« EelmineJätka »
rendering clear by the use of complimentary | sixty different combinations. This system and depreciatory terms the persons and was soon found to be very defective, it bethings spoken of. The moods and tenses ing obvious that the cyclical characters can are determined by the use of auxiliary only point to the number of the year in the words or verbs, the terminal letters or syl- cycle and fail to denote the particular cycle. lables of the verbs themselves undergoing It became necessary, therefore, to introduce no nodification ; the student, therefore, has a system by which it might be made plain, to learn but one form of regular verb and and for this purpose the sovereign, on asthe use of a certain number of auxiliaries. cending the throne, selects a name comWe have no space to follow M. Hutfinann posed of two characters of felicitous imthrough his able disquisitions on the details port by which his reigp shall be known, of their grammar. As the reader will prob- which are prefixed to the cyclical characably expect, the construction of their sen- ters to fix the date. The twelve characters tences is the reverse of anything European; of the second series spoken of above also for instance, it is rather difficult for the serve as the signs of the zodiac, the points uninitiated to recognise in the Japanese of the compass, and the hours of the day, form“He I come shall that knowing of which there are but twelve. Numbers is,” a translation of the sentence “ He are, however, often used for this last purknows that I shall come.” Whatever may pose, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, being those selected; be the deficiency, however, of other parts the first representing noon and midnight, of speech, there is no lack of personal pro- and the others, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 o'clock nouns, or rather substitutes for personal respectively. pronouns, for the ingenuity of the Japanese In this notice we have given but a faint is constantly taxed to invent terms of de- idea of the contents of the work before us. basement and exaltation sufficiently numer. It is a book full of practical inforination adous to meet the demands of their polite mirably arcanged,' and which will help conversation. A speaker who spoke of many a weary student of Japanese over himself as “I," instead of adopting the the stony path before him. usual depreciating terms of your servant,”
," “ your slave," “ this little one,” and similar expressions, would be considered vulgar and uneducated, while every well
From The Imperial Review. bred man has at his command an infinite
THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. sliding scale of honorific terms to suit the Most men remain utterly unmoved at the rank and status of his interlocutor. Euro- intelligence that some new planet has been pean students of both the Japanese and discovered, in some obscure German obChinese languages are too apt to neglect servatory by some unknown astronomer, the observances of these modes of expres- with a name more or less unprounceable. sion, and frequently use the bald “I” or And it is to be feared that the majority of “you," sounds unpalatable to the Jap- mankind, in their happy irreverence, are anese and Chinese ears, and which leave only stirred up to languid ridicule at the an impression of incivility and illiterateness spectacle of the philosophical quarrels that oftentimes very prejudicial to the legitimate seem to be the inevitable result of fresh geinfluence of the speaker. The same pedan- ological discoveries. Indeed, it is difficult tic politeness has given rise to similar forms for the disinterested observer to discover of expression as substitutes for the posses- the immediate connection between the findsive pronouns, and the “ mean dwelling "ing of fossils in remote caverns and the and the thorny wife" are used to describe consequent outburst of violent abuse and those belongings of the speaker, while such rash personality amongst the sarants of the terms as “honourable," * lofty,” and “su- great European capitals. Anthropology, perior” are considered applicable to the again, is one of those new inventions that possessions of the person addressed. As can scarcely claim a large share of popular part and parcel of the Chinese language the favour. Though this is not to be wondered sexagenary cycle used in China for the enu-at. For, after all, it is only natural that, meration of years, months, days, and hours even if men are descended in direct line has been adopted in Japan; in accordance from apes, they should prefer to remain in with which system the number of the year blissful ignorance of the fact. But some in the cycle is expressed by the combina- people are always to be found wanting in tion of two characters, one drawn in a se- the delicacy and tact that should suggest ries of ten, and the other from a series of to them that it is seldom gratifying to intwelve, established letters. These charac- dividual pride to trace a family up to its ters are so arranged as to be capable of very origin. However high the branches
may reach, the roots have always sprung | less worth, and the reflection must give from the earth. It is convenient to forget pain to many that even this will pass away. the lowly birth of the family tree. We The causes of this fading of photographic prefer to have recourse to Sir Bernard prints depend on the process. So long as Burke for the manufacture of ancestors. the same method is used, and the same And what is true of families is true of all chemical agents are employed, there is no mankind. The present traditions are plea- remedy for the effect. And it is generally sant, if false. But the maxim “Quieta non held that some radically new mode of printmovere," went out of practice when Lord ing must be adopted.' Many efforts have Melbourne died. Meteorology, like an- already been made to supply this defect, thropology, shares with photography the but the measure of success hitherto gained advantages of novelty. Both are things of has been very small. One plan, however, yesterday. But the former has gradually known as the Carbon Process, that depends been relegated to learned societies, and on the reduction of carbon from a solution few bright eyes deign to study the columns of gelatine, is perfect in theory. And the of daily journals, and “the sweetest lips results are in every way satisfactory. The that ever were kissed” no longer whisper prints are clear, vigorous, of a good colour, confidence in to-morrow's weather on the and, above all, perfectly permanent. Unstrength of the puzzling hieroglyphics in fortunately, the practical difficulties in the the morning's 'imes. Meteorology has way of working the process bave hitherto had more than its due proportion of fail- been found almost insurmountable. It is ures, and the enthusiasm of those who were not likely to be ever generally adopted. cager advocates of the new science has It requires so large an amount of skill and cooled down. But all those who are care- time that only enterprising amateurs have, less on similar subjects will take interest in for the most part, availed themselves of it. the rapid advances of photography. And The well-known Wothlytype Process bases it so happens that no science can boast of a its claims to popular favour on the permaswifter progress. It is seldom that a nence of its prints. It has never, however, month passes without the announcement of been well received by the photographic some fresh discovery more or less impor- world. Some deny its merits; others astant. And every addition to the thorough sert that its productions are rather deficient knowledge of the subject is important, if in brilliancy and beauty. It has certainly not in itself, at least as paving the way for not succeeded in winning its way against future investigations.
the opposition that it excited from the first. The attention of photographers is, at the A process of this kind can only be thorpresent time, specially directed to attaining oughly tested by time. But the universal one object. It is generally known that in opinion at present is, that the field is still the process by which photographs are open for a perfect method of printing. usually produced, a picture on glass is first Most photographers indulge in one dayobtained from which any number of proofs dream. It has the same charm for them may be printed off on paper. It unfortu- that the elixir vitæ and the philosopher's nately happens that these prints do not stone had for the old alchymists. The possess permanence. They gradually fade, vision that so temptingly displays itself to first losing their glossy blackness and the imagination of the enthusiast is the sharpness of outline; then all their early hope of discovering a method of photobrillianey dies away, they assume a yellow graphing colours. It must be allowed that tinge, and in time entirely disappear. Any there are excuses for the raptures that the one glancing over an album can convince idea excites. It would be a final triumph himself of this. Those portraits that have of science if the sun could be made to been taken some few years since contrast very transfer to paper the thousand brilliant unfavourably with those that have been tints that are seen in nature, and that mock lately taken. It is a cause for especial re- at the efforts of the artist to reproduce gret, for carte-de-visite portraits gain in them on canvas. And there are hopes that value with age. It happens, too often, the idea is not entirely chimerical. In fact, that death leaves no remembrance of parent most men who have paid attention to the or child, friend or lover, except a portrait subject hold that the realization of this that, in so many cases, becomes of price- I brilliant idea is only a question of time.
Part of an Article in The Churchman's Family | celled. Miss Mitford, speaking of "Jeannie Magazine.
Morrison,” and others of his lyrical pieces, WILLIAM MOTHERWELL.
says:-"Burns is the only poet with whom, A YEAR after Burns's death, William Mo- for tenderness and pathos, Motherwell can therwell was born. His parents owned a be compared. The elder bard has written small estate in Stirlingshire, and to this cir- much more largely, is more various, more cumstance was he indebted for his liberal fiery, more abundant; but I doubt if there education, watched over by an uncle in be anything so exquisitely finished, so free Paisley.
from a line too many, or a word out of Of his earlier years we have no record; place, as the two great ballads of Motherbut at the age of twenty we find him Sher- well. By touching and retouching during iff Clerk Depute, in Paisley, the responsi- many years did Jeanie Morrison attain ble duties of which situation he for three her perfection, and yet how completely has years discharged to everybody's satisfaction. art concealed art! How entirely does that All the while, however, his tastes lay in a charming song appear like an irrepressible different direction, and, in 1828, he became gush of feeling that would find vent! In editor of the “ Paisley Advertiser,” to the - My Heid is like to rend, Willie,' the appoet's corner of which he had previously pearance of spontaneity is still more strikcontributed several of his best poems. The ing, as the passion is still more intense same year he also undertook the editorship intense, indeed, almost to painfulness." of the "Paisley Magazine," wherein ap A poem or two taken at random, we peared, from time to time, various of his think, will be acceptable to our readers. Iyrical effusions, as also sundry compositions in prose. In 1830, he resigned his
MAY MORN SONG. clerkship, confining his attention solely to
The grass is wet with shining dews, bis literary pursuits and to the management Their silver bells hang on each tree, of the “Glasgow Courier,” a newspaper of While opening flower and bursting bud considerable local influence and repute. Breathe incense forth unceasingly. This situation he held till his death, retain The mavis pipes in greenwood shaw ing to the last the general respect of society, The throstle glads the spreading thorn, with the hearty good will and wishes of his And cheerily the blythsome lark many friends.
Salutes the rosy face of morn. His death was sudden and unexpected.
"Tis early prime: On the evening of the 1st of November,
And hark! hark! hark ! 1835, he had been dining in the city (Glas
His merry chime gow), and after his return, feeling oppressed
Chirrups the lark; and unwell, he went to bed. From that
Chirrup! chirrup! he heralds in couch he never rose again. Through the
The jolly sun with matin hymn. night, speech failed, and in spite of all the
Come, come, my love ! and May-dews shake medical assistance obtained, this sweet sing
In pailfuls from each drooping bough, er died at the early age of thirty-eight
They'll give fresh lustre to the bloom years. Among bis more intimate friends
That breaks upon thy young cheek now. the poet's company was much sought after :
O'er hill and dale, o'er waste and wood but in general society he was reserved, sel Aurora's smiles are streaming free; dom or
never taking part in the conversation, With earth it seems brave holiday, unless poetry became the theme of the In heaven it looks high jubilee, evening
Aad it is right, As a poet, Motherwell was, perhaps, de
For mark, love, mark ! ficient in that robust vigour of pinion nec
How bathed in light essary for long and sustained flights. But
Chirrups the lark: in the utterances of the heart, in natural
Chirrup! chirrup ! he upward flies, gushes of feeling, and in rich mental and
Like holy thoughts, to cloudless skies. poetical sympathy with the sights and sounds of living nature, few have risen to
They lack all heart who cannot feel an equal pathos, and a descriptive beauty
The voice of heaven within them thrill,
In summer morn, when mounting high more touching and telling. Many of his
This merry minstrel sings his fill. pieces are of exquisite beauty, and the Ivrics of " Jeannie Morrison ” and “My
Now let us seek yon bosky dell
Where brightest wild flowers choose to be, Peid is like to rend, Willie,” will rank with
And where its clear stream murmurs on any similar compositions in the English lan
Meet type of our love's purity : guage. In a soft, melancholy, and touch
No witness there, ing tenderness they have never been ex
And o'er us, hark ;
High in the air
It's vain to comfort me, Willie,
Sair grief maun hae its will;
But let me rest upon your breist
To sab and greet my fill :
Let me shed by your hair,
And look into the face, Willie,
I never sall see mair.
I'm sittin' on your knee, Willie, The midnight wind doth sigh,
For the last time in my life. Like some sweet plaintive melody
A puir, heart-broken thing, Willie, Of ages long gone by !
A mither, yet nae wife; It speaks of a tale of other years
Aye, press your hand upon my heart,
And press it mair and mair,
Or it will burst the silken string
Sae strang is its despair.
A stoun gaes thro' my head, Willie, This midnight wind doth moan,
A sair stoun thro' my heart It stirs some chord of memory
Oh! haud me up and let me kiss In each dull, heavy tone;
Thy brow ere we twa pairt.
Anither, and anither yet! The voices of the much-loved dead
How fast my lifestrings break; Come floating thereupon
Fareweel ! fareweel ! thro' yon kirkyard All, all my fond heart cherished
Step lichtly for my sake! Ere death had made it lone.
The lav'rock in the lift, Willie, Mournfully ! oh, mournfully
That lilts far ower our head, This midnight wind doth swell
Will sing the morn as merrillie With its quaint, pensive minstrelsy —
Above the clay-cauld deid; Hope's passionate farewell,
And this green turf we're sitting on
Wi' dewdrops shimmerin' sheen, To the dreamy joys of early years,
Will hap the heart that luvit thee
As warld has seldom seen.
But, oh, remember me, Willie,
On land where'er ye be-
That ne'er luvit ane but thee !
And oh, think on the cauld, cauld mools MY HEID IS LIKE TO REND, WILLIE.
That fill my yellow hair My heid is like to rend, Willie,
That kiss the cheek, and kiss the chin
Yet never sall kiss mair.
I've wander'd east, I've wander'd west, And sick wi' a' I see;
Through mony a weary way; I canna live as I hae lived,
But never never can forget Or be as I should be.
The luve o life's young day! But fauld unto your heart, Willie,
The fire that's blawn on Beltane e'en The heart that still is thine
May weel be black gin Yule : And kiss ance mair the white, white cheek But blacker fa' awaits the heart Ye suid was redl langsyne.
Where first fond luve grows cule. O dinna mind my words, Willie,
O dear, dear Jeanie Morrison, I downı seek to blame;
The thochts o' bygıne years But, O! it's hard to live, Willie,
Still Aling their shadows ower my path, And dree a cold warld's shame;
And blind my een w' tears : Het tears are hailin' o'er your cheek
They blind my een with saut, saut tears, And hailin' o'er your chin;
And sair and sick I pine, Why weep ye sue for worthlessness,
As memory idly summons up For sorrow and for sin ?
The blythe blinks o' langsyne.