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were of course submitted to the board. These for the United States' army, inasmuch as until the workmen. For different kinds of machinery were all carefully examined, but the board the Government find a better, the Spencer is it can be thinned in this way to the proper found itself

unable to recommend any one of recommended in case more arms are required consistency. For railway carriages the thick them for adoption for future construction by than are at present on hand. The new ex- emulsion would be about the proper consistthe Government. While fully impressed with tractor referred to does away with all the ency. For this lubricant it is reasonable to the great mechanical ingenuity displayed in jambing about which there was some discus- expect advantages that cannot be derived

from many of the plans, the report states that no sion at the Wimbledon meeting last year, and ordinary grease or oil, namely, that of preventone offers advantages for service superior to the "stop" for the magazine is simple and ing heating in a great measure. It being somethe altered musket recommended; and there- very effective. We hope in the course of a what of a volatile nature, any tendency to fore the board considered that, in view of the short time to be able to place before our heating would be counteracted by the volatili. large number of excellent muzzle-loading mus. readers particulars of these improvements, sation of the lubricant, and this in a lubricant kets now in store, and the slight changes of which, it seems to us, render this weapon all is an inestimable property. As a lubricant, machinery necessary to make new arms on that can be desired. We understand that our perhaps the most of the heavy petroleum may that plan should more arms be deemed neces- Government have purchased 3,000 Spencer be used; still that is not the most profitable sary, there can be no justification for an entire repeating arms, 1,000 rifles, and 2,000 car- use to which to apply it. Its proper use is as a change of model and the great expense con- bines for the British troops in Canada. The light and heat giving material.

We think we sequent thereon until some further improve- Canadian Government have also purchased could suggest a way of using it, at least as ment shall be devised producing more decided a large number for their own troops. By the fuel. Let it be first ascertained the amount advantages than any of the arms yet pre- time therefore the forthcoming trials of breech of hydrogen required to unite with it to turn sented.

loaders are concluded, we may look for a re- the whole into carburetted hydrogen gas, that We now come to the question of magazine port from the commanding officer in Canada will thoroughly consume without leaving any or repeating arms, of which the Spencer rifle of the result of the issue of " Spencers” to the solid residue. Then heat the oil in contact will be to our readers, a familiar type, an troops over there. The Spenoer rifle will be with hydrogen, and the two would unite and illustrated description of this arm having ap- well represented at the approaching competi- pass off through the jets in the furnace as a peared in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE for June tion, and, as it has come victorious out of the highly calorific gas. The apparatus could be 29, 1866. In this respect the board is not trials in the States, we may predict for it so arranged that a store of gas could be redecided in the opinion whether it would be highly satisfactory results over here.

tained to commence with, and when in action best to have only magazine carbines in the

it would not only generate its own hydrogen cavalry service. From past experience the

but distil over the petroleum in contact with board is unwilling to dispense entirely with

HEAVY PETROLEUM OIL.

the hydrogen to supply the heat—that is, it magazine arms, and as these arms can be used N the distillation of crude petroleum oil, would be a regenerative gas furnace. The hyordinarily, as single-loaders (retaining a number the first product that comes over is a very drogen could be obtained in this manner. А of charges in the magazine for extraordinary volatile and inflammable spirit, which is current of steam being passed through scraps occasions, free from danger of ignition in the usually rejected as being too dangerous to of old iron kept at a red heat, would oxidise the ordinary use of the gun), the only objections store; the next product is paraffin oil, and it iron and set free the hydrogen of the vapour to their exclusive use are the additional ex- is to the admixture of this oil with the light to be used as above stated. To produce llb. pense of this arm over the simple single-loader, inflammable spirit that most of the explosions weight of hydrogen, 281b. of scraps of old iron and the greater inconvenience of the use of a of parafin oil are to be attributed, and this would have to be oxidised. Now it takes about lever-gun compared with some patterns of the seems to arise from the manufacturers wishing 100 cubic feet of hydrogen to weigh a pound, hinge-breech gun which have been presented to obtain the greatest yield possible of the and that is a considerable volume, and we to the board.

In consideration of the above saleable oil, or in the distiller inadvertently should think that 281b. of old iron would not reasons, and also of the manifest advantages raising the heat before all the volatile spirit cost more than a shilling. Further, the pure of having single-loading carbines (if needed) has passed over. When this is carefully at- carburetted hydrogen might be used for lightand muskets made upon the same pattern, tended to there is but little danger of any ex- ing purposes, and would be infinitely superior except in length of barrel, the board recom- plosion with paraffin oil. The residuum is to anything we know of in the shape of coal mends that until a suitable plan for new composed of scales of paraffin and what is gas. "It would be equal in every respect to muskets can be obtained, offering decided called heavy oil. The paraffin being extracted rosin gas, and we remember well the brilliant advantages over the proposed plan now there remains the heavy oil. As yet but little white light that gas used to give--no soot and recommended for altered muskets, no single- use has been found for this heavy oil, for it no sulphurous acid fumes. Of course, for the loading carbine should be constructed for the cannot be burnt in lamps on account of the general manufacture of gas it could not be used army. The experience of the late war, as imperfect combustion of the excess of carbon it the supply is too limited; but wherever it well as all the experiments made by the board, contains. From the crude oil 60 per cent. of might be used as a suel, there it might be used have gone to prove that the Spencer magazine paraffin oil is obtained, 4 per cent. of paraffin, also for lighting. carbine is the best service gun of this kind yet and 16 per cent. of heavy oil, and there is 20 Then the question arises as to price. Could offered. The experiments detected a defect per cent. of waste. At present this 16 per it be used with economy in lieu of coal ? Well in the arrangement for the extractor, which cent. of heavy oil cannot be considered as anyar the better kinds of petroleum are being has been corrected by the manufacturers, thing but waste, as there is as yet no sale for attempted to be used, and it is said they upon the suggestion of the board, producing, it. But great efforts are being made to utilise can be used with economy, and if they in the opinion of the manufacturers themselves, this heavy oil. We believe that Mr. Lavender, can this certainly can, for it is a byea decided improvement in the arm, and one at the Petroleum Works, Belvedere, is exert- product remaining after the manufacture that will lessen much the liability to become ing his ingenuity to turn it to account; he is of other valuable products. The great thing disabled in the service. It is believed, how- making it into what he calls grease, to be used aimed at hitherto has been a lamp to burn ever, from models and from experiments of as a lubricant. Of course that is only a name, this heavy oil, but no success has hitherto the board, that the magazine arm is capable as this heavy petroleum cannot be made into attended the efforts of the ingenious; but, of further improvement; and the board there- veritable grease. We suspect it is simply a doubtless, there will be, and it would be a fore recommend some delay in adopting kind of saponified emulsion of petroleum, great triumph if we were to be enabled to definitely a pattern“ for future construction made by a strong solution of alkali, and, if the make our own gas on our tables as we required of carbines for cavalry service.” Should new price that it is to be sold at can be taken as a it. We do not despair of even that. Would carbines be previously needed, it is recom- guide, that alkali is caustic soda. We do not not that humble the gas monopolists? We mended that the Spencer carbine, with the say that thia is that gentleman's process, but have been carking for some time about the modified extractor, be used. The conclusions merely say that in this way it may be done, exhaustion of our coalfields, and here is some of the board with respect to facility of hand- by first dissolving a little gum resin in the little hope for us in the produce of the oil wells ling, lightness, and accuracy of fire in military petroleum ; it would then unite with caustic and the distillation of shales, and, no doubt, rifles are, that it will be of advantage to alkalies and caustic lime and form the emul-1 long before that dreaded exhaustion arrives reduce the length of barrel, when practicable, sion above referred to. Such an emulsion at many other sources of light and heat will be to not less then 33in., retaining the present any rate would make an excellent lubricant, discovered. We are aware that attempts have length of bayonet; and also that with the much superior to any crude grease, as all been made to burn heavy petroleum in furadoption of the metallic cartridge, the grease becomes rancid and then contains what naces, and with somewhat of success. This present cartridge-box should be modified. are called the fatty acids, which attack metals, has been obtained by a sufficient blast to Such, then, is the substance of a report and are apt to do much damage to machinery; thoroughly burn up the carbon, by bringing giving the results arrived at by a board of whereas this lubricant being alkaline will not an excess of atmospheric air in contact with it practical examiners, and from which we learn oxidise, and, in case any matters should get while in combustion. Mr. W. Young has the present position of the question in America. into the petroleum that will acidify, the alkali attempted to utilise some of the first volatile It will be seen by the foregoing that the will neutralise that acidity.

spirit that first passes over in distilling bituSpencer rifle is the only repeater therein A strong solution of caustic soda itself is an minous coal and shale. He caused this volatile named, and it is pronounced to be the best excellent lubricant, and is being extensively vapour to pass back again into the still, towards submitted. The only reason assigned why used instead of soft soap and water for planing, the end of the distillation of the coal or shale, they should not be used exclusively for cavalry boring, and turning metals. Doubtless this lu- that it might take up some of the carbon and is said to be the cost, and some inconvenience bricant, if so made, will take the place of the come over in the form of easily condensiple and assumed to attach to any lever motion. We caustic soda when mixed with a little of the non-volatile oil. He took out a patent for think, however, that the Spencer rifle may heavy petroleum, and it will be quite as cheap this process in connection with a Mr. Brash ; now be fairly said to be the service carbine and not so hurtful to the hands and clothes of but we suppose not having found the thing to

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succeed to their expectations they abandoned fondly imagined their fortune to be made in every committee, has produced a volume* which, it. Theory and practice do not always agree, sense because they had succeeded in inventing or inter est, amount and variety of informabut do not let the half-informed cry out a machine which was able to perform tion, and wide practical utility, stands unriagainst theory on that account, as is their what had hitherto been a matter of hand valled by any other work of its class we have wont. Sound theory must precede and guide labour.

ever seen. But notwithstanding the elaborate and all successful practice.

A patent has been recently taken out in often exhaustive manner in which the various France and elsewhere for the machine repre- subjects are treated, Mr. Timmins tells us at the

sented in the accompanying cut, and the outset that it was impossible to do justice to all CENTRIFUGAL CRUSHING MILL.

patentee, M. Ad. Déjardin, claims for it many the trades, or even to mention all the names

advantages over others of a similar nature. and branches which extend over Birmingham MHE more universal the applicability of any It occupies very little space, and is worked alone. They are so numerous, so various, and useful it will be ; but while giving all due motive force, works with great rapidity, and that not even the 700 and odd pages before credit to a machine so constituted, it is ques- can be adjusted to admit of any degree of fine us suffice to give an account of them all in tionable whether it ever fulfils one of its mul- ness or coarseness being given to the substance detail as perfectly as was designed. But with tifarious duties in so perfect a manner as a under its action, and requires no sifting such an infinite variety of information before machine constructed to perform that one duty or other manipulation. This crusher will us, it is not easy to say off-hand what are its alone. It is, in fact, an exemplification in an serve for coals, stones, cements, and, in fact, for shortcomings, or even that it has any; those analogous manner of the proverb, “ Jack of every substance capable of being pulverised. best can point these out who may conceive all trades, and master of none." In a young The mill is composed of a cast-iron frame B themselves or their branch of trade inadecolony, where the development of industry (see fig.) resting upon any convenient founda- quately represented, if any may, and to these and the various branches of manufacturing tion; in its upper part, cast in one piece with we leave the question raised by Mr. Timmins, and mechanical art are not sufficiently ad- it, is a rib b, which receives the socket o, For our own part, we think the committee vanced to permit of the full benefit arising through which passes the rod or shaft F. This have done well, and their labours must be from the principle of "division of labour," rod, or, as it may be termed, main shaft of the satisfactory in the highest degree. such men and such machines are exceedingly mill, rests upon the pivot f in the lower socket The extent and variety of the work may be useful. In all countries, and at all times, a C, and is attached at its upper end F to the indicated in an article like the present, but it machine of any description which can make disc P. The part Fi is sufficiently broad to cannot be fully realised without inspection itself generally useful in its own particular take the ring p, which forms an extension of and careful perusal. For extent and variety, line is eagerly welcomed, especially by those the disc P. "Bolted on to the frame B is the the local trades of Birmingham and its surwhose means or business would not allow of crusher P!, which carries the ring pl in a rounding districts stand unrivalled. There their having a multiplicity of machines to manner similar to that of the disc P. These are the coal and iron trades of Staffordshire;

rings are attached to the discs by bolts, and the chemical products, glass, alkalies, and soap can be renewed as often as required. The of Smethwick; there is Birmingham with its central disc P is also fixed by bolts to the long and far-famed metal works, from the best main shaft of the mill, and by adjusting them and costliest jewellery down to mere “ Brumthe distance between the crushers can be regu- magem" ware; its steam engines and machi. lated according to the degree of pulverisation nery, and its tea trays and iron pots; all of required. Above the crushing disc F" is fixed these being produced in a variety of classes, the scoop or collector », which gathers toge- from the very cheapest to the most costly. ther the pulverised particles and conducts These and hundreds of other productions them to the discharging spout N. A hopper T formed the material upon which the commitis placed on the top of the apparatus to re- tee laboured to obtain accurate reports, and ceive the substance to be ground, and may be their reports make up the sum of the work fed either by hand or machine as may be con- Mr. Timmins has so ably edited. But leavvenient. The mill is set in motion by means ing generalities, we will proceed to particuof the wheels G and G', the latter of which larise the leading features of the work before is keyed on to a shaft carrying the usual fixed us as far as we can, although we hardly and loose pulleys, which can be put into con- hope within the space at our disposal to do nection with any motive power by ordi- justice to so large and important a mass of nary driving belts.

industrial facts as is here presented to view. The South Staffordshire coalfield is first

noticed, and its geological structure well disTHE INDUSTRIES OF BIRMINGHAM.

cussed by Mr. J. Beete Jukes, a gentleman

whose name is sufficient to indicate the value IRMINGHAM, where Priestley analysed of the report. Although the greater portion

the air and where Watt obtained the of this coalfield lies within the county from mastery over steam, has thrice been the appro- which it derives its name, there are yet porpriate meeting-place of the members of the tions of it situated in two other counties

British Association during the thirty-six years Worcestershire and Shropshire. In these last perform each separate process or part of a pro- over which the history of that body extends. two couuties are parts of its southern portion, cess in detail. For the purpose of crushing Appropriate, indeed, considering the objects of whilst its northern apex is at Brereton, near various substances, from gold quartz to animal the Association, and considering also that Rugeley. Its length from north to south is bone, numerous machines are in use, but, as within a radius of thirty miles of Birmingham about twenty-three miles, and its mean width a rule, they are not adapted for crushing any nearly the whole of the hardware wants of from east to west about six miles, thus giving other but the special substance for which they the known world are practically supplied. The a mean area of some 130 square miles. The are constructed, or, at the best, do not act to third meeting of the Association held in Bir- general form of the surface of this field is indiequal advantage upon any substance sub- mingham was that of 1865, and one of its cated by Mr. Jukes, after which he enters mitted to their power. Although, perhaps, beneficial results was the formation of a com- upon the details of the underground structure, capable of reducing to powder a variety of mittee of local industries, whose object was giving many important particulars relating to substances, yet the process with respect to the compilation of a series of reports on the the subject of the coal formation. We next some might be so expensive as to preclude the numerous and varied products of the midland come to the method of working this coalfield, use of the machine for that purpose in an eco- hardware district. This district, as already which is discussed by Mr. Henry Johnson, nomical point of view. Horizontal millstones, indicated, occupies a vast area, and among the whose remarks include a notice of the ventilawhich have been applied in one shape or numerous towns it includes, Birmingham stands tion and some considerations as to the extent another since time immemorial to the grinding chief, being the most important, and consti- and duration of the coalfield. The ventilation of corn, cannot be applied with the same ad- tuting the practical centre of the system. Over is neither so extensive nor so scientific as in vantage to that of other substances. The so vast an area trades innumerable and infi- the north of England, or in the thin fiery more modern cylindrical machines not only nitely various are carried on, and to the work seams in some other parts. But very little require a considerable motive power, but their of investigating and reporting upon these trouble is experienced from fire-damp, and results are not always in proportion to the trades the committee with their sub-com- when gas does accumulate, it is harmlessly and power expended. In designing any machine mittees addressed themselves. When we oon- effectively carried off by elevating the mouth there are two prominent points to be kept in sider the extent and variety of the trades and of the intake air current at the highest point view; one is, that the machine should be per- manufactures of the district, their many divi- at which the coals may be hanging in the fect in its working parts and arrangements, sions and sub-divisions, we may well wonder chamber where the accumulation occurs. . The and the other that its working should be able at the gigantic character of the task the gentle- duration of this coalfield has been estimated to be carried on economically. It is from the men associated together for the purpose pro- at forty years, although Mr. Johnson tells us neglect of this latter consideration that so posed to themselves. But Mr. Samuel Tim- that in about twenty years a very large portion many patents have proved simply a source of mins, the indefatigable chairman of the comexpense to those who obtained them, and a mittee, set heartily to work, and with the " The Resources, Products, and Industrial History of bitter mortification ever afterwards. Men of assistance of the two secretaries, and the Birmingham and the Midland Hardware District." Edited great and undoubted mechanical genius have co-operation of the other members of the by SAMUEL. Tomans, London : Robert Hardwicke, 192, Pic

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of the earlier developed part of the coalfield on the industrial history of Birmingham, and cesses, the machine or hand labour, the em. will be totally and for ever exhausted. Mr. another on the steel pen trade of that busy ployment of women or children, the effects of Samuel Bailey follows with an interesting paper town, which he terms the “penshop of the improvement on cost, the home and foreign on the economic value of various measures of world.” The latter article is highly interesting, trade, the effects of the French treaty and the coal and ironstone in the South Staffordshire and affords a large amount of information upon American war, the other seats of manufacture, coalfield. By way of indicating the vast the manufacture of one of the great necessities of the numbers employed, the average earnings, productions of a particular locality of this coal- modern times—steel pens. When the British and general condition of the workpeople," as field the author mentions that the coal and iron- Association first met in Birmingham (in 1839) relating to every principal trade in the town stone gotten there once realised a commercial steel pens were almost unknown; but when and district of Birmingham. This aim has value of £20,000 per acre. That day, the second visit was made, in 1849, the steel been carefully kept in view, and the result however, is passed, and the mines that pro- pen trade had risen to a very important place has been one of the largest and most important duced this almost incredible result are now among the manufactures of this town. Be- collections of industrial facts and figures havnearly exhausted. Still valuable minerals tween the two periods named there had been ing direct reference to the manufacturing continue to be produced, and the ironstone eighteen makers of steel pens, but these had interests of a single district ever placed on measures, together with the seams of coal, been reduced to twelve in 1849; and, although record. The volume is peculiarly the proform a mixture from which iron can be made the number is now twelve, the quantity of duction of the district it represents, or rather of an unsurpassable quality. Further papers on pens produced has enormously increased. Mr. of its centre, Birmingham. All the work of the subject of this coalfield treat of its drainage Timmins tells us that the number of men em- production of matter was done in Birming, and of the statistics of its remarkable products. ployed by these twelve makers is 360; the ham, and by Birmingham men; it was printed We then have the limestones of the district number of women and girls, 2,050. The in Birmingham, and is certainly no discredit noticed at some length, after which we come amount of horse-power employed may be esti- to the town. The whole style and get-up of to an elaborate report on the iron trade of South mated at 330, including (say) 50 employed in the book is admirable, the design for the Stafford-lire, by Mr. John Jones. The author out-work rolling. The number of pens made cover being a centrepiece consisting of a treats his subject from an historical and social weekly, 98,000 gross. The quantity of steel toothed wheel, a screw, a hammer, and a lever, as well as from a practical point of view, giving used weekly, 9 to 10 tons. The value of grouped together, with the word “ Forward a large amount of useful information in a very pens per gross, 17d. to 1s., and the barrel on a scroll in the foreground, whilst around useful form.

pens from 7d. to 12s. per gross, some of the are medallions with bees in their centres. These important considerations of the coal larger pens being very much higher, according The design was prepared by Mr. Powell

, of and ironstone measures are succeeded by to their size and finish. It will thus be seen Birmingham, and the die was cut at Messrs. reports upon the various local industries, that the number of persons employed has not Hardman's works. The book reflects the which in effect form the substance of the increased in the same ratio as the production, highest credit on Mr. Timmins, as editor, volume. And here we must content ourselves in consequence of the many improvements whilst Mr. Hardwicke's well-known good with a passing and general notice. So numerous facilitating manufacture, and rendering labour taste has materially enhanced the value of are the reports and so varied their inforination less important. The increase of men and the work. that we cannot refer to each separately now, boys from 300' to 360; of women and girls, although we hope at some future time to en. from 1,550 to 2,050; of horse-power, from lighten our readers further upon the industrial 228 to 330; of steel used, from 6 to 10 tons ; NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DISresources of that centre of industry, Birming- of pens made, from 65,000 to 98,000 gross COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL ham. The subject of locks and lock making weekly, will sufficiently indicate the rapid APPLICATIONS. is first brought before our notice, and this is a development of the trade during the last 16 manufacture which has long occupied a promi- years. These returns of the number of per- | The Absorption

of Gases by Metals...Convernent position among the skilled industries of sons employed, amounting to 2,400 per.

sion of Iron into Steel--Inverse Filtration. South Staffordshire. The localities especially sons, do not include the large numbers Nour last we noticed some metallicadmixtures devoted to the trade are Wolverhampton, employed in making the paper boxes and other with iron, and alluded very briefly to the Willenhall, Wednesfield, and Walsall, with accessories of the trade; and doubtless more physical properties conferred on iron by its alloy several adjacent hamlets. The history of the than 2,000 persons are more or less directly with other metals. The names of " tungsten subject is traced from antiquity to the present connected with the steel pen trade in Birming- steel,” “ titanic steel," and others will readily day, and presents a number of interesting fea- ham alone. Mr. Timmins has been unable occur to our readers. To-day we notice the tures. Under the head of boiler plate making to obtain from the various makers a return of absorption of gases by iron. The extraordinary we get an insight into the manufacture of steam the annual value of their products, but he researches of Mr. Graham, the master of the boilers and gas apparatus. Besides these, sugar places the average price of steel pens at 6d. Mint, have resulted in the discovery, not pans, clarifiers, salt and saltpetrepans, tanks and per gross. Taking this very low average we altogether unexpected, that iron absorbs some cisterns, galvanising baths, plating vats, canal may safely conclude that nearly £3,000 worth gases as a sponge does water. It was well and river boats, iron roofing, and a host of of pens are made in Birmingham every week. known that cast iron when melted gives off a minor matters are noticed. In recording the one point relating to the cost of pens is very considerable quantity of gas.

This was exprogress of the gas-holder trade in Birming- remarkable—the wonderfully low rate at amined by Cailletet, and found to be a mix. ham, Mr. George Pigott remarks that at the which they are now produced. Thirty years ago ture of carbonic oxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen, period of its introduction there in 1831, the pens were sold wholesale at 5s. a gross, and the source of which cannot be doubtful. largest gas-holder then made was 60ft. in now they are sold as low as ltd. only per Mr. Graham found in his experiments that diameter, and contained about 50,000 cubic

gross. When it is remembered that each wrought-iron wire gives off gas freely at a red feet of gas.

This was, however, a great gross requires 144 pieces of steel to go through heat, the gas consisting for the most part of advance upon the first gas-holders used in at least twelve processes, the fact that 144 carbonic oxide. After exhausting the iron of London about 1812, and which had a capacity pens can be sold for 14d. is a singular example carbonic oxide, he heated it again to redness, of only 10,000 cubic feet. In 1834, telescopic of the results attainable by the division of and gradually cooled it in an atmosphere of gas-holders first came into use, and this form labour and mechanical skill. Mr. Timmins the same gas. After repeating the experiment allowed the capacity to be doubled or trebled gives us an insight into this branch of trade several times, Mr. Graham came to the conwithout any increase in the diameter, an im- as carried on upon the continent. France clusion that pure iron is capable of taking up at portant point in towns where land is dear or commenced the manufacture in 1849, when in a low red heat, and holding when cold, 4:15 space restricted. The size and capacity of gas- consequence of the high duties on English volumes of carbonio oxide gas. He supposes holders went on increasing until in 1858 a gas- pens two factories were established, and these then that wrought iron in the course of its holder 162ft.in diameter and of 1,037,000 cubic factories (now six or seven) produce about preparation may occlude six or eight tiines its feet capacity was made in Birmingham, 50,000 gross of pens per week, against 16,000 or volume of the gas, which is carried about and erected in Glasgow. Since then, however, 18,000 made in 1849. In Germany there are ever after. How the qualities of the iron are holders of still larger dimensions have been two factories-producing, however, very few effected, the author proceeds to say, by the made, and several are now at work in London pens. In America the high war-tariff has presence of such a substance, no way metallic which contain nearly two million cubic feet of caused the establishment of four factories, in its character, locked up in so strange a way, gas. Chains, cables, and anchors, cast-iron and these, aided by skilled workmen from but capable of reappearing under the influence hollow ware, the nail trade, the special trades England, are producing about 10,000 gross of heat at any time with the elastic tension of of the various localities, the Stourbridge fire- of pens per week.

a gas, is a subject which metallurgists may clay, ceramic manufactures, glass, salt, light- The especial value of these reports, perhaps, find worthy of investigation. houses, the gun, jewellery, button, and other lies in the fact that they were written, col- In noticing subsequently the action of cartrades of Birmingham follow next, and are lected, compiled, and edited by those who are bonic oxide in the conversion of iron into steel, accompanied by some useful statistics, as well busily engaged in the trades whereof the work the author makes a practical suggestion which as by some practical hints well worthy of con- treats. The whole plan of the book is novel, is worth attention. He has shown that the sideration by those interested in the various no such work having previously appeared, gas is most freely absorbed by iron at the branches of trade and manufacture. Mechanical whilst the originality of the matter is self- lowest red heat, or perhaps a lower temperaengineering and chemistry occupy an impor-evident. The aim with which the committees ture, In order, however, that the iron may tant position, having each had the honour of a set out was to describe the date of intro- be converted into steel the gas must be decomspecial committee, the results of whose labours duction and early history, the obsolete articles, posed. The carbonic oxide (C202) parts are diffused throughout the entire volume, the curiosities and oddities, the increase since with half its carbon, which is appropriated by under the various heads.

1849, the effects of the spread of civilisation the iron, and carbonic acid (0*02) escapes. Mr. Timmins contributes an excellent paper on the supply of raw material, the new pro- This decomposition can only be effected at &

high temperature. Hence, Mr. Graham thinks tional to the "work.” attained, and inversely pro- THE ALBERT MEMORIAL IN HYDE that acieration may be promoted by portional to the diameter of the shot or shell.

PARK. alternation of temperature frequently repeated. The resistance of wrought-iron plates equally Alternations of temperature, he says, are not well made varies as the square of their thickness. This canopy-roof, with its tower and spire, is unlikely to occur during the usual long process diminishes the effect of the shot in the proportion work, bat, in all probability, it is the greatest

not only a very great and a very important of cementation; but he thinks they might be of the sine of the angle of incidence to unity. and the most important artistic work in metal in properly regulated with advantage, and the The resistance of plates to perforation is hardly existence in the world. The magnitude of their process may admit of being abridged in point effected by a backing of wood simply, but mnch undertaking was thoroughly appreciated by the of time. We look upon it as more than increased by a rigid backing of iron combined artists when they resolved that it might be done, probable that these valuable experiments of with wood, or of granite, iron, brick, &o., must and that it should be done. The first step, says Mr. Graham may result in important improve of the shot's effect being transferred to the the Art Journal, was to consider, and finally to ments in the manufacture of steel,

backing, which suffers proportionately, Iron. determine, the proportions of the whole work, In the same paper it is shown that iron built ships with compact oak or teak baoking are and of its component parts. The exceeding grace will absorb and hold a small proportion stronger than similarly, clad wooden ships ; the and beauty of proportion which characterise the of hydrogen gas,

the iron becoming best form of backing being wood combined with whole cannot be felt in all their power antil the white and looking like the galvanised metal. horizontal plates of iron as in the Chalmers, canopy covers the statue, and the spiro crowns Mr. Graham shows that copper is another Bellerophon, and Hercules targets. Palliser's the canopy ; still, from what the work is as it now metal having the power to occlude gases. plates. An inner skin of iron is almost essential, cellence

of the eventual effect. In these days of bolts are found to be the best for securing iron stands, a lair estimate may be formed of the ex. Wrought copper wire exposed to hydrogen for it not only renders the backing more compact, iron building, the framing of a structure in that at a red heat was found to absorb 0.306 of its but prevents many splinters from passing into metal which should combine absolute strength volume of that gas. Relative to copper we the ship. Every ironclad, whether built of wood with the utmost consistent lightness, would not have some further information from M. Caron, or iron, should therefore have an inner iron skin. present any serious difficnlties. Wrought iron who, while refining this metal, observed certain Laminated armour is mach inferior to solid was employed for the whole of the framework, phenomena which led him to believe that when armour. We have attempted to show that on and cast iron for the structural parts that were in a state of fusion it had the power of these important subjects, our artillerymen are to be built upon this framework. All the more absorbing certain gases. The author melted a not blundering in the dark. They assert their distinguished visible portions of the work, the small bar of copper in an atmosphere of power of building guns equal to any work that bases and capitals of columns, the cornices, cresthydrogen, and observed that as soon as it has hitherto been set before them, but it is for ings, finials, and other similar details, and with began to run the mass swelled, and numerous the navy to say, and to say quickly, what they them the cross that was to crown the entire edi.

Then was to bubbles appeared on the surface. He observed want

and what weight of piece they can carry fice, were to be of a fine bronze. at the same time the formation of a little and manage. The battle of Lissa proved that be taken into consideration the principle that was steam ; and as all the specimens of copper colt; sailors must betake themselves to their ornamentation, and with which the means to be

boarding is impossible and ramming very diffi- to govern the production of the general surface he experimented with gave the same result guns, and lead the world in rapidity and accuracy employed for the protection of the ironwork he concludes that all commercial coppers con- of fire, as they have long done in the manage- from the atmosphere was to be associated. Like tain a little oxide. While in a state of perfect ment of their ships. One more lesson from Lissa a true master of his art, Mr. Skidmore has con. fusion the surface of the metal was perfectly is that there may be occasions when the posses- verted this grave difficulty into an element of his still; but as it cooled the hydrogen escaped sion of breechloaders may enable an extra broad. success. He has covered with lead the whole of from the mass, projecting small globules of the side to be delivered at close quarters. We have the ironwork that otherwise would be visible, metal; and on breaking the ingot when quite the strongest muzzle-loading guns, but is it, after and consequently would be exposed to atmocold, the interior was found to have a number all, impossible to find some system of breech-spheric action. "Lead and bronze are the only of small cavities. M. Caron

does not seem to loading which may, when applied to the Arm- visible, and therefore the only assailable, metals. have ascertained how much hydrogen was of strength with facility of loading and safety to rate series of exquisite surface designs, of which

strong coil construction, give us that combination This same leadwork is wrought into an elabopermanently retained by the copper. Mr. Carey Lea, in an account of some new of modern naval welfare ? Has Krupp's system merable pieces of polished agate, onyx, jasper,

the men, capable of satisfying all the requirements the leading motive is to form settings for inna. manipulations, gives a method of what he of breechloading been fairly tried with the Arm. cornelian, crystal, marble, granite, and other calls "inverse filtration,” which is very strong gan ?

richly-coloured hard substances, together with simple, and will be found useful in many cases.

inlays of enamels of various hues. The cross When, for example the mother liquor is to be

that forms the finial of the memorial is a work of separated from crystals, or caustic potash is to

A NEW SUBSTANCE.

great dignity, executed in bronze, with inlays of be filtered, or generally when solid and liquid matters have to be rapidly separated on a large M. FECERES, Professor of Chemistry at Nancy, stones and rich gilding; it is a Latin cross, scale, Mr. Lea makes use of a small funnel, Sciences that he had succeeded in obtaining per extremities, and also at the intersection of its over the mouth of which he stretches a piece chloride of lead, a curious substance derived from limbs, a strict simplicity of form is not main. of stout muslin and ties it securely round the the only compound of lead and chloride, and which tained. It stands upon a highly-enriched globe, neck. Then on the stem of the funnel he now must be called protochloride. The latter is which, in its turn, rests upon the foliated capital passes a piece of india-rubber tubing, which obtained directly by subjecting lead to the in, of a single cylindrical shaft, wreathed towards its may be several feet in length, or it may be Auence of chlorine by the application of heat, or head with spiral enrichment, and, lower down, short

, and the difference made up by inserting a else by treating litharge with hydrochloric acid. wrought to an octagonal section, having four of piece of glass tubing. The funnel and tube It crystallises in needles, is volatile, and cannot be its faces studded with gem.work, while a statue are then filled with water, the open end of the decomposed by heat. M. Niklós has obtained the is placed in front of each

of its other four faces. tube being closed with the finger, and the fun the action of a current of chlorine in a solution of four principal ones being eight feet high, are

new compound by exposing the protochloride to Sixteen bronze statues of various heights, the nel is quickly inverted in the vessel containing chloride of lime. The perchloride thus obtained is grouped about the several stages of the spire, the mixtare to be filtered. We have here a a yellow liquid emitting a strong smell of chlorine, and add greatly to the dignified beauty of the combination of filter and siphon, and the and is a powerful agent for communicating that whole composition. pressure of the column of water in the longer element to other substances. It will dissolve gold, leg of the siphon greatly expedites the opera- and produces, with aniline and the analogous comtion. Our chemical readers will see at once pounds, those beautiful colours for, which those

PRIVATE BILLS FOR 1867. in how many cases this simple method will be substances are so remarkable. With morphine, applicable. It is sometimes necessary to place it yields a colour similar to that of the horizon at

by the Private Bill Office of the House of filtering paper inside the muslin, and in doing Now, bracine and Strychnine, "both vegetable Commons, there are 317 bills in Parliament this will suggest themselves to every practical man. cult to distinguish from each other, and here per: very few are for new railways, the bills being

chloride of lead steps in as a useful agent; for it principally for extensions of time, abandonments, so happens that it does not produce red with amalgamations, and deviations of lines already

authorised. The others are gasworks, waterENGLISH GUNNERY EXPERIMENTS. strychnine as it does with brucine, and may there.

fore be used to distinguish one substance from the works, enclosures, improvements, and other mis. N elaborate review of a series of reports on other. It serves the same purpose with regard cellaneous works. The most important and no AN gunnery, by Captain W.H. Noble, M.A.; to morphine and the other alkaloids of opium; it doubt the greatest fighting bill of the session

will Royal Artillery, recently appeared in the Times

. will likewise detect bi-carbonate of lime in pot be the Metropolis Gas Bill, by which it is prowriter of the article, be regarded as established to distinguish salts of lead from those of bismuth, under the coutrol of the Metropolitan Board of The following practical conclusiong may, says the able water by producing a yellow tint, and help posed to put all the gas companies within the me. by English gunnery experiments :-For actual since it precipitates the former from their solu. Works, and to supply to the public gas of pure petruction, heavy guns are required, and as these sugar and not glucose, and blacken aniline with: quality at uniform rates in all the districts, the most be capable of throwing a projectile with a out producing any effect either on fecula, starch, fate proposed being 85: 6d. per 1,000 cubic feet. stand large charges of powder. The projectiles with ether to form a very caustic compound, great support from the public, and unanimous must be of hard material. Palliser's chilled iron which attacks both gold and platinum, besides opposition from the various gas companies. shot and shell are equal, if not superior, to steel; other metals. and far cheaper. Shells should be so constructed that the bursting charges may act in a forward

The scientific committee appointed in Sweden to direction; their heads must be solid, and the It is stated that the Northern Telegraph connect ascertain the importance of the coal layers just disbest form is the "ogival pointed.” With hard ing Europe with America, via Russia, will soon be covered in Scania, in that country, has given in a projectiles, the perforation is directly propor. l in working order,

most favourable report.

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parallel or nearly so therewith, as in former ing to the arrangement just described ; figs. 2 MACHINERY FOR DRESSING FIBRES. machinery.

and 3 are sections through the lines A B and C NE of the most important improvements we Messrs. Chadwick and Bremme’s machinery is D respectively of fig. 1. a is a bedplate, and b ing fibres, in which improvements are constantly are bolted, which support in bearings a shaft, on bearings supporting a shaft c, on which fast and being made, has recently been patented by Messrs. which are keyed fast and loose pulleys and a loose pulleys d e are keyed. f is a metal disc also Daniel Chadwick and G. A. C. Bremme, of Liver. metal disc. To this disc segmental 'pieces of keyed on the shaft c; i g are segmental pieces of pool. Their invention consists in the construc- wood are secured; they carry heckle combs or wood secured to the disc f; these pieces g carry. tion of a heckle disc, and in the combination pins. Other standards support in bearings a heckle combs or teeth h; i i are other standards therewith of a clearer or clearing disc set at such an second shaft, set at an angle with the first-named which support in bearings a second shaft j, set at angle with the heckle disc that, while it is in con- shaft. This shaft bas keyed thereon a clearer or an angle, as shown, with the shaft c. The sha tact therewith and the heckle pins pass through clearing disc composed of a frame with segj has keyed thereon a clearer or clearing disc k, it at one part, it is so far separated from it at the mental openings corresponding to the segmental composed of a frame, as seen in fig. 3, with segpart diametrically opposite that the heckle pins are pieces of wood, and of coverings to the openings mental openings I i corresponding to the seg. elear of it at that part. The fibres to be operated with holes or slots therein for the heckle combs mental pieces g g, and of coverings to the openupon are fed to the heckle pins at that part of or pins to work through; or these coverings may ings l 1, with holes therein as shown at m, or slots their revolution where they pass through the consist of bars to fit between the rows of pins. as shown at n, for the heckle combs or teeth h to clearer, and as the disc revolves the pins are The feeding rollers are held in brackets bolted to work through. o o are the feeding rollers held in drawn out of the clearer, and the fibres held by rails which are secured to the standards before- brackets p bolted to rails q, which are secured to them are prevented passing through the clearer. named; these brackets also support a shaft on the standards i i; the brackets p also support a A distinguishing feature in this invention is that which is a screw or worm wheel which gears into shaft r, on which is a worm in gear with a worm the heckle teeth or pins revolve in a plane 8 wheel on the lower feed roller. This shaft wheel s on the lower feed roller o.

The shaft o parallel or nearly so with the axes of the feeding carries & pulley actuated from a pulley on the carries a pulley + driven from a pulley u on the rollers, while in former machinery for dressing shaft of the clearer. The shafts of the heckle disc shaft ». The shafts c and j revolve together and fibres the heckle teeth or pins have been made to and of the clearer revolve together and simulta- simultaneously, and the clearing disc k carries revolve in planes at right angles or nearly so neously. One of the discs carries near its peri- near its periphery at intervals projections or with the axes of the feeding rollers. In other phery at intervals projections or arms which arms v, which take into corresponding recesses in words, the shaft round which the heckle teeth or fit into corresponding recesses in the other the disc f. Owing to the heckle disc f and the pins in the macbinery we are now describing re- disc:

clearing disc k being set at an angle to each volve is at right angles or nearly so with the Fig. 1 of the accompanying engraving is a plan other, the heckle teeth pass through the disc k axes of the feeding rollers instead of being partly in section of a machine constructed accord- when they come opposite, that is to say, facing

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