played the glorified part of at once clouds to precipitate themselves in wet lending men to France and contributing an weather. Englishmen know by experience air of sanctity to the undertaking, has sudthe meaning of " drifting into war," and denly been deposed by her subjects, who the danger is lest the situation which the could not abide an intolerable mixture of Emperor has partly created should in its piety, misgovernment, and feminine deturn produce the catastrophe from which he pravity. T'he loss of an army on the eve shrinks.
of a desperate campaign is a serious affair, The general impression that a movement especially when the army is one on whose upon the Rhine was meant to coincide (in co-operation at the nick of time depends case of Russian intervention) with a revival the whole success of the arrangement. of Polish agitation and a Franco-Austrian Anxious as the Spanish Revolution may be expedition in favour of Catholic Poland, is to appease or propitiate the French Empire, doubtless founded upon a modicum of fact. liberated Spain is scarcely likely to embark Such a combination was probably one on in a speculative filibustering adventure, which the Imperial fancy has rested in its which at most could only end in the aggranpassage from one phase to another, and for disement of an already powerful neighbour. the present, like Beau Brummel's mangled And indeed, supposing that no such ingencravat's, must be considered to be one more ious scheme was seriously entertained at of the Emperor's failures. The advantage the Tuileries as a Franco-Catholic alliance, of the design, if it was ever really matured, still the explosion of a successful rebellion was doubtless that France might thus ex- in Spain has not been without its uses. pect to engage on her side a certain amount The dreams of an undecided person are of pious and a certain amount of revolution- easily disturbed. A rat behind the tapestry ary fervour. The Pope might bless the at the last might have kept Hamlet from banners whose mission was to avenge the avenging his father's ghost. No one can Catholic Bishops of Poland; while the scat- feel sure what the French Emperor might tered spirits of sedition in France, Italy, for might not have attempted this winter, if
at the critical moment his resolution had one who heard Mr. Reverdy Johnson, and not been shaken by hearing a noise upon every one wbo has read what he said, his frontier.
must have felt a conviction that the repre
sentative of the United States was not It is not pleasant to think that the peace speaking mere smooth things to please for of Europe is at the mercy of any single a moment, but was uttering the genuine man; but no condition is without its con- sentiments of his own mind and of the soling side, and it is some comfort to feel minds of a vast number of his countrymen. that the French Emperor has his nerves. They wish, as we wish, to forget the past, Les nerfs, said the philosopher, voilà l'homme. and to go on better and more kipdly for the Napoleon III. might have been a bold des- future; and in nothing was Mr. Johnson's perado, with the spirit and determination speech more commendable, nothing showed of a burglar. As it is, he is a sovereign the wisdom and generosity of a statesman who is reluctant to shed blood, who knows more, than the manner in which he dealt what military glory means to the poor and with the objection that there were some industrious, and who in his heart, perhaps, present who ought not to have been there, is not sorry when something occurs to ren- and who while the civil war was going on, der it easy for him to put off his great con- had sympathized, and even perhaps coquests till another day. He would doubt- operated with the South. The partisans less rejoice, for the sake of humanity, if of the North in this country are even more Prussia at the last moment would give him American than the Americans themselves, a small, even the smallest piece of tribute and were in a state of great fury and agitamoney. What the representative of French tion because Mr. Laird and other Coppervanity requires is indeed rather consideration heads had been asked to be present. They and deference than concession ; and Napo- expected that Mr. Johnson would feel the leon III, often perhaps sighs (in the inter- same horror at sitting down to eat with ests of humanity) to think what a happy such persons as an American Republican family the Continent would be if France feels at sitting down to eat with a negro. might enjoy even the faintest shadow of But Mr. Johnson was much wiser than his hegemony. His policy, alternately bold and friends, and not only did not allow the timid, humitarian and reactionary, conclu- presence of Mr. Laird to spoil his dinner, sively shows that despotic power cannot but went out of his way to express his satsafely be entrusted even to philosophers isfaction that the representative of the who have what is called the popular fibre. United States was treated as if the civil The Empire is not peace. It has not justi- war was now past and forgotten, and was fied the first blast of trumpets with which welcomed simply as the guest of English its chief entered the political arena. Neith- merchants and statesmen. How are outer, on the other hand, is the Empire war. standing difficulties ever to be surmounted, The Empire, to Europe, means suspense. how are Americans ever to get over the How long Prussia will consent to have the soreness which they felt while the war sword of Damocles bang over her head has was going on, if the member for Birkenyet to be seen; but if she does not mind head is not to be asked to a Liverpool dinit, and if 1868 is to close quietly in spite of ner because the English friends of the all the rumours of the autumn, one cannot North have a too vivid remembrance of but allow that suspense is not so bad but his misdoings? If Mr. Johnson bad shown that certainty might be worse.
himself petty enough to resent that the repa resentative of one-half of the port of Liver
pool should have been asked to meet him, From The Saturday Review, 24 Oct. he would not have been the man to estabMR. REVERDY JOHNSON AT LIVERPOOL. lish the friendship of the two nations on :
firm basis. It must have been gratifying to THE Liverpool banquet to Mr. Reverdy all the sensible portion of his audience to Johnson has been a complete success. find that he frankly dealt with the matter is Coming at exactly the right moment, when a graceful and generous manner. Perhaps the minds of men on both sides of the At- however, his audience was even more grallantic were prepared and anxious for some ified by the declaration which he took upon sign of reciprocal good-feeling and assured himself to make with regard to the public amity between the two nations, it has risen debt of the United States. It seeins to into an event of real political importance, have been an afterthought, for it was only by affording a means of placing on record at the close of the entertainment that he the good relations now existing between touched on this point. Probably some of England and the United States. Every his Liverpool friends thought that, as he
had said so much that was true, and had simple enough, and Englishmen are quite done so much to tranquillize the feelings as ready to accept it as Americans can be. of different kinds of people, it was a But the consequence of the rule in the sphere pity the bondholders should not come in of criminal law, in the sphere of family life and for a share of the good things going, and of inheritance, are not easy to foresee and to that a word should not be spoken to keep determine properly; and it is quite as much to up the price of Five-Twenties. Whether the interests of Americans that they should be Mr. Johnson was right in committing properly determined as it can be to that of himself and the nation he represents so Englishmen. The diseussion of the claims decidedly on a point which is still kept on both sides arising out of the war is not open in the battlefield of American poli- yet ended, but both Lord Stanley and Mr. tics, he alone can decide. We in England Johnson seem to think an agreement as cannot criticize his conduct in any way equitable as possible under the circumstanon this head. We can only accept his ces will very soon be come to; and it is declaration with the sincerest pleasure, and evident that Mr. Johnson and Mr. Seward rejoice to find so leading an American will be glad the matter should be settled statesman, placed in so responsible a posi- before the new President forms his Cabinet, tion, declare that even if the point in dis- and that Lord Stanley would like to have the pute is one that can be fairly raised be credit of going out of office with the tween the debtor and the creditor, pru- credit of leaving so good piece of findence and honesty alike concur in deter- ished work behind him. Both sides, we mining that it shall be ruled in favour of suppose, will agree to admit to some extent those who have lent their money.
the claims of the other, and therefore both Lord Stanley was there to meet Mr. sides will have something to pay. The Johnson, and joined in giving the welcome balance may possibly be against England. assurance that all was going on as well as We may have to pay the money, but then possible between himself and their guest, we shall have one great source of satisfacand that all the questions at issue between tion to comfort us. The Americans will be ourselves and the Americans were in a fair only settling those ordinary claims for repaway to be settled very shortly, and on ration which arise so easily and naturally out terms highly satisfactory to both parties. of every war where the interests and comOn two points — the possession of the island merce of a neutral are largely mixed up of San Juan and the naturalization of with those of a belligerent. But we shall aliens - an understanding seems already to be establishing a principle at once new and have been arrived at. It ought not to be greatly to our advantage. We shall be difficult to deal with such a subject as the binding over all neitrals not to inflict on island of San Juan. Very few Englishmen us the injury to which a great maritime have ever heard of the island, and our only Power is most exposed in time of war. feeling as to it must be that we do not wish We shall be insuring ourselves against to be bullied out of it, or out of anything depredations on our mercantile marine at else; but that really we have so many pos- the hands of neutrals or by their connisessions we know nothing about, and do vance; and this is a source of security and not know what to do with, that we should advantage to us which we shall be sure to be rather glad than otherwise to find our be purchasing very cheaply, whatever may title bad to some of them. Aš to naturali- be the exact amount of pecuniary satisfaction zation, it never was an international diffi- to the Americans which Lord Stanley may culty at all. A few violent Americans tried undertake we shall render. to make capital out of it, and to use it as a The good feeling prevailing between the means of hurting the feelings of Britishers; United States and England seemed so but we in England never saw it in that clearly established, the banquet went off so light at all. The difficulties that surround well, and it seemed such an excellent thing the subject are difficulties, not of na- to have secured peace between the two national feeling or custom, but simply of law. tions on such pleasant terms, that Lord It so happens that, in this as in many other Stanley and Mr. Gladstone were both led ases, the rule which we are willing to ac- to speculate on the possibility of the examcept is simple enough, but the application ple being followed elsewhere, and of Europe of it is by no means easy. Let us suppose being tranquillized in the same manner. that we and the Americans and every other Lord Stanley allowed it to be understood civilized nation are willing to adopt the that, in his opinion, the danger of war beprinciple that every male of full age may at tween France and Prussia had been exaghis pleasure, and by going through certain gerated, and it was principally because performs, change his nationality. This sounds sons had chosen to think war inevitable
that it had, even in the least degree, done much to make his countrymen popular seemed imminent. That the present sys- here. He does this by being at once cortem of keeping enormous armies on foot in dial and straightforward. As Lord Stanley time of peace, in order to be ready for war, said, it was a pleasure to work with him. was most disastrous and pregnant with fu- The old notion of diplomacy and diplomature mischief, appeared to him obvious; but tists is quite worn out. In former days it he confessed that he could find no simple was held to be the highest triumph in diand satisfactory remedy. He is much too plomatic circles to conceal every real sensible and well informed to believe in thought, and only to hint and insinuate projects of disarmament by arrangements aims and ambitions. Now business is done and stipulations as to the number of troops in a different way. A frank statement of and ships that each nation may keep in what is wanted on each side is followed by readiness. In fact, he could think of no a polite and, if possible, an exhaustive dissubstitute for standing armies, or of any cussion. This is much better and much means of lessening their amount. All that simpler; but, far from showing that diplohe thought could be done was to avert, in macy is an extinct trade, it only shows how each case as it arose, an open rupture. To much higher is its present standard, and, make wars few is, he thinks, an aim within far from diplomatists now having nothing to the reach of modern statesmen. This may do, they have to do very difficult things in be done, or at anyrate something may gen- the best possible manner. Simplicity is the erally be effected towards doing it by two height of art in this as in everything else. means. In the first place, neutrals who are known to have no sinister motive or interest may exercise their influence to heal quar
From The Spectator. rels, suggest compromises, and remove
HWA TSIEN KI.* grounds of difference. In the next place, nations may choose diplomatic representa
GOETHE, who was, in his old age at least, tives who will be prudent and conciliatory, very fond of the proprieties and decorousand who will do their best not to magnify nesses of life, even where they clearly small dissensions, and not to provoke bit- passed the bounds of artificiality, - perhaps terness and jealousy. As Mr. Gladstone partly by way of reaction from the time truly said, the United States have been when he used to stand with his master the very wise and fortunate in this respect;
Duke of Weimar cracking horsewhips for a and for many years have sent to England silly wager in the market-place of Weimar, not only men among the foremost of those - had a keen appreciation of the decorums, they had to send, but men who tried to do
what the Chinese themselves call the justice to England as well as to America, Tao Li,- of Chinese fiction. There was and who, while upholding the honour and something stiff and old-fashioned about the protecting the interests of their own coun- great German poet as a child, and, when try, did not attempt to bully or provoke us, once his youth was passed, the love for the deor to steal small advantages, and keep
corous and the measured returned strongly alive petty quarrels. We, in our turn, upon him, nor was he ever more animated may be glad that, at the time when the than in praise of it. To Eckermann he banquet was going on, we had not to re- said in 1827, that the only difference beproach ourselves with having taken the ad-tween the Chinese pictures of life in such vice of those who despise the Americans fictions as he had read, and the German, is most, and having sent them a lord to daz- that with the Chinese “Everything happens zle and delight them. Nothing could be in a clearer, purer, more moral manner. nore contemptuous than the proposal to Everything with them is reasonable, citizengive the post of American Minister always like, without great passion and poetical to a nobleman, whether he was fit or not, rapture, and has in that respect a good because the Americans were snobs, and deal of similarity to my Hermann and Dorwould be proud of talking to him. Expe- uthea, as well as to the English romances rienced and conciliatory men of business of Richardson. There is, however, this are what the Americans, like all other na- difference, that with the Chinese the life tions, want to find in the diplomatists sent of outward nature is always interwoven with to them; and Mr. Johnson is an excellent that of the human figures. One always example of what such men can do in a very hears the splashing of the goldfish in the short time, when they set about their task pond, the continuous singing of the birds in the right way. He has not only made himself popular in England, although he lated and illustrated with Notes
by Sir John Bow
* The Flowery Scroll. A Chinese Novel. Transhas only been a few weeks here, but he has ring, LL.D., F.R.s. London: W. H. Allen and Co.
in the branches; the day is always bright distances, physical or moral, are not well and sunny, the night always clear; there is kept. This it is which, in spite of the tamea great deal about the moon, only it does ness, gives the air of extravagance and exnot change the aspect of the landscape; its aggeration to all the writing, descriptive or rays are conceived as bright as those of sentimental. While the outward and inthe sun itself. And the interior of the ward are so closely mingled, there is somehouses is as neat and elegant as their pic- thing childish in the apparent inability to tures; for example, 'I heard the pretty use more than one tone or tint at a time, maidens laugh, and when I caught sight of whether in describing feelings or scenes. them they were sitting on fine bamboo There is an entire absence of either pictorial chairs. There you have in a touch the or moral graduation. As the moonlight is most charming situation; for you cannot painted just as bright as the sunlight, so think of bamboo chairs without the great- there is no graduation in the picture of emoest lightness and elegance.” He went on tion. Ordinary courtesies take as intense a to remark that the substance of the Chinese colour as the most passionate lovers' sentifictions “always turns on what is moral and ments. The modesty of self-depreciation seemly. And it is just in consequence of is even more exaggerated in its language this severe regulation in everything that than the humility of love. This is, however, the Chinese Empire sustained itself for rather a specially Oriental than a Chinese thousand of years, and will, by the same characteristic. Sir John Bowring mentions, quality, continue to sustain itself in the fu- what is well known, how the Chinese deture." No one can read this story, which spise our despatches for their plain and Sir John Bowring has translated for us, straightforward expressions, their absence without being reminded of Goethe's criti- of hyperbole. Wē remember seeing in cism. It is a very amusing story to one some old newspaper that a Chinese deputaquite unversed in Chinese fictions, though tion to Sir John stated that the deputies but a little of this sort of thing would cer- “wondered at the splendour of his Phenixtainly be too much. What one feels most, like appearance,"— a statement which ceris the tame extravagance, if we may use a tainly out-tops the most lover-like extravasort of paradox, both of the life and of the gances of English poetry. So of the com'style. Goethe is quite right in saying that mon compliments of life, Sir John there is a civic, citizenlike, customary, con- what every one has probably heard before, siderate, in a word, tame air about them that which suggests a great resemblance to the life of the old-fashioned German cities, old
“In all their intercourse the Chinese use Nuremberg, or Goethe's own city, old the most exaggerated expressions, in deprecation Frankfort. Everything is ceremonious with of themselves and their belongings, and of laudaout being aristocratic; the young are as
tion of the persons and possessions of those they
address. Their own abodes, however grand, pompous as the old; there is much bowing they call their • humble cottage,' — that, howand handing about, and large words to ever lowly, of him with whom they converse, “the small actions; but there is a pacific tone of illustrious palace. Evidences of this extravatown life and popular competition about it gant form of expression pervade this and all Chiall; the energy is all strictly confined with
nese novels." in customary channels which it is an unheardof thing to transgress. The modes and im- Now, it is not the mere exaggeration of pulses of human action all resemble canals this sort of phraseology, so much as the loss rather than rivers; they are artificial, meth- of perspective, which is necessarily proodical, carefully banked up, and connected duced by there being nothing stronger left together in formal net-works. But though to say where stronger emotions and passions the human life is so regulated, and tame, have to be represented, that strikes the and formal, the garden and open-air life of reader of a Chinese fiction. The meaningChina is interwoven, as Goethe says, com- less compliments of life are as emphatic as pletely with the human figures. The sun, its most passionate vows; and so, too, in and the moon, and the flowers, and the the painting of nature, as the buttercups trees, and the ponds, and the birds are in- and daisies, or whatever may be the Chinese corporated with every phrase describing equivalents, are left out of the picture altohuman sentiment and purpose. Again, as gether, and we have nothing but the peonies Goethe also says, there is no graduation in and the lotuses and the chloranthuses, the the landscape effects; there is the same imagination gets fatigued with spots of want of perspective in the literary pictures equally ostentatious colour and the conseas in the Chinese painting; the moonlight quent absence of all tone in the art. Peris as bright and sharp as the sunlight; the haps it is in some measure in consequence