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Absolute pressure of
the steam in pounds
per square inch.

Volume of one pound
of steam in cubic feet.

Velocity into the at-
mosphere in feet per
second of density, e.
Velocity into the at-
mosphere in feet per
second of density, .

Locomo

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In equation (2) w equals the weight of one And when 2 = 14.7 the maximum flow of nearly touches the valve a. When the valve cubic foot of steam at pressure p, and in (2) and steam is delivered when the pressure in the lifts by the steam in the boiler being only slightly (3) c equals the pressure of the atmosphere, or boiler is 371b. absolute.

in excess of the weight on the valve, very little any pressure of steam less than p. The value of vin (2) and (3) is the maximum

TABLE II.

steam passes; but if the steam continues to in.

crease in pressure, the valve a is forced open, velocity of flow when the expansive action of the

so that a passage equal, or nearly so, to the area steam is taken into account, and represents the

Data.

of the valve is opened, and the steam is thereby rate of flow when the density of steam passing

Area of safety-valve prevented from increasing in pressure by being through the aperture is oonsidered as equivalent

opening in square discharged from the boiler, from which we see to steam at pressure o.

inches per square Bat if we require the velocity of flow of steam

foot of fire-grate.

that this small valve is at least twenty times as

efficient as one of the diso kind five times its of the same density as that in the boiler, we

diameter. have :

It is well known that during the night, as well V: V.::S:S;

Station

as at other times, the steam in boilers will rise tives. and blow off from the safety valves, and often

Marine.
...v
(4),

at a considerable pressure above that at which

the valve is weighted, which in the case of old where v, is the velocity of the steam issuing at

or strained boilers is very dangerous, and often the density of that in the boiler. and s, the volume 14.7 26.5000

has been the cause of the most disastrous exploin cubic feet of one pound of steam at pressure

20 19.7133 1017 757 .1563

sions ; for the fireman looks often to the safety. 2. and s the volume of one pound at preasure p.

25 15.9801 1374 829 ,1157

valve alone, without noticing the steam-gauge,

30 Hence

13,4602 1606 816 .0990

and sometimes gauges get wrong as much as 35 11,6413 1782

.0892

201b., in which cases, when they happen together,
40 10.2665 1928 747 .0824
V=-.96
196 . loge

1
(5) 45 9.1905 2046

.0777

the greatest danger is to be apprehended where S.

8.3222 2148 676.0740 .3500

the common safety-valve is used ; but if one or 60 7.0099 2318 613 .0685 .3425

two of these small valves had been placed on the 70 6.0640 2455

.0643 .3215 boiler the excessive pressure would have been p

(7) V=-.7392.5

80 5.3479 2569 518 .0619 .3095 prevented. The construction of these valves is Si

90 4.7874 2667

.0596 .2980 such that they are not liable to stick, and being Now qs=the volume of steam to be de. 100 4.3351 2753 451 ,0576 .2880 small, and requiring comparatively about twenty livered, of the same density as that in the boiler,

3.6515 2898

.0549 .2725 times less weight, are better to handle and through the aperture a; therefore,

130 3.3870 2961

.0536 .2680

cheaper, as well as more efficient, than the large 150 2.9600 3070 343 .0518 .2590

unwieldly valves used for high pressures, never (7) 200 2.2582 3283

.0472 .2360
UL
300 1.5419 3573 278 | .0450

requiring to be greater than about 1 in. diameter

.2250 Substituting the value of

for high-pressure boilers, and often not more than from (1), and

9 making k the co-efficient of contraction, we

If we have a boiler of the stationary or marine lin. diameter. For agricultural steam.engine have :

class containing 32 square feet of firegrate, and boilers this valve need not exceed lin. diameter,

the pressure, p, in the boiler is not to exceed and would liberate as much steam as the boiler cfes

(8),

80lb. absolute, or 65lb. above the atmosphere, could produce at 50lb. pressure. For locomok

we have in column a, opposite 80lb., the valué tive boilers the diameter of the valve need not which will give the area in square inches of .0619, which, being multiplied by the area of exceed 14in., and for the excessively large staaperture through which the steam issues into the the firegrate, gives

tionary boilers 2in. diameter will suffice, and in atmosphere, so that no danger may arise from

32 x .0619 = 1.9808

many cases lin. diameter will be ample. For over pressure, This area is not the area of the safety valve: safety-valve for the passage of steam from the but in many cases 1ķin. diameter will be suffisquare inches as the area of the aperture in the class of valve need not exceed 2in. diameter,

marine boilers, where the pressure is low, this but the area of that portion of it which is open to boilers into the atmosphere. the atmosphere for the issue of steam. Before we can find the value of a, we require safety valve knows that, when the steam is blow. Aoat inside the boiler, and for that purpose need

Anyone who has observed the common lever water valve by the application of a lever and

cient. This valve is also applied to act as a low. the other values of the right-hand member of ing off under the action of a hot fire, and no not exceed 1țin. diameter, but in the majority the equation (5) which are to be taken as other exit open in the boiler for the escape of of cases lio. will be sufficient. Several of these follows: Make f

steam, the valve rises very little from its = one square foot, = 20 for stationary and marine boiler, must rise ·103in. from its seat to make the area will take a piece of writing-paper about lin. seat; in fact, if the valve be 5in. in diameter, it valves are at work, and have been experimented

upon and found to be very efficient. If any one c= 100 for locomotive boilers, e = 6lb. of water evaporated per pound a 32 square feet grate, the pressure being 80lb. Lead of a common tobacco pipe, and insert in

of exit equal to 1.98in., as given by the table for diameter, ard place it on the open part of the of coal, absolute. It is very probable that if this

valve the paper three small pins as guides, he will = .8. These may be taken as constants in (5), which pressure would rise at least to 901b. before the off the pipe by blowing down the stem. This

was weighted to sólb. on the square inch, the find it utterly impossible to blow the paper diso for stationary and marine boilers becomes valve lifted •103in.; and if the valve be of the simple experiment gives us a good insight into 6 s

disc kind, the pressure might rise to 1001b. before the nature of safety valves of the disc class. (A)

the valve lifted •103 in. To prevent the increase
of pressure in steam boilers it is necessary to

have a safety-valve that will open sufficiently to
(9).

prevent much increase of pressure over and above THE CRYSTAL PALACE FIRE. Now s may be taken from the experiment of that at which the valve is weighted to blow off,

LECTURE was recently delivered at the Messrs. Fairbairn and Yate, or calculated by the and, at the same time, not

open too large an area following formula: for the escape of steam. It has been shown that

Royal Institution by Mr. Scott Russell an opening of 1:98 square inch will prevent the upon the fire at the Crystal Palace. He divided 330.36 p

(10)
detrimental increase of pressure in a boiler the subject into three heads—first

, a considera. which gives nearly the same results. We have no experiments for the values of v, or solute pressure within the boiler of solb. per under the present circumstances is best to be having an area of firegrate of 32 ft., and an ab. tion of the mechanical construction of the build

ing; secondly, the fire itself; and, lastly, what v, but we know that when the formula here given square inch. for v, applied to the apertures for admission of A valve of the construction shown in the above done. Tracing the rise of this class of structure steam to the cylinders of steam engines, the velo. figure, having a diameter of 1{in., and weighted from its primary conception by Sir Joseph city of steam calculated by the formula (5) or (6) to 801b. on the square inch, will, before that Paxton to its practical realisation in the Great agrees with practical results, or, in other lan- pressure can be exceeded 116., lift sufficiently Exhibition of 1851, and its still further developguage,

to open an aperture equal, or nearly so, to 1.98 ment as the “Crystal Palace” on Sydenham V, a= VA

(11) square inches; whilst a valve of the common kind Hill, Mr. Russell explained the simple principles where is the velocity of the steam, a the area above the working pressure before it would lift source of the fire was attributed to the genera

would allow the steam to increase at least 101b. of its lightness, rigidity, and strength. The of the aperture allowed by the valve for admis- sufficiently to open an equal aperture. The valve tion of volumes of gas from too much coal being sion to the cylinder, and V the velocity of the piston, A being its area. a is a solid of revolution, or a portion of it, a

used in banking up the fires that heated the tro. This being the case, sphere being sufficient so that it may have the pical court:

Finally, considering the value of we may presume fairly that the data are experi- chance of moving occasionally on its seat ; 6 is the magnificent collections contained in this mentally sufficient, and that no purely theore- the opening from the boiler, c' being a guard beautiful building, their intrinsic value as repres

which the d passes

The sentatives of some of the best works of art in all and , , , in equation (6), we get the values of a given in the

also the great value, both morally and educationtable, also of a, for locomotives, which is simply

ally, of these collections upon the mass of people a 5a ... (12)

who found at Sydenham innocent and advanThe values of v, will be found to decrease with

tageous enjoyment, that such a loss as had been the pressure after passing its maximum, cor

sustained was well worthy the assistance of Goresponding to

vernment to repair. But, as Mr. Russell wittily

observed, the people are the Government in .54496,

England, and therefore he thought the best

thing they could do was to help the directors to (13)

either by a lover and weight or direct. The put up again what remained, and replace what .54496

valve-seating projects as shown at e, and very had been destroyed.

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The following table will give us the values of s valve sa ish weighted in the grdinarge manner, parts of the earth, and of all periods,

especially

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cannon,

OUR NATIONAL DEFENCES.-FORTS hitherto received that amount of consideration under those circumstanoes, be protected from AND FORTIFICATIONS. which it deserves.

corrosion by zino sheathing; and another for

The forts required for the defence of our shores coastal and land works proper, both of which Then came materiam tad l'ultimately find

somit in the roan sar do they may be placed at bor hear NHE present is admittedly the age of iron; are obviously of two kinds--they may be built should have distinct and separate iron embra

sures for every one of their guns, each separate versal employment in all classes of military upon the shore ; in both cases they will beli able embrasure being in itself a complete covered defences as entirely as it has done already in the to the concentrated attack of an anrestricted iron fort, perfectly protecting the gun and the naval departments. If the effects of the im. number of ships armed with a great number of detail of men, and so constructed that all the mense and extraordinarily powerful artillery of heavy guns. The weight and number of these parts should be redoplications of a correct type, the day could be provided against by any in- guns carried by a ship must over necessarily be that those of one fort should be interchangeable crease of dimensions, height, thickness, or soli: limited by the flotation power of the vessel ; but with the corresponding portions of any other, dity of brick, stone, or earthworks, the duty of there can be no limit whatever to the thickness so that the damage done to any important emproviding sufficiently defensible forts and forti- of the iron plates by which coastal and land brasure in action might be made good at the exfications might be, in all confidence, left to the batteries can be defended. The fair assumption pense of any one of its neighbours; thus carrying consideration of the Royal Engineers and mili- is, for these and many other reasons, that water- out the principle recognised as so sound and so tary officers educated and trained in the schools borne and land.conveyed artillery have not only important in the manufaoture of small arms, and of Vauban and Cormontaigne. It might in that practical but an actual limit; whilst the defen- which is as possible in the larger structures of case be deemed assumptive on the part of civi- sive iron armour of a fortress is illimitable, and fortifications

under adequate engineering skill. liang to criticise the plans proposed ; and possibly the security of its guns can be provided for to The first point, then, in our estimation for few people would be at all disposed to listen to any extent that money can be found. Evidently consideration in the initiative of iron fortifications any suggestions, or to consider any novel designs the use of iron must be greatly restricted, on is to devise an efficient covered embrasure which from non-military men. As it is, bowever, the account of expense, and one of the primary con- shall extend from the inner side of the sand officers of the Royal Engineers and the men of siderations, therefore, will be to do with a little rampart or embankment to the exterior in a the various military departments are placed at as possible. The enormous range of the modern gradually diminishing shape, widest at the rear such a decided disadvantage with respect to civil rifled artillery will evidently render necessary and narrowest in front, and the iron roof of engineers and the practical manufacturers of defensive works of the greatest geographical which shall also diminish in height and form an wrought and other kinds of iron, that it must extent; and this need is strikingly shown in the inclined surface towards the front, so that the almost necessarily be from these classes, instead enormous length of the works now being con. exposed surface through which the gun's muzzle of from amongst those trained especially to the structed around our great naval station at Ports. protruded should be in every way of the smallest art of besieging and defending fortified places, mouth. Indeed, taking the range of modern ar- possible area. that those improvements must come which are tillery as being thoroughly effective at two miles

All the propositions we have contended for at this time imperatively demanded for securing distance, it would seem almost according to reafortresses against the tremendous assaults of the son that'a circle of twelve miles of fortified works are striotly

possible, and it must not be supposed concentrated fire of such potent weapons as the would be necessary to defend such a place if its these ideas; on the contrary, it is only after 9.inch Woolwich rified

Granite actual dimensions were no more than a mather having carefully studied the most important failed at Sebastopol against less powerful arms, matical point, and that these twelvo miles of modern experiments at home and abroad, that and brick and granite likewise came to grief at fortified works must be still further increased, in we have arrived at those results we have here Fort Samter. That mere earthworks could not the proportion of three to one, for the actual propounded for consideration. Practically, if stand, pomerous examples in the late American dimensions of the place defended; or, in other granite or brickwork be combined with irou the and other modern wars could readily be cited to words, that the defensive works must be in pro- resulting work is only as strong as the line of prove; whilst the service done by iron in the portion to the place defended as the circum- least resistance, that is, as the granite or the mere rudimentary expedients adopted by the ference of a circle is to its diameter. Sand is the brickwork. There can be no mechanical combi. Chilians at Callao against the Spanish attack is material of which such extended lines would be nation between these materials and the iron; sufficient evidence to show not only the import- best constructed. No one would dream of using and even when faced with armour the granite or ance but the necessity of employing iron for manufactared iron over such an extent; nor is brick is pounded behind the plates, and the coast and harbour defences. Nor will it be found it necessary, the reason for the preference given whole fabrio crumbles under the smashing im. that iron will be less valuable when employed in to sand being that it runs together by its own pact of the missiles—as witness how quickly and certain limited quantities in a proper manner for gravitation when holes are made in the embank- effectually ten shots at Shoeburyness reduced inland citadels and strongholds. Just as modern ments, and at once naturally fills up the gaps the work of many months to ruins. Will it be warfare has shown that results are produced in made by shot and shell. What is really wanted wise, then, of the War Office authorities to pre weeks and months which formerly took years to in modern fortifications is to construct the ex.

severe in the determination to erect at Plymouth accomplish, so hours and minutes suffice for the tended lines of sand and to intersperse at the inside the breakwater the powerful fort they conattainment of conclusive results in modern sieges. requisite intervals iron.covered embrasures for It is no longer possible to work the guns defend the gung. The primary idea of an iron fortifica: template on the

combined system of brickwork, inga fortress without substantial protection ; and tion, then, is that of a gigantic anvil, so mechani- granito, and iron, whilst they are in possession

What embrasures formed of earth or sand, of brick or cally arranged and so solid and massive that the those ten shots from the Woolwich 9-inch gun of granite, would by our present artillery be blows of projectiles may be pounded upon it with have done, the American 20.inch cannon would very quickly torn to pieces ; and such wrecks absolute impunity; and the main principles which even more easily and completely accomplish, whilst under attack could only be repaired by should govern the designs of modern iron forts and under the fire of either of these classes of exposing human life to sueh a terrifio fire as are that they should be made of sufficient strength powerful artillery the intended fort at Plymouth would

involve a most murderous sacrifice. More- to resist all shot and shell that the artillery of the would be absolutely untenable. The Americau over, if the defending artillery were silenced but present, or of the probable future, are likely to artillery would be even more destructive of for the brief space of ten, or at most of twenty harl, against them; that each fort should be so granite and brick than our own rifled guns, for minutes, it would be amply sufficient for the constructed as to offer the least possible frontage the shattering effect of a thousand-pound shot at assaulting troops to effect a lodgment within the and exposed surface to the enemy's fire, and not the lower velocity of 800ft

. or gooft. would be battery, and probably to take by storm the whole to be such target-like objects as they are present; vastly greater than that of the 300-pounder bolts of the fortress. No other material than iron can that the iroa casemates defending the guns and from our 9-inch weapons at the higher velocity possibly now secure the guns and gunners from ganners should have sufficient room inside them of 1,320ft. per second. the fire of an enemy. Russia has already com- for the men to work properly, with ease and

We have been led to the discussion of this menced to pioneer the entire change in the cha- comfort, and not to be cramped up as they are most important subject of iron forts and fortifi. racter of forts and fortifications in this direction, in existing brick and granite constructions, some cations by the intelligence we have received, that whilst, strange to note, England, the foremost of the most recent of which have been made early in the coming session of Parliament, it will country of iron-workers, has as yet scarcely upon the old formula designed for the 68-pounders, be moved that the several plans which have thought of using iron either in her coastal or her although they are to be armed with the newest 300 been adopted for the construction of our national land defences, although her ironmasters and and 600-pounder cannon; that all fortifications fortifications be referred to a select committee manufacturers are sending out large quantities of hereafter made of iron should be so constructed for their examination and report, and that the the materials required for the iron defences of that they could be removed from one site to committee be instructed to consider the question the great northern empire. Even so far as the another if circumstances absolutely required it; of fortifications generally, and especially the reRoyal Engineers of this country, and those other and that all the parts should be so arranged that lative advantages or disadvantages of using iron ofticials to whom are entrusted the design and they could be put together by onskilled labourers. execution of those admittedly required defences It is also essential that iron fortifications should or stone, either combined or separately, and to for which eleven millions of money have already be so constructed as to give the best possible re. report to the House thereon.

There is, therefore, every prospect, we hope, been voted and at least half as many more mil

. sistance with a given minimum weight of mates of this question receiving the fullest consideralions are about to follow, have as yet devised rial. This end can never be attained if they be tion, and we cannot doubt the result will be plans for such defences and pnt most important built up as we have seen the experimental struc the firmest conviction on all sides, that in every works into actual execution, they have used iron tures at Shoeburyness during the past five years, fortification for the future as applied to the de. only in the most restricted manner, and have that is, by putting one slab of iron upon another fence of the sea-board or of inland strongholds, seriously hampered its efficacy by conjoining it and bolting them together, as a carpenter would the artillery and gunners alike must be under with brick, granite, and concrete. And, just in nail so many thin flat planks to make up a given iron casemates, so as to be secure against, not through their adherence to those wooden ship- of an ordinary room would bear without bending vertical fire which has effected the fall of the failed to get the best results out of iron vessels weight which one of the flatly-laid fooring boards only the heaviest projectiles at horizontalrange, building principles in which they have been in- with what the same plank would susta n if set most stupendous fortified places attacked in stracted, so military engineers, educated in the edgewise like a joist or beam.

modern warfare. - Standard. knowledge of masonry and earthwork, still as. The coming iron fortifications—for come sooner Bociate thos, rotten materials with every new or later they must--will be, as we have said, of gaggestion made to them for the application of two kinds, one for exposed situations, such as mole- "The work of a thousand men for four years" iron. No material is comparable with that in- heads and detached forts rising directly out of the is the inscription upon the great railway bridge valuable metal for the purposes of strong and in- sea, like those at Spithead, and these should be across the Susquehanna River at Havre de Grace, destructible structures, and its sole use has not I made entirely of iron, and which material might, Maryland

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IMPROVEMENTS IN HYDRAULIC PUMPS. W which forms the subject of a patent which has been granted to Messrs. Bellhouse

FIG.4.

PIG.5. and Dorning, of Manchester, engineers. Their invention relates, first, to a peculiar arrangement and disposition of the pumps employed in hy. draulic engines, whereby the removal, cleansing, and fixing of the suction pipes of such pumps is rendered simple and more convenient than hitherto. The invention also relates to a pecu. liar disposition of valves employed to prevent a further supply of water to hydraulic presses from the pumps as soon as a certain pressure is obtained, to which the valve may be regulated and weighted. Besides the foregoing, the invention is designed for the purpose of supporting the large toothed driving wheel used to drive by. draulic pumps, so as to prevent the friction of the shaft from wearing the hole in the boss of the wheel unevenly. In the engraving fig. 1 represents an end elevation of the apparatus con

FIG.6: nected with hydraulic pumps, the cistern and brackets supporting the pumps being shown in section; fig. 2 represents a side elevation of the same, the pumps being arranged about half way between the entablatures in the ordinary manner; and fig. 3 represents an end elevation of the im. proved arrangement of the pumps, which are arranged along the sides of the cistern, thereby rendering the operation of cleaning, alterations, or repairs more convenient. Fig. 4 represents a novel arrangement of bracket or supports to be employed for supporting the toothed driving wheel in order to take the weight of the same off the continuously revolving driving shaft when the In figs. 1, 2, and 3 a a are the entablatures or platform are not necessary, and are dispensed clutch box is not in gear, and such wheel is not supports ; b b the pumps ; c the cistern; and d with when the pumps are disposed and arranged revolving, whereby the friction and wearing of the suction pipes. The different dispositions and in couples as in fig. 3. The delivery pipe of each the shaft and wheel boss is prevented when not arrangements of pumps (as shown in fige. 1 and pump in provided with a valve h, which is sup. required for driving; and fig. 5 represents a 3) are supplied with the same apparatus, there- ported on the bracket g, and weighted by means sectional elevation of the friction cone and driv- fore the letters of reference applying to one will of the levers k and weight i, so as to offer a given ing wheel; and fig. 6 a half elevation of the same. be similar on the other. The bracket or plat- resistance to the pressure of water actuating the These views illustrate the method and arrange form e supporting the pump b are provided to press. The pipel projecting from the suction ment adapted for readily placing and adjusting raise the pumps above the top of the cistern c, pipe d is provided with an air valve m, which the driving wheel upon the driving shaft, and for in order that the screws connecting the pumps consists of a small cylinder having an aperture inserting a "bush” in the boss of the wheel to with the suction pipes d d may be readily turned for the admission of air, which is covered by a make a proper fitting between the shaft and or attended to without removing any part of the hinged lid o, which is firmly retained upon its wheel without disarranging any other portion of cistern cover, the suction or feed pipes d being seating by means of the weighted lever k, to t he machine or removing the shaft from its bear. readily withdrawn from or inserted in the cistern which it is connected by the lovers and rod p as ngs; this wheel may be either used alone or in through the slot or opening f formed in the lid or long as the pressure of water is below the reopjunction with the supporting blocks. cover for the purpose. The slot and elevating sistance of the valve h, but when the pressure

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Building Materials, &c., Advertised in the “Building News.”

The “ Building News” is the widest circulated Journal of its class in the Kingdom.

Aberdeen Polished Granite-D. Willett, Agent, 404, Euston Road.

| Mineral Rock and Seyssel Asphalte Company, 13, Gresham Street. Aberdeen Polished Granite-James Wright, Aberdeen.

s Monuments, &o.-J. Wren, 38, Lower Belgrave Place, Pimlico. Advertising Agents-J. Willing and Co., 366, Gray's Inn Road.

Monuments, Chimneypieces, &c.-J. M'Cabe,

47, Euston Road. m Architectural Benevolent Society-J. Turner, Hon. Sec., 154, Wilton | Mortar Mills-T. Taylor, 41, White Street, Borough. Street, Grosvenor Place.

Museum of Building Appliances-9, Conduit Street, w. Architectural Decorations-J. de Vulder, 2, South Cottage, Wimbledon. y Ornamental Manufacturer–J. Parlby, 34, Rathbone Place, W. Architectural Decorations-W. Smart, 41, Clifton Street, Finsbury.

Painting Brushes Hamilton and Co., 10, Greek Street, Soho. Architectural Drawings-G. Childs, 21, Offord Road, N.

Paper and Envelopes-Partridge and Cooper, Fleet Street, E.C. Architectural Drawings-G. Northcroft, 2A, South Castle St., Liverpool. Parquetry-Howard and Sons, 27, Berners Street. Architectural Drawings-Vaughan & Deacon, Queen Insurance Buildings, Parquetry-London Parquetry Company, S, Grove Lane, Camberwell. Liverpool.

Patent Agents—Robertson, Brooman, and Co., 166, Fleet Street. Architectural Drawings-"Surveyor," 3, Hartley Villas, Croydon,

Patent Agent-M. A. Soul, 3, Leadenball Street, E.C. Asphalte-T. Harrison and Co., 4, New London Street.

Patent Buildings for Horticulture-_J. Cranston, 1, Temple Row West, s Bath Stone-Bath Stone Company (limited), Bath.

Birmingham, Bath Stone-Pictor and Son, Box, near Chippenham, Wilts.

Patent Cast-iron SinksJ. Jones and Sons, 6, Bankside. Bath Stone-Randell and Saunders, Corsham, Wilts.

Patent Door Springs---A. Smith, 69, Princes Street, Leicester Square. Bent Wood Furniture-G. Davenport, Ludgate Hill.

Patent Taps- Lambert and Son, Short Street, Lambeth,

(W.C. | Billing's Chimney Terminations--J. W. Tyler, 12, Abingdon St., S.W. | Patent Universal Chimney Head-Benham & Froud, 40, Chandos St., Blue Lias Stone-J. T. Harvey, Plymouth.

Polonceau & Seyssel Asphalte-J. Pilkington, 15, Fish Street Hill, E.C. Bricks-J. H. Andrews, Wisbech.

Portable Steam Engines Barrows and Carmichael, Banbury.
Bricks-Burham Brick and Lime Company, Sittingbourne, Kent.

| Portable Steam Pumping Engines-Burton, Sons, and Waller, John's Bricks—R. Langley, East Cowes, Isle of Wight.

Place, Holland Street. Brass and Bell Founders-Warner and Sons, 8, Crescent, Cripplegate. Portland Cement-Horrer, Marsh, and Co., Great Yarmouth. Caen & Aubigny Stone-Foucard Brothers, 10, Three Crown Ct., South- Reflector Manufactory-T. Fox, 90, Hatton Garden. Caen Stone B. Fabricotti, Carrara Wf., Thames Bank, Pimlico. [wark, Revolving Shutters-Bunnett and Co., 17, Queen Street, E.C. Carts, Ladders, &c.-G. Ell and Co., 366, Euston-road. [Goswell-road. Rolled Girders, Joists, &c. --Macnaught, Robertson, & Co., 5, Bankside. Cast-iron, &c.—Elliott, Blaxton, and llsley, Mount Mills, Seward St., Rolled Girders, Joists, &c.—M. T. Shaw, 141, Cannon Street. f Chimneypieces-W. H. Burke and Co., 142, Regent Street.

Roofing & Sheathing Felt-Engert & Rolfe, Upper Barchester St., Pops Chimneypieces, &c.-T. H. Hartley and Co., Earl Street, Lambeth,

lar New Town.

(S.E. Church Furniture-Cox and Son, 28, Southampton Street, Strand.

Roofing Slates & Slabs–J. Brindley, Penrhyn Wharf, Bermondsey Wall, Closet Pans, &c.-Lambert Brothers, Walsall.

Royal Polytechnic Institution, Regent Street. - Crystal Window Bars-Lloyd & Summerfield, Park Glass Works, | Scagliola Marble-Bellman & Ivey, 14, Buckingham St., Portland Rd. Birmingham.

I Scagliola Marble-G. Warren, 14, South Street, Westminster. (ter. Draught Excluder-T. Smith, 12, Queen Street, Oxford Street.

School Furniture-Sidebotham, Banks, & Co., 4, Albert St., Manches-
Enamel Varnish-W. Naylor, 4A, James Street, Oxford Street.

Serpentine-Lizard Serpentine Co., 24, St. James's Street, S.W.
Encaustic Pavement-G. G. H. M.Colla, 19, Parliament Street.

Shop Shutter Shoe-G. Jennings, Palace Wharf, Stargate.
Encaustic Tiles-T. and R. Boote, Waterloo Potteries, Burslem.

Shorthand-Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row. m Encaustic Tiles-Minton and Co., Stoke-on-Trent.

m Sink Traps,Tyo and Andrew, Brixton Road. Fibrous Plaster-G. Jackson and Son, 49, Rathbone Place, W.

Slates of all kinds—A. A. Robinson, 137, Fenchurch Street. m Fire Lump Grates-Edwards and Co., 49, Gt. Marlboro' Street

Stable Fittings-Cottam and Co., 2, Winsley Street. Flax Sash Lines—J. Austin and Sons, Princes Street, Finsbury.

Staffordshire Blue Paving Bricks-J. Unwin, 57, Nelson Square. Flooring, Deals, &c.-S. Putney, Elm Street, Gray's Inn Road.

Stained Glass Windows-Clayton and Bell, 300, Regent Street. Galvanised Iron Roofing Sheet-Morewood and Co., Dowgate Dock.

| Stained Glass Windows-Heaton, Butler, & Bayne, Garrick St., W.C. Galvanised Iron Tanks—Tupper and Co., 614, Moorgate Street.

s Stained Glass Windows-Lavers and Barraud, Endell Street, W.C.
Galvanised Iron Zinc-H. Vavasseur_and Co., Sumner St., Southwark. Staircase Joinery.-J. Walden, 12, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden.
Gas Chandeliers, Hall Lanterns, &r.-D. Hulett & Co., 55, High Holborn. Steam Engines--Ray, Mead, and Co., 38, Upper Thames Street.
Glazed Stoneware Drain Pipes-Doulton and Co., Lambeth.

Steam Sawing Works-Canterbury Road, Kilburn.
Glazed Stoneware Drain Pipes-Gillingham Pottery Co., Gillingham.

Stone, Granite, and Slate-W. and J. Freeman, 27, Millbank Street. m Glazed Stoneware, &c.—Standing and Marten, Nine Elms.

Stoneware Closet Pans-Doulton and Watts, Lambeth. | Gothic Metal Worker-W. Shrivell, 1a, Castle Street, Long Acre.

Straps for Machinery-Tanded Leather Co., 81, Mark Lane, E.C. Granite, &c.-D. H. J. Newall, Dalbeattie, near Dumfries.

| Substitute for Paint-H. Stephens, 18, St. Martin's le Grand. Granite, &c.-Freeman and Cheesewring Granite Company, Plymouth. Tar Pavement-W. Wright, 32, Bucklersbury. Granite

Paving-Port Nant Granite Company, 14, Chatham Place, E.C. Terro-metallic Tiles-T. Peake, the Tileries, Tunstall. Hinge Manufactory-S. & F. Gerish, East Buttesland Street, East Road, Tesselated Pavement-Maw and Sons, Brosely, Salop. Hinge Manufactory-B. Slater, 68, Charles Street, City Road.

Tiles and Firebricks J. Newton and Co., 80, Bankside. Hoffmann's Patent Kiln-H. Chamberlain, 3, St. John's, Wakefield.

Timber, Deals, &c.-A. Carter and Co., Old Bethnal Green Road. Improved Cistern Filter-T. Atkins and Sons, 62, Fleet Street.

Timber, Deals, &c.-J. and A. Rosling, Southwark Bridge. Improved Revolying Shutters-Francis and Co., 174, Gray's Inn Road. Timber, Mouldings, &c.-Clerihew and Lascelles, 121, Bunhill Row. | Iron Columns, &c.-Jones and Co., 156, Goswell Road.

Timber, Mouldings, &c.-Esdaile and Co., Wenlock Basin, City Road. Iron Girders, Joists, &c.-W. and T. Phillips, 25, Coal Exchange, E.C.

Turkey and Indian Carpets-Watson, Bontor, & Co., 35, Old Bond St. Iron Staircases-Cottam and Co., 2, Winsley Street.

Universal Joiner-W. Sketchley, Engineer, Weymouth. Jennings's Shop Shutter Shoes-H.T. Fisher, agent, 140, Fleet St., E.C. Ventilation-Hayward, Brothers, 187, Union Street, Borough. Ketton Stone-T. Turner, Empingham.

Verandahs-Cottam and Co., 2, Winsley Street. s Ladders and Scaffolding-H. Matthews, 325, Euston Road.

| Vieille Montagne Zinc-Braby and Co, Fitzroy Works, Euston Road, Lee's Self-Oiling Iron Cocks-H. T. Fisher, 140, Fleet Street, E.C.

Vieille Montagne Zinc-J. W. Tyler, 12, Abingdon Street. Lighterage-C. Strutton, 34, Commercial Road, Lambeth.

Wainscot - J, Coumbe, Lady Lake's Grove, Mile End. (Maddox St., W. Lime and Cement-G. Allen, Danvers Wharf, Chelsea.

(Rd. Warming & Ventilating Apparatus-D. O. Boyd, 9, Conduit St., & 23, Lime and Cement-Coles, Shadbolt, & Co., St. James Wf., Caledonian Warming & Ventilating Apparatus-London Warming & Ventilating Lime,Cement, &c.-W. Hawker, Belmont Wharf, York Rd., King's Cross.

Co., 12, Abingdon St., Westminster. Lithography-G. H. Bartlett, 5, Great Queen Street, Westminster.

Welsh Roofing Slates-W. O. Carter, 12, Sonth John Street, Liverpool. Lithography-Whiteman and Bass, 236, High Holborn.

Wholesale Ironmonger-Hart & Co., 70, 71, & 72 ,Brook St., Hanover Little Casterton Freestone-0. N. Simpson, Stamford.

Wholesale Ironmonger-J. Moore, 122, Euston Road.

[Square. Locks-Chubb and Son, 54, St. Paul's Churchyard.

Window Glass-W. Bell, 42, High Street, Camden Town. | Locks, Machine-made, Lever-Hobbs, Hart, and Co., 76, Cheapside. Window Glass-J. Hetley, 35, Soho Square. Mansfield Stone-R. Lindley, Mansfield.

Window Glass-W. H. Jackson, 315, New Oxford Street. Marble-G, Mitchell, 166, Brompton Road.

Wood-working Machinery-Markall, Union Street, Whitechapel. Marble Chimneypieces-Continental Marble Co., 7, Wilson St., Finsbury. Wood-working Machinery-Powis, James, & Co., Vine St., York Rd., Marble Chimneypieces-R. Spraggs, Ford Street, Bow, E. [Sheffield.

Lambeth. m Measuring Tapes J. Chesterman and Co., Bow Works, Ecclesall Rd,, Wood-working Machinery - Worssam & Co., 304, King's Rd., Chelsea, Mediæval Metal Workers-Brawn and Downing, 64, Clement Street. Wrought-iron Pipes-Hulett and Co., 55, High Holborn. Birmingham. (W.C. Wrought-iron Tanks—Burney and Co., Millwall.

[St. Mediæval Metal Workers-Hardman and Co., 13, King William Street, | Wrought-iron Wine Bins-Farrow & Jackson, 18, 17, & 16, Gt. Tower Mediæval Metal Workers-Johnston Brothers, 190, High Holborn, W.C. Wrought-iron Window Frame-Burt & Potts, 38, York St., Westminster.

Mediaval Metal Workers-Peard and Jackson, 159, High Holborn, W.C. Yorkshire Stone-H. George and Co., Caen Wharf, Rotherhithe.
J. Metallic Tiles-Garrett Brothers, Burslem.

s Zinc Manufacturers—Treggon and Co., 22, Jewin Street.
s indicates that the Advertisement appears Fortnightly, and the letter m that it appears Monthly.

The “ Building News” is the organ of the Architectural Arts and the Building Trades.

The following Auctioneers Advertise regularly in the “ Building News." Chinnock and Galsworthy, 11, Waterloo Place. Geo. Haines, 12, Grosvenor Street West, S.W. Rushworth, Jarvis, & Abbott, 22, Saville Row. Debenham, Tewson, & Farmer, 80, Cheapside. Lerew & Lerew, 2, Cardington st., Hampstead rd. Smith, D., Son, & Oakley, 10, Waterloo Place. Driver and Co., 4, Whitehall, S.W. H. E. Marsh, 2, Charlotte Row, E.C.

Whittingham, W. E., 14, Moorgate Street.
Freeman, H. and'Co., 3, Crooked Lane, E.C. Moxon, 3, St. Martin's Place, w.C.

Taylor, J., 79, Fenchurch Street.
Fuller and Horsey, 13, Billiter Street, E.C. Norton and Trist, 62, Old Broad Street, E.C. Fox & Bousfield, Gresham Street, E.C.
Glasier and Sons, 41, Charing Cross.

Pullen, Horne, & Evorsfield, 80, Fore St., E.C. Vigers, Frederick's Place, Old Jewry.

Contents of Numbers 626, 627, and 628. THE BUILDING NEws of January 4, price 3d., THE BUILDING NEWS of January 11, price 3d., THE BUILDING News of January 18, price 3d., contajns-Illustrations of Druries, Harrow; contains Illustrations of Honolulu Cathedral, contains-Illustrations of St. George's Church, and Llandaff Probate Registry. And Articles Hawaii; and Model Lodging-houses, St. Ann's, Tufnell Park, Holloway ; and Sketches of Veneon-The Engineering of 1866; Works in Soho. And Articles on The National Gallery tan Architecture. And Articles on-Art Workthe Provinces, 1866; Painted Decorations; the Competition; The New Law Courts' Competi- mianship at the Society of Arts; Horticulture at Losses of the Year; Myers's Draw Knob; tion; Our Hospitals; Useful Information for the Paris Exhibition ; Water Supply of LonLlandaff Probate Registry; Druries, Harrow; Engineers; Preservation of Wood in Damp and don; The Gates of Old London ; Society of Improved Wood Screw; Chimney Sweeping; Wet Situations; Exeter Diocesan Architectural Arts-Prizes to Art Workmen ; Domestic Fires; New National Gallery ; Parliamentary Legisla- Society; The Society of Antiquaries of Scot. New York Underground; A Tea Party and a tion for the Metropolis during 1866; Natural land; Metal Work; Archæological ; Earth Testimonial; Stamford Church EmbellishSystems of Architecture; Notices of Publica- Closets ; Monument to President Lincoln; ments; The New Courts of Justice ; Improved tions; Dwellings for the Poor; Chapel Building Honolulu Cathedral, Hawaii; Destruction by Combination Tool; St. George's Church, Tuf-the Theatre Model; the Remains of Ancient Fire of Croydon Church ; Model Lodging-houses, nell Park, Holloway; Sketches of Venetian Art; Fire at the Crystal Palace ; Personal ; the St. Ann's, Soho; Granite Piers for Blackfriars Architecture; Smallpox-Dirt and Neglect; Wages and Short Time Movement; Water Bridge; the Street-Cleaning Question ; Evicted Improved Dwellings for the Poor; Paris ExhiSupply and Sanitary Matters ; Legal Intelli- Tenants; Art Education; Raphael and His bition - Architectural Committee; The Degence; Modern Architecture; The General Works; Strikes and Trade Unions ; the Bir- signs for the New National Gallery : Edinburgh Credit Company; Intercommunication; Build. mingham Architectural Society-Annual Meet. Architectural Association; Yorkshire Architecing Intelligence ; Stained Glass; Statues, Me- ing; Liverpool Architectural Society ; Northern tural Society; The Late Edwin Stirling, Sculp morials, &c.; General Items ; Meetings for the Architectural Association_Annual Meeting ; tor; England and the Paris Exhibition ; PerWeek ; Patents for Inventions ; Trade News; Jerusalem ; Election of a Surveyor for Co- sonal ; The Designs for the New Courts of Law; Title and Index to BUILDING NEWS, Vol. XIII. ventry; and the News of the Week.

and the News of the Week.
Advertisements are inserted in the “ BUILDING NEWS” at 6d. per line. If for more than

Six Insertions, by special contract.
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