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STORM WARNINGS.

Association for the Advancement of Science met never to have occurred to the scientific committee THE HE question of storm warnings has of late at Aberdeen under the presidency of the Prince nor to the Board of Trade that it would require attracted considerable attention, and some

Consort, and, the question being brought before scientific meteorologists at all the ports and wodomiernie centrictures have been pronounced inplications then desbered above their he council that she is certa de interpretine beste

in dicatione etiopende in have also arisen contentions as to the originator Government for an organisation and trial of a fact, with'ability to do that which the scientific of storm warnings—as is sure to be the case with plan by which the approach of storms might be committeó shrink from attempting themselves. anything when its utility stands beyond a doubt. telegraphed to distant localities. At two meet. But such men are not to be found at many of the Having recently discussed this subject we are not ings in Buckingham Palace early the following outports, and especially at the fishing stations ; now going to reopen the question but simply to year (1860), minutes were authorised on this and even if they were, it is not to be expected give the substance of a recent discussion thereon, subject, and correspondence ensued which re- that they would voluntarily undertake onerous which took place at a recent meeting of the sulted in establishing a telegraphic communica- duties which ought to be discharged by a com. Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. tion of meteorological facts between twenty home petent public officer appointed by the Board of The inatter is so much to the point that we stations, besides foreign ones.

Trade. The scientific committee are

re unwilling refrain from comment thereon at present,

“When the British Association met at Oxford in to issue storm warnings because they are not although we ahall have something to say upon July, 1860, a paper was read by Admiral Fitzroy prepared with a system of forecasting founded an the general subject hereafter. At the meeting in on the measures proposed for meteorological å strictly scientific basis ; but this is no valid question Mr. Baxendell read the fɔllowing letter, telegraphy, which obtained approval without reason for allowing them to abolish the late addressed by T. H. Babington, Esq., to G. Veliciting any opposition. Advancing gradually, system, which was working so well for the Vernon, F.R.A.S., and dated Langley, 13th Feb., the first cautionary or storm-warning signals interests of science, commerce, and napigation, 1867:-“You have been kind enough to send me were made early in 1861-on the 5th and 6th of until they are prepared with something better to a copy of a letter recently received by yourself February. In further confirmation of the replace it. And it must be borne in mind that from Dr. Buys Ballot, of Utrecht, in which the hitherto undisputed fact that it is to the zeal and it will not in the end conduce to the interests of writer claims for himself the origination of the energy of Admiral Fitzroy (and those only who science, if the public find that a body of scientific system of issuing storm warnings. He says, “I had the advantage of his intimate acquaintance men, invested with an unusual power, are either laid down my principles before the Dutch know how great and vexatious was the opposition unable or unwilling to use it for the public good. Academy of Sciences in October, 1837; in the that his plans encountered from certain quarters) Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de that England,' and to a great extent Europe INFLUENCE OF THE TIDAL WAVE ON Paris in November, 1857. I made my first pro- generally, is or was indebted for her system of THE MOTION OF THE MOON. posal to the Dutch Government on the 14th of cautionary signals, I will merely quote the follow

BY JAMES CROLL. November, 1859, and the system was commenced ing paragraph from Sir Henry James's “Instruc.

N paper “On the Influence of the Tidal than in England. It is no doubt the fact that published in 1860. Sir Henry James observes appeared in the Philosophical Magazine for August Admiral Fitzroy did not give his first 'warning' It is unnecessary to point out the vast import- last, I inadvertently represented Professor Wil

. before the 5th of February, 1861, but he had ance of being able to foretell the advent of a liam Thomson as having come to the conclusion been for years engaged in organising the service storm many hours before it could arrive at any of that the earth, regarded as a time-keeper, ja and maturing his plans. I feel it therefore our ports, and Admiral Fitzroy, impressed with actually losing about four seconds in a year. incumbent upon me, in justice to the memory of the idea that this can be done by the aid of the This, however, is incorrect. In Professor Thom. my late chief, to offer a few remarks upon that telegraph, has for some years past urged upon son’s paper on the subject a certain state of eirportion of Dr. B. Ballot's letter which I have the Government the desirability of establishing cumstances as to the tides is specified, not aba quoted.

telegraphic communications daily between our probable hypothesis, but as one on which sa " What the

nature of the system of warnings most distant ports, and especially from those in superior limit of the amount of tidal influenco which Dr. B. Ballot claims to have introduced at the south of Ireland.'

on the earth's rotation may be estimated. On Utrecht in 1860 may bare been I do not know ; “I have no desire to detract in any way from that hypothesis the earth would, one hundred but Holland, must, at that period, have been the important services rendered to meteorology years hence, be rotating so much slower than at mainly or entirely dependent upon observations by Dr. B. Ballot. When, however, Admiral present as to be then losing four seconds a year made at her own stations, that is, over an area Fitzroy at length succceded in extorting from on a perfectly aecurate chronometer regulated not larger than Wales, and forming part of a those in authority a reluctant consent to the issue according to the earth’s present rate. great continent. It will be clear to you and to of storm warnings in England, he was distinctly In my two former papers on the influence of every meteorologist that forecasts founded upon told that the cautions must be given on his sole the tides, I endeavoured to show that the solar barometrical differences over an area so limited, responsibility, and that upon him must rest the wave must exercise a retarding effect on the and geographically so situated, could not be of responsibility of their failure. He did not earth's motion round the common centre of gramuch practical value,-and that for purposes of shrink from that responsibility. The storm vity of the earth and moon, similar to what the forecasting, Dr. B. Ballot could at that period signals are generally admitted to have been a lunar wave exercises apon the earth's rotation have had but little advantage over any individual great public benefit. Had it been otherwise or motion round its own centre of gravity. This, and isolated observer. But however that may upon Admiral Fitzroy would liave fallen the as was pointeu out, follows as a direct consebe, I will, with your permission, relate as simply discredit which usually attaches to failure. It quence from the fact that, supposing the earth to as possible what I know with respect to the behores his friends, therefore, to take care that have no rotation, still the waters of the ocean origination of the storm-signals—observing that his name be not deprived of any of the credit would have to rise and fall in order to maintain any knowledge I may possess on the subject is which belongs to success.”

the solar wave, which in this case would more derived from the fact that I was Admiral Fitz. Mr. Baxendell explained the construction and round the earth, not once in twenty-four hours roy's assistant from the first establishment of the mode of using the weather signal recently as at present, but once in a month. And as this Meteorological Department in January, 1855, invented by Dr. Buys Ballot, and also stated that motion of the waters, slow as it no doubt would that I was in daily personal communication with the Doctor had

lately found that the discovery be, could not take place without heat being gene. him, and, I believe, saw the whole of his corre- of the fact that the direction of the wind was rated by friction and dissipated into the spondence.

generally at right angles to that of a line joining vis viva thus lost must be at the expense of the " By continued and consecutive series of charts the areas of high and low barometer was due to earth's motion round the common centre of grå. constructed on the synoptic or synchronous Dr. Lloyd, of Dublin; but he still claimed to rity of the earth and moon ; for, by supposition, principle during the winter of 1856-57, it ap- have been the first to make practical application there is no other motion from which it could be peared to Admiral Fitzroy that a light was thrown of this discovery.

derived. It can be easily proved that this would on the atmospheric changes over the British Dr. Joule, F.R.S., suggested the desirability of tend to bring the earth nearer to the moon, and Isles and their

vicinity which had been unattain. adding to Dr. Ballot's instrument an arrow fixed thus increase the moon's angular notion. able previously. Those charts were prepared by in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the It has been shown by Professor William myself under Admiral Fitzroy's direction, with indicating board, with the view to prevent the Thomson, and also by the Astronomer Royal

, the express view (as I know from frequent con possibility of any mistake being made as to the that, owing to the position of the tidal wave, the versations with him on the subject) of gaining by direction in which the wind might be expected to muon is drawn not exactly in the direction of their intercomparison an insight into the laws of come.

the earth's centre of gravity, but a little to the our atmosphere which might enable us to know Mr. Baxendell, referring to the statement east of that centre, and that in consequence of what weather was likely to prevail during the made by the President of the Board of Trade in this

, she is made to recede from the earth. Her next two or three days, and, as a corollary, when the House of Commons on the 15th ult. in reply orbit is enlarged, and her angular motion dimia storm was likely to occur. Those charts, how. to the questions put by Colonel Sykes respecting nished. It would, therefore, seem that the tides ever, were not found sufficient by themselves, and storm signals, remarked that a concession had produce two distinct classes of effects, the one to led to subsequent arrangements and correspond certainly been made by the Government, but à certain extent neutralizing the other. The

unfortunately it had this very objectionable fea- effect pointed out by Professor Thomson and the In the Report of the Meteorological Depart. ture, that while it would be far less useful than Astronomer Royal does not, however, in the least ment in March, 1857, Admiral Fitzroy wrote the thing asked for, it would involve a very much degree prevent the consumption of the vis viva It has been desired that a great many observe- greater current expense. The in formation of the earth's motion round the common eentro tions should be compared throughout the British which was collected daily by the scientific com of gravity, although to a certain extent; at least

, Isles (with their neighbouring coasts and seas) at mittee would be telegraphed as heretofore to the it must prevent this consumption from diminishcertain remarkable periods, to obtain the means different ports and stations throughout the king- ing the moon's distance and increasing ber successive times ; and thence to deduce

the order any place where there was a disposition to make viva will go on throughout indefinite ages, if the of those changes of wind and weather which affect them.” But the cost of daily telegraphing all present order of things remains unchanged, the navigation and fisheries especially." In Septem- this information to the various outports and earth and the moon must therefore ultimately

1859—or two months before Dr. Buys Ballot stations would obviously vastly exceed that of come together. appears to have made his first proposal on the occasionally transmitting telegraphic notices of subject to the Dutch Government--the British approaching storms; and moreover, it seems | Magazine,

* Communicated by the author to the Philosophica?

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sulation according to the number of years in His Honour said it was remarkable that in bue 111011 COAL IN AMERICA.

which it bas been immersed. Its superiority in nearly every case the assets returned woro roports recently presented to Parliament lightness of weight and in diminished bulk will greatly in excess of what they actually realised. and Legation in reference to coal possess con. costly and hazardous than in the case of the two tended in such cases. siderable interest. A statistician who believed cables already linking the two hemispheres. The bankrupt explained that something further in Mr. Jevons, and held that coal was of the But in addition it possesses a qualification which would be received. essence of civilisation, might derive from them surprised the Government electrician, who says

Order granted. conolusions as to the probable duration of certain he could not kink it, though he tried by every Karopean nations. But what is most striking to means which suggested itself to men of ex. the reader of these reports is the enormous perience, acquainted with submarine telegraphy, wealth of coal existing in the United States. It who assisted him in coiling it more

Meetings for tße Week. really seems as if America were more sertile in rapidly. Now this fortunate freedom from a all material products than the elder continent; contingency which involves a terrible chance of as if, in the old age of the world, there were re- fracture during the process of paying out the Mox.-Royal Institution.-Monthly Meeting, 2.

Royal United Service Institution.-" The Ecovealed an opulence more immense than any cable is another ard wonderful guarantee for

nomy of Fuel, comprising Mineral Oils," by previous era knew. Rightly so, doubtless; since the success of the operation, in addition to those

Professor W. Í. M. Rankine, 8.30. science, thongh productive, is always extrava- already made public in the company's prospectus. Society of Engineers. --" Pumping Engines for gant, freely using the resources of nature to With the benefit of the experience of past efforts

Town Water Supply,” by Mr. H. Davey, 7.30.

TUES.-Institution of Civil Engineers.-"Memoir on the compass her end. Acting Consal Wilking reports in submerging Atlantic cables, and with improve.

River Tyne," by Mr. W. A. Brooks, 8. that the Great Illinois Coal Field contains 55,000 ments in construction and facility of handling,

Royal Institution.—"On Botany," by Rev. G. aquare miles of coal, which would on an average there seems to be a certainty that the first effort

Henslow, 3. yield 6,000 tons of bitumioons coal per acre. of laying down the new cable will be a complete

WED.-Geological Society, 8.

THURS.-Royal Institution. -"On the Antiquity of This would give 176,000,000,000 tons as the car.

Man," by Mr. W. Pengelly, 3. bonaceous wealth of the district. But & few

Chemical Society, 8. pages earlier the same coal measures are esti

Linnean Society, 8.

FRI.-Royal Institution. "On_St. Michael's Mount, mated, on the authority of Professor Rogers, at

Cornwall," by Mr. W. Pengelly, 8. rather more than 14 billion tong--about seven

Legal Intelligence.

SAT.-Royal Institution.—"On the Antiquity of Man," times the former quantity. Whom, says the

by Mr. W. Pengelly, 3. Globe, shall we believe, Consul or Professor ? The latter holds that the Illinois coal fields are good for a thousand centuries to come. The

VICE.CHANCELLOR'S COURT. immeuse difference in the two estimates-both,

March 20.

TO CORRESPONDENTS. We assume, carefully caloulated-may at least

The MECHANIOS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to sube teach as how untrustworthy are such specula- | (Before VICE-CHANCELLOR SIR W. P. WOOD.)

soribers of £1 ls. 8d, yearly, or 10s. 10d. half-yearly, pay. tions. However, that the United States possess

able in advance,

TORR V. BRINJES. a prodigions wealth of coal of the very finest

Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANIOB' MAGA

This was a trial before his Honour without a quality is clear enough; and as yet they raise

of . per 13 in. annually about twenty million tons only, a fifth jury for an issue for the

purpose of determining sertions, or td. a line for 26 insertions. Each lino con

sists of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same of the produce of Great Britain.

whether the defendant, by his patent, which was
The prophets subsequent in point of date, had infringed the tisementa.

rate as type. Special arrangements made for large adverof the exhaustion of coal, and consequent ex. tinotion of men, will have some time to wait in patent for “improvements in, and an improved All communications should be addressed to the EDITOR, America.

apparatus for, manufacturing and reburning 166, Fleet-street.
animal charcoal" obtained by the plaintiff in To insure insertion in the following number, advertise-
1862.

ments should reach the ofiice not later than 6 o'ccolk on

Thursday evening. U BEKT ROOT SUGAR IN ILLINOIS. The question resolved itself in effect into a

We must absolutely declino attending to communicacomparison of the two specifications with the aid tions unaccompanied by the name and address of the N experiment has recently been made of afforded by other existing patents relating to the writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of vagar in Illinois. About 400 acres of fresh as stated in his specilication, was "the combinaprairie were planted, and 4,000 tons of beet tion, as above described, of two or more cylinders, w. w. s.-M. J. R.-E. W.-Messrs

. R. and W. C.-J. H.

RECEIVED.-E. W. Y.-R. B. P.-Messrs. H. and B. raised, which is in course of being worked up each having the thread of an archimedean screw -M. G.-E. 8.-Messrs. A. F. and Co.-E. M.-8. S.and is expected to reach nearly 400,000lb. of re- attached to its interior, and also the

combination J. B.-W. H.-T, S.-W. P: T. B.-E. HAPA The United States have been like in one cylinder of an inner and outer cylinder, 4G. C.-W. 7. F.-Messrs. S. M. and Co.-G. W. H.ourselves, the most important consumers of each furnished with an archimedean screw, as set W. P.-R. J.-D. B. C.–T. F.—R. F. S. cane-grown sugar, the continent generally forth in the foregoing description of the lower having long accepted the best as the raw mate.

W. W. S. Should write to the editor of the French rial of their supply. But if the Americans and cylinder, and I also claim as my invention a journal in which the description of the aerial machine the Germans and French can grow their own rotary cooling box in the form of a double drum, appeared.

Beet-root is as above described."

By his complete in tropical or semi-tropical countries. We raise ber 22, 1864, the defendant claimed as his inven. Nabal, Military, and Gunnery Jtems. it in England of excellent quality, and not only tion:-“1, the application and use to and in the do we raise the orop, but of the sugar we con reburning of animal charcoal of cylinders or mame, about one-sixth part-according to the retorts, provided with a series of internal rings The State of Maine, in the United States, builds Produce Markets Review—is beet-root sagar im. or flanges, in combination with a series of doors more than one-half the ships in the country. ported from the continent. There seems no or vanes operating substantially as and for the

Arrangements are being made at Woolwich reason why this additional branch of industry purpose herein before described ; 2, the applica- Arsenal for the erection of an additional shipping should not be added to the many enterprises of tion and use to and in machinery or apparatus pier to extend 300ft. into the river beyond the quay the country.

While the beet has been planted for reburning animal charcoal of a rotating cool. facing the Royal gun factories. The new pier will for purposes of sugar-making on the prairies of ing drum or chamber provided with an inner or be built on the plin already adopted with success, the West, the cane is being vigorously culti. outer skin, and supplied with water for the pur- will be fitted with a crane workd by hydraulic Vated in the colony of Queensland. It is esti. pose of more readily cooling its contents, submated that opwards of a thousand miles of allu- stantially as herein before described.” Models of power, capable of lifting about 35 tons weight. vial soil on the coast line of that colony is in the processes used by plaintiff and defendant from Toulon, announcing that the French squadron

The Gazette du Midi publishes a communication every way adapted to the caltivation of the cane. respectively were produced in court, and were, is about to have its artillery completely changed. The attention of all countries seems to be di. in fact, absolutely necessary for arriving at any; Sixty enormous breech-loaders, on improved carrirected more and more to the supply of sugar. thing like a clear apprehension of the mechanical ages, are now ready, and are to be substituted for We used to be dependent for our supply upon bearings of the question,

the guns at present in use. The operation will comthe West Indies, just as we were upon America Mr. Giffard, Q.C., and Mr. Drewry were for mence with the "Solferino" and "Couronne," which for our cotton; but every day the sugar question the plaintif: Mr. Grove, Q.C., Mr. Druce, Q.C., will land their numerous artillery in order to reis becoming better understood, and in spite of and Mr G. N. Colt were for the defendant. ceive the guns of the new type; there will be fewer our scale of duties, the West Indians will be The Vice-Chancellor held that the defendant pieces, but they will be of greater power, and compelled to feel more and more the influence of had not infringed the plaintiff's patent.

quantity will be advantageously replaced by quality. competition, and the necessity for exerting them.

I'he other ironclads will in turn be similarly supselves accordingly.

plied.

The Great Eastern" left the Mersey for New COURT OF BANKRUPTCY.

York at noon on Tuesday. It is to be regretted that March 27.

her departure has been marked by another fatal THE NEW SUB-ATLANTIC CABLE.

disaster. Twelve of the crew were manning her bow

(Before MR. COMMISSIONER GOULBUBN.) capstan and raising the slack ofthe portanchor. They SPECI OPECIMENS of cable manufactured on the

had just got the strain of the 9-ton anchor on them process adopted by the British and

IN BE DAVID GRAHAM HOPE,

when the donkey engine was put on to assist them. Amorican Telegraph Company bave, according The bankrupt was an engineer and contractor It had worked a few moments when one of the cap. to a report just forwarded to their office by the of Grove Hall, Northlest, Kent. His debts are stan pins snapped, and the full weight of the electrician to the Telegraph Committee of the returned at £7,353, the sum of £5,698 being due anchor was suddenly thrown on the men, and of Board of Trado, been under Government test to usecured creditors; against assets returned at round, throwing the men right and left, and the for some years past. The report is highly £1,147, but only £180 had been realised. favourable as to the tonsile power of this form of

bars flying out, struck and wounded five men. One

Mr. Brough, on behalf of the assignees, did of them died immediately, and another was not ez. cable and to the increasing perfection of its in. not oppose.

pected to live.

fined sugar.

Patents for Inventions, .

ment :

day.

2252

A number of gun carriages, slides, platforms, It is stated that a Frecch physician has composed transporting, carriages, wheels, &c., manufactured a liquid which he calls gazeol, and which is said to of teak wood, known to resist the ravages of the produce remarkable and certain curos in cases of red ant, were yesterday despatched from Woolwich whooping cough... A tea-spoonful of it is placed in Arsenal for shipment on board the chartered vessel an open phial, which is put into a water bath al" Victory,'' about to sail from the East India Docks ways kept at the same temperature. Children suf.

ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF for Calcutta. They are intended as patterns to en. fering from the whooping cough are taken into the

PATENTS, able the manufacture of those materials to be car- room, and are cured by inhaling the emanations ried out in the Indian Presidencies as required. from the gazeol as it mixes with the air of the room. Tas Abridged Specifications of Patents given below are Five thousand stand of arms have been sent from It evaporates very rapidly: The remedy is said to classified, according to the

subjects to which

the respective the Armoury, Chatham, for conversion to Snider have been used with completo success at the Orphan of classification' stopted, the memorieslandChronolontein breech-loaders, at the Royal Small Arms Factory, Asylum at Paris,

order of the spocifications is preserved, and combined with about 40,000 remainiog at Chatham to be so con. The line of railway between Mirzapore and Jub.all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be verted,

bulpore is to be opened by Juna next. When this sively for tħis Magazine from official copies supplied by The 40-ton steam-hammer at Chatham Dockyard, section is complete there will be through railway the Goverament, and are therefore the property of ex which broke down a short time since while forging communication between Bombay and Calcutta, Proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby the sternpost for the "Hercules," baviog been re with the exception of 180 miles from Nagpore to warned not to produce them without an acknowledge paired, the post was forged at the smithey yester. Jubbulpore.

BOILERS AND FURNACES,-2247, 2259, 2263, 2278

H.M.S. “Wasp" proceeded, on January 2, to BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS,2235, 2289, 294, The two Martin's patent self-canting anchors, of Quiloa, with Dr. Sewerd, her Majesty's Consul at 2256, 2281 52 cwt, each, supplied for the "Pallas," which a few Zanzibar, to endeavour to ascertain the truth of the CHEMISTRY AND PAOTOGRAPAT-2273 days since sustained under the hydraulic machine report that Dr. Livingstone had been murdered by COLROVSTION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural imple. at Portsmouth doekyard a testing strain equal to the Zulu Tribe near Lake Nyassa.

ELECTRICAL APPARATU8,- none that given to an ordinary Admiralty pattern anchor

A sheet of instructions for the prompt treat-FIBROUs FABRIos, including machinery for treating thres, of 95 cwt, without exhibiting the slightest perma-ment of accidents and emergencies has been issued

pulp. paper, &c., -2220, 2221, 2228, 2229, 2236, 2246, nent deflection, have since been submitted to the by the Accident Assurance Company, Limited,

2249, 2258, 2266, 2269, 2275
severest possible form
of "fire" proof, with results Bank-buildings, Old

Jewry, London,
and published

FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing

food for men and animals,—2930, 2241, 2242, 2255 equally satisfactory to those which attended their by W. H. Collingridge, of the City Press. The in. FORNITORE AND Appabel, including household atensils, hydraulic tests. structions were prepared expressly for the company

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &o.,by Mr. Alfred Smee, the surgeon to the Bank of GENERAL MACHINERY, -2233, 2234, 2244, 2248, 2250, 263,

2232, 2251, 2260, 2264, 2276, 2284 England, and may be regarded as the science of LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, —2271, 2277, 2280

surgery in its most profound truths described in Metals, including apparatus for their manufacture, Miscellanea.

popular language, intelligible to the ordinary
reader. No less than fifty-two distinct subjects are MISCELLANEOUS, -2225, 2257

clearly and graphically described, and instructions ROADS AND YPHICLES, including railway, plant and car. A strong

&c., -2219, 2226, 2240, within a short distance from a flat surface, will not what they may not do, without medical aid; and SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings,--2223, 2231,

ast of air, discharged from a pipe are given as to what patients may safely do, and sincetes zsaddlery, and repel, but will attract any object placed in the in. we are informed when we may bide our time and tervening space. A blast of air once made to dis when we should make all speed to secure the aid of STEAM ENGINES,–2239, 2270 charge against a wall in the late Mr. Robert's a surgeon. The sheet is surrounded by thirty wood. WARTARR, --2222, 2224, 2227, 2231, 2243, 2265, 2257, Works at Manchester, would not repel a board cuts of accidente, 90 well drawn that the most in. 2272, 2279 which had been applied as a valve, but, on the con- experienced eye may in many cases immediately trary, attracted it to the pipe. It has been sug: recognise the true character of an injary.

2219 J. Ħ. JOHNSON. Improvements in railway braku gested that safety-valves are sometimes attracted to their seats in the same way when

a thin annular exported last year was £317,988, as compared with
The value of the telegraphic wire and apparatus parts which improvements are applicable as tha

. ) Dated August 28, 1868 discharge of steam is going on under their edges,

This inception relates to a peculiar construction and ar. £148,677 in 1865, $218,464 in 1864, £317,214 in rangement of self-acting railway brake mechanism, whereby To make a cast-iron magnet, take a smooth bar 1863, £320,897 in 1862, £214 441 in 1861, 261,712 the whole of the carriages of a train may be braked simal of cast iron, place the middle of it to the north pole in 1860, €742,306 in 1859, £224,708 in 1855, and taneously; and is also partly applicable to the coupling of of a magnet and draw it to the end, repeating the £302,246 in 1857. Last year's exports would'thus driving or other revolving shafts or spindles of machinery stroke always from the middle to the end, and rub appear to have been about an average of the ten pleted.

wherein such appliances are found requisite. Patest combing in the same way each time. Then place the years. It will be observed, however, that it was in middle of the bar to the south pole of the magnet, 1859 that this branch of our export trade attained menting lace and other like fabrios, and also in imitations

2220 W. OLARK. Improvements in perfecting or 'orna. and rub towards the opposite end of the bar, re- its greatest development.

of the same. (A communication.) Dated August 28, peating as before, Magnets can be made in this way of steel as well as of cast iron, and may be in

It is estimated that upwards of 10,000,000 tons Provisión at protectiod has not been allowed for this inthe form of a horse-shoe or star as well as a straight of anthracite coal will be mined in Pennsylvania. vention. bar.

Last year the quantity was under 7,000,000 tons. 2221 H. O'ARRER and W. V. COPELAND. Improvemente For the second time since the outbreak of the

Advices from St. Michael (Savoy) state that the worp lace muchines, and in the machinery or apparatus et

in the manufacture or production of looped fabrics made ox cattle plague the official return presents a clean works for piercing Mont Cenis have reached the ployed therein. Dated August 28, 1866. bill of health. The superintendent of the Sta- limit of the bed of hard quartz, which has been so

This invention consists in forming upon a warp lace ground tistical Department, in his rigual weekly report, dificult to penetrate. The workmen have now come

or grounds, spots or sprigs, by the employment of additional says: "No attacks of cattle plague have been re

These additional upon ported from any part of Great Britain during the 1,000 metres in a year. softer ground, and hope to be able to bore threads to form such spots or sprige.

lace ground, and between week ending March 23, 1867."

the spots or sprigs, in such manner that those portions of In order that Russian railways shall no longer be may be cut or clipped away from the lace ground of grounds,

threads which are not used in producing the spočs or sprigs A subterranean fire has broken out near the dependent upon foreign enterprise, the Imperial so that the threads are not seen except in those places sources of the Ain Baida, Algeria. A hot smoke Government proposes to guarantee to Russian con where they have

formed the spots or sprigs. The threads issues from an aperture about 3ft. in diameter, and tractors orders for the manufacture of railway employed in forming the ground or grounds, and for pros? rises to a height of about fifteen, to twenty yards. plant for a period of several years, and at the same ducing the spots of sprigs the inventore enter through A stiek plunged into

the opening is carbonised in a time to advance them one-half of the amount of the guides may bo soldered to the bars, or be cast in leads, and few minutes. annual contract.

such leads may be screwed or other vise secured to the bars, It is stated that the advantages of Bombay as the chief terminus of the Indian railway system have

Mr. Micolan, of Paris, proposes the following in warp lace machines, and they are moved by wheels also

These bars are of the usual construction of those employed indaced some parties to try to establish steam alloy for bells as well as for hammers, hard tools, of ordinary construction ; the cat of such wheels,

however, communication via the Cape, and that the Great &c. :-20 parts of iron turnings or lin

waste, só varies according to the ground required to be made, aud Victoria” is to leave early in May as the pioneer of parts of steel, 4 parts of manganese, and 4 parts of the spots, sprigs, or other patterns to be produced thereon. the line."

borax, but these proportions may be varied, and two or the bars may be moved by means of one or more jac

or three parts of wolfram may be added to increase quard apparatus.. The combined movements of the various At the meeting of the Nottingham Town Council, the tenacity of the alloy.

parts of the machinery or apparatus are effected by means on Monday, a large committee was appointed for

of cams, lovers, and connecting links, or by equivalent mothe purpose of inquiring into the desirableness of The Bombay papers mention the transmission to cbanical contrivance. Patent abandoned. forming a Free Library and Museum for that town. England last mail by letter post of the celebrated 2222 W. T. Ecxy. Improvements in machinery employed The opinion of the council was unanimously in Sancy diamond. “This diamond,” says the Pall eridge cases. Dated August 29, 1866.

in the manufacture of Boxer" or other obntral-Arecurs favour of such an institution.

Mall Gazette, “was found on the body of Charles the This invention is not described apart from the drawings. At a meeting of the shareholders in Martin's son, in 1476, by the swiss. It was purchased in

Bold, Duke of Burgundy, after his defeat at Gran- Patent completed. Patent Anchor Company (Limited), held at the 1479 by the King of Portugal, and ten years later of war and other structures required to bo rendered shol

2223 T. WAITVY, Improvements in constructing vessels company's offices recently, it was resolved that the it was sold by him to Nicholas de Baily, Baron de proof. Dated August 29, 1866. company should be wound up voluntarily.

Sancy, from whom it derives its name, The Baron In construoting vessels of war according to this invention A frightful railway accident occurred on the de Sancy sent it as a present to the King of France, parts of the outer skin of the vessel that are required to be Great Indian Peninsula Railway, near Bhosawul, and the servant who had charge of the gift, being rendered shot proof, and outside the armonr plating he ato on February 17. A number of natives wandered on attacked by robbers, proved himself equal to the taches metal plates formed into loops, or otherwise formed to a railway bridge, which was only of just sufficient occasion, and swallowed the diamond. According to present inclined or curved surfaces to projectiles, in order width to allow the trains to pass along, when a train to the story, the stone was found in his body. It that the projectiles may be deflected by these surfaces and comiog up, four of them were instantly dashed to afterwards

came into the possession of James II. so turned out of their course before striking against the armour pieces, and the two others died on the second day of England, by whom it was sold for £25,000 to plating the projectiles will thus be prevented from strikter after the accident. The extension of the above Louis XIV. During the French Revolution the plating will be better able to offer resistance to them. The railway from Sindee to Nagpore was opened on Sancy diamond disappeared. It was purchased by carved plates are by preference of steel, in order that, when February 20, by the Chief Commissioner of the Napoleon I., by whom it was afterwards sold to struck big a projectile, they may act as springs, and tato Central Provinces.

Prince Paul Demidoff. It is valued at from away from the velocity of the projectile. A thin skia or A reliquary of exceeding beauty, embellished £20,000 to £30,000, is pear-shaped, and weighs plating is placed outside the curved or angular plates to 531 carats."

enclose them watertight, and form the exterior of the vessel. with precious stones, has been lately discovered

If desired, arınour-plating may be dispensed with, and the buried beneath an old wall adjoining the Cathedral The Government of Ticino has cancelled the con.

curved or other plates be alone employed to protect the of Poitiers, but the inscription, enamelled on the cession granted to the European Central Company outer skin of the resset; the curvéd or angular plates to be such that the bishop has refused to allow it to consequence of the stipulated deposit-money of curved plates may be employed, one exterior of the other, gold

setting, describes the nature of the holy relic for the construction of railroads in that canton, in the preference to our odo de repede a manner in de
be sept to the Exhibition.
100,000f. not having been forthcoming.

Patent completed.

1866,

threads lie loose

the face of

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