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else, can scarcely be denied a kind of fidel- him, indeed, of his still greater power to ity to that master's memory which deserves determine generally, the whole destiny of to be termed reverence. The “instinct- his own life. Hence the reverence of the ive” school would, we suppose, make this lower animal for man is like the reverence of at first a mere matter of physical instinct, the savage for the civilized man when first leading the dog to the place where it found he beholds his great resource in the arts of most trace of its inaster's body, and after-war and peace not so much moral reverwards a result of habit. But as a matter ence, as that sense of physical inferiority of fact, no creatures are less victims of and dependence which, when met with genhabit than dogs. They go from place to erous treatment, often results in the deepplace with their masters with nothing but est affection. As far as we know, the delight in the change, and the difficulty lower animals, though they show plenty of would have been, had the master been living, trace of reverence in this vaguer sense, to get the dog to sleep for eight years in show none of that reverence which we yield any one place unless his master bad slept to those who are better than ourselves simthere too. We can only properly account ply because they are better. Lord Bacon for this extraordinary case of a truly, spirit- long ago remarked that dogs have a religion, ual attachment to the memory of a master, and that their gods are their masters. But by supposing that the dog can really recall, then this is the sort of religious reverence or, rather, has never forgotten its own in- paid by a savage to a man with a gun, or a tense love, and respect, and regret for him, voltaic battery, or an electric telegraph, or and feels the grave more closely associated anything he cannot understand, when comwith these feelings of love, and respect, and bined with the feeling of gratitude and love regret than any other place within its reach. which the latter's kindness may inspire. That dogs really reverence their masters, But the dog shows no sign of self-reproach, and do so even in the absence of their bod- of looking for a higher moral ideal than itily presence, and after very long absence, self, of probing the purity of its own moseems to us absolutely certain. And the tives, and shrinking before the spirit which same thing is more or less true of other teaches the higher grades of nobility it has domesticated animals, especially the horse never reached. In short, moral reverence and the elephant. Nay, it seems certain is, no doubt, beyond the reach of the lower that all the higher gregarious animals rever- animals, simply because this rests upon a ence their own leaders, - the herds of ele-conscious comparison of the conflicting phants especially showing implicit confi- principles by which life can be regulated, a dence in the directions of their leaders. discovery that some of these are higher Any man with several dogs will notice that than others, and a further discovery that a sort of hero-worship grows up amongst there are beings whose lives show far more them, the small dogs usually fixing their of the higher and less of the lower than our admiration on the larger dogs, and bestow- own. We should say that this is beyond ing a good deal of the most disinterested the range of the highest animal life, because respect and reverence upon them. A ter- a conscious reflection on the motives and rier of our acquaintance always rushes to springs of action has never yet been reached meet a large retriever (of her own sex) at all by any mere animal, - not even by when they first meet in the morning, with the lowest tribes of the human species itthe deepest signs of devotion. If the re- self. Here, again, the distinction, though triever is tied up, the terrier will never be complete for the purpose of excluding the easy till she has obtained the release of her lower animals, doubtless does more, exlarge friend, and caresses the latter on her cludes also the lowest tribes of human release with an effusion that makes the re- beings themselves. The kind of reverence triever quite bashful and ashamed. Here which we have claimed even for domestiis a genuine case of reverence as between cated animals passes no doubt very gradudog and dog. The same quality in a far ally and by almost insensible shades into higher degree holds between dog and man. that phase of moral comparison and reflec

But then animal reverence is always tion which is the source of all true worship. founded, we believe, on the admiration felt But the knowledge of the comparative worth for external qualities, which the lower ani- of different motives, and the sense of shame mals can more or less appreciate, like size, which accompanies the complete predomispeed, courage, resource, and protecting nance of the lowest motives, though peculiar power. The dog defends the man; but to man, is not common, we imagine, to all none the less he feels in a larger sense de- the beings who are capable of becoming pendent on the man, and is aware of the men in this higher sense. We suspect it is man's power to control, punish, or reward I true that many domestic animals, though

they have less of moral capacity in them case the continuous existence of the town than the lowest human animals, — the bush- was not interrupted, and in either case an men, for example, — have more of actual ancient Gaulish name, either of the town reverence, more of the humaner qualities itself or of the tribe, remains to this day. of disinterested love and devotion, in short, Next, under the Roman domination a new more civilization, though less capability of element comes in, destined to be as lasting civilization. The highest range reached in as the other. Christianity is preached at the world of the lower animal life overlaps an early time, converts are found, persecuthe lowest reached by man, the difference tion follows, some saintly and martyred being, however, that the former is incapable Bishop connects his name for ever with the of cultivation beyond a certain point, owing city. As Christianity becomes the recogto the absence of any adequate means of ac- nised faith of the Empire, the local Church cumulating the results of past experience, emerges from its obscurity and obtains a while the latter is capable of cultivation far position which it was never destined to beyond the point at which the former stops. lose. Except when it has been tampered Still, as a matter of actual attainment, as dis- with by recent changes, the episcopal suctinguished from the capacity for future de- cession in a French city has gone on uninvelopment, no doubt the highest class of terruptedly since the third or fourth century; animals surpass the lowest tribes which de- the present cathedral stands on the site of serve the name of man.

a church of those primitive times; the extent of the diocese marks the extent of the Roman civil division of which the city was

the head. Then came the Teutonic inroads, From The Saturday Review.

those of the Franks in the north, those of ENGLISH AND FRENCH CITIES.

the Goths and Burgundians in the south.

The connexion with the seat of Empire, We know not how far any one's national with Rome Old or New, first became nomivanity is at all troubled by the thought, nal and then was wiped out altogether, tiil which must present itself to any one who the day when the Roman diadem was set goes through any considerable part of Eng- on the brow of a Frankish King. But the land and France with his eyes open, that Gaulish hill-fortress, the Roman city, lived there is hardly any city in England which through the storm. It remained a seat of can trace the same unbroken historical ex- habitation and of dominion; it retained its istence which can be traced by nearly every name, its position as the head of a district, French town that can boast of enough of in the south it even retained large traces early importance to have been the seat of of its Roman municipal organization. Above an ancient Bishopric. The history of a all, it retained its character as a seat of great number of French towns follows a spiritual rule, the seat of a chief church and single type. The site has been a place of its chief pastor. The cities of Gaul have human habitation, and the centre of a more lived on uninterruptedly from the days of or less organized society, as far back as Sextius and Cæsar till now. The episcopal history or trustworthy tradition can take us. churches of Gaul lived on uninterruptedly It was a post, most usually a fortress over- from the days of primitive Christendom looking a river, which formed the strong- to the great Revolution. And with most hold, the capital, if we may so call it, of a of them the great Revolution itself was only Gaulish tribe. From those times till now a passing eclipse. The chief towns of it has never ceased to be, in one form or France, in short, are places which have been another, a seat of habitation and of domin- abodes of man, seats of man's industry and ion. The Gaulish bill-fort became the Ro- government such as industry and governman town. It was fenced about with Ro- ment, have been at various times, for man walls, and it received a Roinan mu- eighteen hundred or two thousand years, and nicipal constitution. In the South it re- for as many more prehistoric centuries as any tained, and still retains, its original ante- one chooses to add. Dynasties, governments, Roman name. Burdigala and Tolosa keep nations, languages, all have changed; but to this day, with but slight changes, the to this day the chief fort of each tribe overnames which they have borne from the be- run by Cæsar commonly remains the catheginning of things. In the North the name dral city of a diocese, and is often also the of the town was most commonly forgotten; capital of an ancient province or a modern it was supplanted by the name of the tribe. department. Lutetia Parisiorum, the town of the tribe Now this is the history, not of one or of the Parisii, retains, as Paris, not its own two cities only, but of a whole class. When name but that of its inhabitants. In either any place of any importance deviates from

else, can scarcely be denied a kind of fidel- him, indeed, of his still greater power to ity to that master's memory which deserves determine generally, the whole destiny of to be termed reverence. The “instinct- his own life. Hence the reverence of the ive” school would, we suppose, make this lower animal for man is like the reverence of at first a mere matter of physical instinct, the savage for the civilized man when first leading the dog to the place where it found he beholds his great resource in the arts of inost trace of its inaster's body, and after- war and peace not so much moral reverwards a result of habit. But as a matter ence, as that sense of physical inferiority of fact, no creatures are less victims of and dependence which, when met with genhabit than dogs. They go from place to erous treatment, often results in the deepplace with their masters with nothing but est affection. As far as we know, the delight in the change, and the difficulty lower animals, though they show plenty of would have been, had the master been living, trace of reverence in this vaguer sense, to get the dog to sleep for eight years in show none of that reverence which we yield any one place unless his master bad slept to those who are better than ourselves simthere too. We can only properly account ply because they are better. Lord Bacon for this extraordinary case of a truly

, spirit- long ago remarked that dogs have a religion, ual attachment to the memory of a master, and that their gods are their masters. But by supposing that the dog can really recall, then this is the sort of religious reverence or, rather, has never forgotten its own in- paid by a savage to a man with a gun, or a tense love, and respect, and regret for him, voltaic battery, or an electric telegraph, or and feels the grave more closely associated anything he cannot understand, when comwith these feelings of love, and respect, and bined with the feeling of gratitude and love regret than any other place within its reach. which the latter's kindness may inspire. That dogs really reverence their masters, But the dog shows no siga of self-reproach, and do so even in the absence of their bod- of looking for a higher moral ideal than itily presence, and after very long absence, self, of probing the purity of its own moseems to us absolutely certain. And the tives, and shrinking before the spirit which same thing is more or less true of other teaches the higher grades of nobility it has domesticated animals, especially the horse never reached. In short, moral reverence and the elephant. Nay, it seems certain is, no doubt, beyond the reach of the lower that all the higher gregarious animals rever- animals, simply because this rests upon a ence their own leaders, – the herds of ele- conscious comparison of the conflicting phants especially showing implicit confi- principles by which life can be regulated, a dence in the directions of their leaders. discovery that some of these are higher Any man with several dogs will notice that than others, and a further discovery that a sort of hero-worship grows up amongst there are beings whose lives show far more them, the small dogs usually fixing their of the higher and less of the lower than our admiration on the larger dogs, and bestow- own. We should say that this is beyond ing a good deal of the most disinterested the range of the highest animal life, because respect and reverence upon them. A ter- a conscious reflection on the motives and rier of our acquaintance always rushes to springs of action has never yet been reached meet a large retriever (of her own sex) at all by any mere animal, - not even by when they first meet in the morning, with the lowest tribes of the human species itthe deepest signs of devotion. If the re- self. Here, again, the distinction, though triever is tied up, the terrier will never be complete for the purpose of excluding the easy till she has obtained the release of her lower animals, doubtless does more, exlarge friend, and caresses the latter on her cludes also the lowest tribes of human release with an effusion that makes the re- beings themselves. The kind of reverence triever quite bashful and ashamed. Here which we have claimed even for domestiis a genuine case of reverence as between cated animals passes no doubt very gradudog and dog. The same quality in a far ally and by almost insensible shades into higher degree holds between dog and man. that phase of moral comparison and reflex

But then animal reverence is always tion which is the source of all true worship. founded, we believe, on the admiration felt But the knowledge of the comparative worth for external qualities, which the lower ani- of different motives, and the sense of shame mals can more or less appreciate, like size, which accompanies the complete presionispeed, courage, resource, and protecting nance of the lowest motives, though peculiar power. The dog defends the man; but to man, is not common, we imagine, to all none the less he feels in a larger sense de- the beings who are capable of becoming pendent on the man, and is aware of the men in this higher sense. We suspert it is man's power to control, punish, or reward I true that many domestic animals, though

they have less of moral capacity in them case the continuous existence of the town than the lowest human animals, – the bush- was not interrupted, and in either case an men, for example, — have more of actual ancient Gaulish name, either of the town reverence, more of the humaner qualities itself or of the tribe, remains to this day. of disinterested love and devotion, in short, Next, under the Roman domination a new more civilization, though less capability of element comes in, destined to be as lasting civilization. The highest range reached in as the other. Christianity is preached at the world of the lower animal life overlaps an early time, converts are found, persecuthe lowest reached by man, the difference tion follows, some saintly and martyred being, however, that the former is incapable Bishop connects his name for ever with the of cultivation beyond a certain point, owing city. "As Christianity becomes the recogto the absence of any adequate means of ac- nised faith of the Empire, the local Church cumulating the results of past experience, emerges from its obscurity and obtains a while the latter is capable of cultivation far position which it was never destined to beyond the point at which the former stops. Iose. Except when it has been tampered Still, as a matter of actual attainment, as dis- with by recent changes, the episcopal suctinguished from the capacity for future de- cession in a French city has gone on uninvelopment, no doubt the highest class of terruptedly since the third or fourth century; animals surpass the lowest tribes which de- the present cathedral stands on the site of serve the name of man.

a church of those primitive times; the extent of the diocese marks the extent of the Roman civil division of which the city was

the head. Then came the Teutonic inroads, From The Saturday Review.

those of the Franks in the north, those of

the Goths and Burgundians in the south. ENGLISH AND FRENCH CITIES.

The connexion with the seat of Empire, We know not how far any one's national with Rome Old or New, first became nomivanity is at all troubled by the thought, nal and then was wiped out altogether, till which must present itself to any one who the day when the Roman diadem was set goes through any considerable part of Eng- on the brow of a Frankish King. But the land and France with his eyes open, that Gaulish hill-fortress, the Roman city, lived there is hardly any city in England wbich through the storm. It remained a seat of can trace the same unbroken historical ex- habitation and of dominion; it retained its istence which can be traced by nearly every name, its position as the head of a district, French town that can boast of enough of in the south it even retained large traces early importance to have been the seat of of its Roman municipal organization. Above an ancient Bishopric. The history of a all, it retained its character as a seat of great number of French towns follows a spiritual rule, the seat of a chief church and single type. The site has been a place of its chief pastor. The cities of Gaul have human habitation, and the centre of a more lived on uninterruptedly from the days of or less organized society, as far back as Sextius and Cæsar till now. The episcopal history or trustworthy tradition can take us. churches of Gaul lived on uninterruptedly It was a post, most usually a fortress over- from the days of primitive Christendom looking a river, which formed the strong- to the great Revolution. And with most hold, the capital, if we may so call it, of a of them the great Revolution itself was only Gaulish tribe. From those times till now a passing eclipse. The chief towns of it has never ceased to be, in one form or France, in short, are places which have been another, a seat of habitation and of domin- abodes of man, seats of man's industry and ion. The Gaulish bill-fort became the Ro- government such as industry and governman town. It was fenced about with Ro- ment, have been at various times, for man walls, and it received a Roman mu- eighteen hundred or two thousand years, and nicipal constitution, In the South it re- for as many more prehistoric centuries as any tained, and still retains, its original ante- one chooses to add. Dynasties, governments, Roman name. Burdigala and Tolosa keep'nations, languages, all have changed; but to this day, with but slight changes, the to this day the chief fort of each tribe overnames which they have borne from the be- run by Cæsar commonly remains the catheginning of things. In the North the name dral city of a diocese, and is often also the of the town was most commonly forgotten; capital of an ancient province or a modern it was supplanted by the name of the tribe. department. Lutetia Parisiorum, the town of the tribe Now this is the history, not of one or of the Parisii, retains, as Paris, not its own two cities only, but of a whole class. When name but that of its inhabitants. In either any place of any importance deviates from

rare.

the type, it is at once noticed as an excep-pied the site of Roman London. But, after tion. It is in no way interfered with by all, the Bishopric is generally the best the fact that many French Bishoprics have means of comparison. Of course we set been divided, and some in modern times aside the sees founded in England by Henry united. The process which is really de- the Eighth and in our own day, just as we structive of continuity, that of translation set aside the more recent Bishoprics of from one seat to another, is exceedingly France. We have no concern with the

And we may add that in France it is see of Manchester or with the see of Verthe old cities, the immemorial ecclesiastical sailles. We have no concern even with and civil capitals, which are, to a very great the see of Gloucester or the see of Montauextent, the seats of modern commerce and ban. Our ancient English dioceses, like manufacture. We need not speak of the those of France, represent the civil divisage of Massalia, the Hellenic common- ions which existed at the time of their wealth which braved the might of Cæsar, foundation ; but then in England those civil the Free City of the Empire which braved divisions were not the districts of Roman the might of Charles of Anjou. But Lyons, cities, but were ancient English principaliRouen, Bordeaux, Amiens, Nantes, are ties. The sees were by no means necessaall examples of modern industry and com- rily placed in Roman cities. When they merce finding their homes in the abodes of were, they can trace no unbroken succession ancient Counts and Bishops. Cherbourg, from the Bishops of Roman times. LonBrest, Toulon, though not equalling the don and York had doubtless been episcopal associations of the others, are all ancient seats in earlier times, but the English Bishand historic towns. Havre alone is mod- ops of those cities were in no sense succesern, but it has lived three centuries, and sors of the Roman or British Bishops. A three centuries, in the eyes of many people, wide gap, the introduction of another peois a very respectable antiquity.

ple and another language, the introduction Turn to our own country, and, instead and the overthrow of another religion, cut of a whole class of immemorial Gaulish off the two scries from one another. But cities, we shall find at most two or three in truth an English Bishopric had no such which make a distant and doubtful approach necessary connexion with a city as a contito an analogous character. Many English nental Bishopric had. The head church, towns stand on the site of Roman towns, served by the Bishop's monks or clerks, but very few, if any, English towns can was placed somewhere, but it was by no trace the same uninterrupted connexion with means necessarily placed in the greatest or primitive times which is still plainly writ- most ancient town in the diocese. Selsey, ten on the ancient cities of France. It is Ramsbury, Sherborne, Wells, Lichfield, by no means clear that the Roman towns in Elmham, Dunwich, were episcopal sees and Britain so generally occupied Celtic sites as little else, and all of them have, either for they did in Gaul; it is quite certain that a time or for ever, bad their episcopal rank few or no English towns can show the same taken from them. Dorchester - the Oxcontinuous existence from Roman times fordshire Dorchester — was a Roman site, which so many French towns can. A great but it had no continuous civic existence like gulf, an interval of historic darkness, a pe- Chartres or Angers. None of these cities riod given up to the conjectures and infer- have anything like the history, none of them ences of ingenious men, divides their latest have anything like the outward appearance, recorded Roman existence from their ear- of those cities in France where the Gaulishi liest recorded English existence. No ex- hill-fort has gradually grown into the modisting English, or even Welsh, Bishopric ern city. At Exeter and Lincoln we do pretends to trace an uninterrupted episco- see an outward appearance which may be pal succession further back than the sixth fairly likened to that of the French type of century. That any English town retains a city; but the historical analogy fails us. traditional, or even an imitative, Roman Lincoln and Exeter were Roman cities, but constitution, is a mere dream without a they did not become English Bishopries till shadow of proof. Nay, it is not even the aleventh century, when their episcopal certain that the sites of the ancient Roman chairs were removed to there from Dorchestowns were continuously inhabited. Many ter and Crediton. Colchester, which, of of them are utterly forsaken, others have all the towns in England, has the best claim changed their names, of those which have to assert a continuous occupation since Rokept their names several are suspected to man times, has never become a Bishop's have changed their sites, London retains see at all. its name, but very learned antiquaries doubt! Again, London stands in England absowhether the oldest English London occu- lutely by itself in the retention of anything

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