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fibre in the teeth or ping of the combs, so that ing. G H are two other discs, one for each ring,

APPARATUS FOR EVAPORATING OR the fibres cannot come out when the separation and set higher than the four discs C D E F, for of the two combs is effected. the purpose of partially keeping down the slivers.

RECOVERING LEES. Fig. 1 of the accompanying engraving is a I is an intermediate circular plate or digo in NHE subject of the engraving on next page sectional elevation of a combing maobine with front of the other discs, and set between the this invention applied thereto; fig. 2 is a side dieos C D and the discs É F in the augle at the recently been obtained by Mr. Alexander Swan, elevation, and fig. 3 a horizontal section taken tangential point of the two rings, as shown. This of Kircaldy, Scotland. It refers to improved just above the circular plates of a portion of the disc I serves to keep the wool or other fibre in apparatus for evaporating or recovering lees in machine on a larger scale. A is the outer or the teeth or pins of the combs as before men. bleaching processes. The invention consists in larger ring or circle of the machine, with rows of tioned. It is the employment of this inter- the employment of close rotating vessels supplied pids or teeth forming combs. B and B' are two mediate circular plate or disc I in the particular with steam for the purpose of evaporating the of several of the smaller or innerrings or circles, situation shown that constitutes the main feature lees, and in the arrangement of pipes for supplyhaving algo rows of pins or teeth. Each of these of the present invention. The other parts of ing the steam to the vessels. In bearings in the smaller rings or circles at one part of its revolu. the machine will be fully understood by the sides of a tank or cistern containing the lees to be tion comes in contact with or in close proximity drawings. It is preferred to employ flat pins or evaporated, Mr. Swan mounts the axes of a series to the outer ring A, as clearly seen in fig. 3, teeth, instead of pins or teeth of the ordinary of close vessels of cylindrical shape. These and as is the case in all combing machines of round form, so that tho passage of the circular vessels are caused to rotate by any convenient this description, which are known as nobles." plates or disos between the rows of pins or teeth means, but for this purpose the inventor makes OD are two circular plates or discs, which work is not interfered with.

the periphery of the vessels when cylindrical in between the rows of pins or teeth of the outer

the form of toothed gearing, each vessel gearing ring A, and E F are two circular plates or disos

into that next adjoining. Rotary motion is which work between the rows of pins or teeth of

A locomotive for common roads on the Lootz imparted to one of the vessels by gearing conthe inner ring B; these four plates act as shown system lately started from Nantes, passed through peoted therewith, so that all the vessels are capsed cause the slivers supplied to the latter to Orleans, travelling at the rate of 20 to 25 kilo. rotating vessels are hollow, and the vessels are penetrate, and they hold them during the comb- metres (12miles to 154 miles) an hour.

supplied with steam as follows :-Along one side

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TEACHERS. THE following minute has been recently Council on Education:-In accordance with’the practice of the Science and Art Department at the International Exhibitions at Paris in 1855

and in London in 1862, my Lords consider it FIG.4.

desirable to offer encouragement to the masters FIC.3.

teaching in Schools of Science and Art to visit

the present International Exhibition at Paris, with the view of studying those objects which may be likely to benefit the instruction given in such schools. Their Lordships therefore announce to the certificated masters now engaged

in /giving instruction in Schools of Science and d.

Art connected with the Department, that they will pay to each such master or mistress visiting the Paris Exhibition the sum of £5 in aid of their expenses, and to each an additional sum of

£2 for any report or any useful suggestions of the tank is carried a main pipe, from which a the centre thereof. The shell of the boiler which any such teacher may make (in respect to branch pipo leads to each vessel and passes forms the bottom fthe pan, and the heat given his or her daties or teaching) derived from the throug b or into the hollow axles at one end of the off from

the boiler evaporates

the lees. Fig. 4 study of the Exhibition, such report having first vessel. The steam thus enters the vessels, circu. is a transverse section of a steam boiler with au

been published in any joarual, local or otherwise, lates therein and heats them, and the heat eva. evaporating pan mounted thereon.

a is the and afterwards approved by their Lordships. porates the lees in which the vessels revolve. boiler and an open evaporating

pan carried and further, to each of the three best of such Tho waste or spent

steam issues from the vessels down the sides of the boiler to about the centre reports referring to instruction in science and to by pipe inserted into or through the other hol-. thereof. c is the boiler Age. The shell of the each of the three best reports referring to art, low axle of each vessel.

boiler, as before stated, forms the bottom of the my Lords will give respectively the following Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings is a pan, and the heat given off from the boiler eva prizes in addition to the sum above named, horizontal section, and fig. 2 a side elevation of porates the lees supplied to the pan.

namely :-For science, for the best report, £20 ; part of an apparatus constrncted and arranged

for the second best report, £15, and for the as described. a is a tank or cistern sapplied

third best report, £10; and the same sums rewith the lees to be evaporated; b b are a series

spectively to the three best reports for art.

IMPROVED MILITARY CARTRIDGE. of close vessels, the axes of which are hollow, and revolve in bearings ce in the sides of the MP tid maker

, had recently invented a new AERONAUTICAL

. DAW, the . tank. The peripheries of these vessels are in

SOCIETY OF GREAT the form of toothed gearing, each vessel gearing metallio cartridge which is specially constructed

BRITAIN. into that next adjoining. Rotary motion is for the service of breech-loading rifles. It is imparted to the first, and consequently to all, alleged that these cartridges possess greater ad.

(Concluded from p. 262 )

CR. F. H. WENHAM then read a paper upon shaft of this first vessel, in gear with another produced. The cases are made of thin shoot wheel e on the shaft of a driving palley f. g is a brass formed into a oylinder round a mandrel, remarking that the information received by the main stenm pipe carried along one side of the the end of the sheet being comented or soldered society since its formation shows that our knowtank a; from this pipe g a branch pipe h firmly down, and make the cartridge 80 com. ledge of aeronantios, in so far as regards the navi. leads to each vessel b, and passes into the hollow pletely water.tight that it may be left immersed gation of the air by mechanical means, amounts to axle at one end of the vessel. The steam thus in water for days uninjured. The rear of the bat very little, and that nearly every writer has a enters all the vessels b, circulates therein and case is united with a metal end.cover, on the theory of his own. The author mentioned that the heats them, and the heat evaporates the lees in principle patented and first introduced into only condition for the supporting effect of fight is the tank a, in which the vessels revolve. The England by Mr. Daw in 1861, and exhibited by obtained in the weight of air upon which the spent steam issues from the vessels by pipes i him in the Exhibition of 1862, when he obtained wings impinge in a given time, and that all inserted into the hollow axle at the end opposite the prize medal. The new Daw cartridges are machines should be constructed specially with that on which the steam enters.

very considerably lighter_(60 graids per this condition in view. In illustration of this Sometimes, instead of employing vessels hav. cartridge) than the present Woolwich ammuni. theory, the author alluded to a weight or spring ing a rotating motion, Mr. Swau sabmerges in tion, as well as cheaper in the manufacture by pressing upon the rim of a gyroscope, and graa tank containing the lees a fixed close vessel or something like 25 per cent. Some trials were dually deflecting it from the plane of rotation on boiler supplied with steam from a high-pressure recently made with Mr. Daws's cartridge which account of the enormous weight of metal rush. boiler or otherwise. Fig. 3 is a cross section were attended by several eminent military ing under the supported body in a short time, showing a tank a for lees, with close tubes b b b officers. The new caseg appeared from the and, as a proof that the converse of this is nearly submerged therein. These tubes are supplied shooting to be completely and reliably safe, not imitating the conditions of a bird passing swiftly with steam by an inlet pipe e, communicating the slightest stain of gas either from powder or over a stratum of air, mentions that if the with a box or vessel d, into whieh the tubes lead. falminate being anywhere visible; the certainty weight or a spring is traversed round the edge o is an outlet for the water resulting from con- of ignition seemed equally perfect. After firing of the deflected diso of the gyroscope, this at a densation. Mr. Swan's invention further con- the cases were withdrawn with the slightest pos. slow speed will undulate under the pressure, but sists in evaporating lees by mounting or fixing sible touch, without the remotest tendenoy to at a quiok speed the undulation will cease, and on an ordinary steam boiler an open evaporating sticking as was the case with the Boxer-Eloy the disc will again arrange itself in a horizontal pan to which the lees are supplied, which pan cartridges of the latest Woolwich pattern, with position, and the weight ranning thereon will be may be carried or extend to any desired dis- which they were put in competition. The Daw entirely supported in oue plane by the momentum tante down the sides of the boiler, say to about cartridge has further this advantage over the l of the metal which, has no direct support.


comente verso la bgram toothed wheel d on the vantages than her youtube printed on MP the prosent state of aeronautical science, THE

Mr. Frederick Brearey, the honorary secretary, that the angle which its surface presents to the read a paper by Mr, F. D. Arlingstall, of Man wind may be regulated at pleasure. On each

MAKING TURPENTINE. chester, on the flight of birds. Buoyancy is not side of the spine or central line of this plane or THE great turpentine country commences accomplished by wind-like action or “ waftage,” sail, or about one-third of its length from the about thirty miles south of Weldon, N.C., but by a peculiar property of air somewhat analo: broader end, it is proposed to insert two America, and thence extends to Wilmington, one gous to waves or pulses of sound. The bird screws or helices within the sail, having their hundred and thirty miles further south. It again first spreads out its wings, then raises them, axes at right angles to it; motion is first imparted extends from Wilmington, N.C., nearly to Florence, when constantly the greatest power of the pec- to this sail by means of the velocipede maneuvred S C., a distance of one hundred and six miles. toral muscles is exerted to bring them down by the aeronaut, and so placed as to impart to In this entire region there are but few cultivated again, which they do to a certain extent, but the the sail an effect siinilar to that afforded by its farms, and for miles there is hardly a garden, the air resists this and the bird is buoyed up; now tail to the kite. Simultaneously with the move turpentine business engrossing the whole attention the air re-acts and carries the wing back, or np ment of the velocipede, the screws must be set of those employed in it, and preventing them from again, with as much force as it was driven down. in motion in order to ensure the ascension of the cultivating the soil. Early in the season, about The great pectoral muscles hold against this re. apparatus. The action of the screws, which is March, the pine trees are boxed and chipped. action, so that during the return or up stroke the especial novelty of the apparatus just de. Boxing is to cut a hole or box in the trunk of the buoyanoy is continued ; thus by a ceaseless repe. scribed, is the reverse of that commonly given tree, about a foot from the ground, large enough tition the bird is completely buoyed up. As to to them; instead of directing the propelling to hold a quart or two of the sap or turpentine, the question of progression, if the wings move power in the line of flight intended by the and above that the bark is chipped off 2ft. or 3ft. through a very short space, the buoyant power aeronaut, it is proposed to aim it in a directly each season until the height of from 10ft. to 15ft. may be as great as in a long stroke, but the pro- contrary course. The sail is pulled obliquely is reached. From time to time three or four pelling power will be little or nothing, because, against the wind, not thrust with it; in this boxes are made in each tree, which is correspondin addition to the buoyant power of the wings, manner assisting because not regulating, as in ingly chipped. The turpentine is dipped from the they also act something like a screw in principle, the case of the kito, the upward and later the tree into buckets, and from thence conveyed to and tend to drive a current of air from their back onward movement of the aeronant. This ap. barrels. The ladle is an iron "scoop," which is, edges; therefore for rapid progression it requires paratus, moreover, is capable of performing a however, rather flat in shape than otherwise ; but a longer sweep of wing, that is, a greater arc of feat altogether beyond the capacity of its pro as the turpentine is adhesive there is no difficulty vibration. The wing may be said to feel the air, totype. It has the power of moving in the in dipping it. From a pint to a quart is taken and their slightest movement produces a palsa- direction of as well as against the wind, by re. out at each dipping, and sometimes seven dippings tion in the atmosphere, as ceaseless although versing the action of the screws, thereby pusho are made in a season. A tree lives under this imperceptible, as the pulsations of the heart, but ing instead of pulling the sail, thus producing a process about fifteen years. for buoyancy quite as effective as if th> wings similar restraining and regulating action to that The principal labour employed in the dipping moved through greater space. described in the former instance,

(which is always during warm or hot weather) is The "frigate bird's" wings feel the air so well An interesting discussion was maintained in black, under the direction of white labourers, who that probably it maintains mere buoyancy at an relation to the several papers, previously to superintend the turpentine distilleries, by which expenditure of power only equal to raising its which the chairman remarked that the general the sap of the pine tree is converted into spirits own weight one inch per second, for the waves subject of aerostation could hardly yet be spoken of turpentine and rosin. Tar is made from the or pulses excited by its wings strongly resist vi. of as even in its infancy, and in the embryo-like light wood or most pitchy part of the wood, bration at a greater speed whether the space condition of many of the facts with which the melted by burning over a cauldron. The pine moved through be great or small.

Aeronautical Society had to deal, he was sure forests are owned in large tracts, and the principal With regard to artificial flight, he believed the that they were exceedingly indebted to gentle- part of the labour, free and slave, comes from sec. laws of nature were strongly in our favour, but we men who had, after bestowing very great attentions of the state where the slave property is still were in the position of a strong man falling into tion to their several subjects, communicated owned, but hired out. It puts a great amount of the water, who, having those laws in his favour the result of their labours to the meeting. money into circulation. From 175 dols. to 250 dols. for swimming, might drown himself by mis, Gentlemen desirous of becoming members of this perannumis paid for the slave labour, but the white applied strength. So a novice splutters and society should address Mr. F, W. Brearey, labour is better compensated. At Wilmington, nearly cracks his cheeks in his efforts to blow a Maidenstone-hill, Blackheath, S.E.

in the turpentine distilleries, in the coopering estrompet, and fails to produce a vibration, while

tablishments, and in every branch of the turpenthe regular trumpeter with little exertion shakes

tine labour, hardly a white man is to be seen. the air for miles around. In his experiments, * PARIS EXHIBITION-TRIALS OF STEAM The proportion of white men through the pine the great difficulty was, to cause the wings to


forest region is somewhat greater. excite by their peculiar motion a powerful pal.


Florence and Charleston, in this State, the tur. sation of the air, and at the same time to avail The following are the particulars and dimen- pentine ambition has doomed many of the foresta himself of the re-acting stroke to carry the wing sions of Merryweather and Son's steam to be boxed and chipped, though there are some back without a cessation of the buoyancy, for he fire.engines that competed so successfully at the landowners who regard it as the part of prudence utterly disbelieved that this can be done by val. Paris Exhibition, as recorded in our last number. to hold back for lumber; and one of them declares Yular wings, by manwavring the wing edgeways, The large steam fire-engine "L'Empereur," has that not a tree of his shall be boxed. South or even by progressive motion ; in fact, the heron two steam cylinders, each 8 in. diarneter; two Carolina is running close upon the "Old North when hovering over a certain spot completely pumps--double-acting-each 7in, diameter; suc: State” in the turpentine production, but cotton disproves this, as the bird raises its wings slowly tion pipe, 6ļin, interual diameter, worked with and rice are yet her great staples. and does not progress an inch, whereas if buoy. a lift of 13fo. to the pump, drew water from the ancy ceased during the apstroke the bird would lake roand lighthouse and projected a lfin. fall several feet. What, then, keeps it suspended ? stream steadily over the gallery of the Certainly not a miraculous power, but one that lighthouse, and when the wind lulled twice

Obituary. can be brought under the calculations of the or thrice the stream

went & metre over mathematician, and imitated by the engineer, the spire on the top of the vane, which is and, as the society bad as members the first sci- an actual height of 212ft, from the water, so that

We have to announce the death of Mr, Alfred

He was in the 70th year of his age, entífic men and engineers in the world, he hoped the engine projected its stream 215ft. high. It King, C.E. they would turn their attention to the subject. also played a lfin. stream well over the gallery. and had acted as engineer in chief to the Liver

Mr. F. Brearey then read a paper by the Earl The engine workd steadily and easily, and maiu: pool Gas Light Company for about forty-one of Aldborough, entitled “Soine remarks on the tained steam well. This was varied by dis- years. During that period he has had to provide theory of a light of birds, and its application charging fourlin, streams in different dimensious. gas for a population which has increased from to an aerial machine." In the machine in Appliances are with the engine for throwing about 200,000 to 500,000 persons, and the efficicourse of construction by his lordship, the main twelve reams of water simultaneously. Merry- ency of his management, and extent of his proportion of the entire weight is sustained by a weather's medium engine has one steam cylinder fessional skill, have a world-wide appreciation peculiar form of aerostat, stiffened by ribs, and sin. diameter, and one double-acting pump 7in. He was known to the contractors, and others having fine lines at the stem and stern, and of diameter, and suction pipe 4ļin. diameter. Their who had dealings with him in business, as a the best form for cutting through the air; the small engine, “La Prince Imperial,” has one gentleman in the fullest sense of tho word, so

He did machine being somewhat heavier than its bulk steam cylinder 6ļin. diameter, and one double. upright and just were his principles. of air, the power of ascending and descending, acting pump 64in. diameter, and the diameter strictly unto others as he would they should do and also of propulsion, is obtained by the me- of the suction pipe of this engine is 4in. diameter. unto him. chanical action of the wings alone, so that the It raised steam to 80lb in 104 min., and comolumsy expedient of discharging gas for a long menced working, sleadily rising to 1401b. The

Correspondence. voyage is entirely dispensed with. The author average steam and water pressure was 1201b. to asserts that the wing of a bird is a lover which the square inch ; suction lift, 8ft; delivery hose, creates a fulorum for itself, and that by the force 320ft. long; nozzle, lin. diameter full. It played

FOULING AND CORROSION. of currents meeting at an angle under the wing, remarkably steady and well, and maintained

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." the sustaining and propelling forces are caused steam easily. Average height of stream com

SIR,-Having read the article on the coating and to act conjointly. His lordship stated that his pated 120ft. or perhaps 140st. All the engines fogling of ships' bottoms in your issue of the 12th construction of an aerial vessel has been delayed have steel angle frames strongly stayed, steel ult., and presuming the writer of it bad over, in consequence of the difficulty in finding com. tyres to wheels, and seamless drawn steel tubes looked the patent recently taken out by M. Bernabé patent workmen to make the several parts. in the boilers, horizontal cylinders, and pumps for which I am sole agent in England. I forwarded

Mr. Henri Réda St. Martin read a paper de without cranks, fly wheels, or eccentrics. The copy of your paper to the admiral et Toulon, Božibing ar aerostatic apparatus, which is based large engine "L'Empereur" is of Merryweather's onder whose direction the process in question had theoretically and practically on the same prin. Admiralty pattern, and with which her Majesty's been tested by order of the Government of the En. ciples as those which affect and regulate the dockyards have already been supplied and their peror, requesting him as a matter of favur to give movement of the kite in the air. A light flat smaller engine is of a similar pattern to that

me his views on the subject. Enclosed I beg to frame covered with silk or other suitable ma. adopted by the Metropolitan Board of Works for which I trust you will consider worthy of a place

hand you his reply, together with a translation, terial, presenting a kite-like form, is placed over their Fire Brigade. This engine is also much in your columns. a carriage resembling the ordinary velocipede ; j used by a number of provincial towns and foreign With respect to the adherence of the two metals it is attached to the carriage in such a manner Governments.

I need only mention two of the many trials the pro.



cess underwent in the Arsenal of Toulon by directure; it is evident that some certain amount of gas The first of the large 5in. rolled armour-plates, tion of the commission in order to prove its inten. shall be just sufficient to raise the rib a certain nearly 30ft. in length, manufactured in one slab at sity. Two iron plates were coated with copper, height-supposing it to have been entirely immersed the Atlas Iron and steel Works by Messrs. John One was hammered and submitted to the action of -and so retain it. If then sails were applied to Brown and Co., Sheffield, for the “conning" the fire without the smallest impression being made. this structure, the current of air necessary to propel tower for the iron armour-plated frigate “HerThe second was bent and twisted till the iron broke, an ordinary boat or vessel, would propel this con. cules,” 12, 1,200-horse power, building at Chatham pet still the coating adhered and was immovable. trivance, proportionally quicker as the resistance Dockyard, has been removed to the factory in the These are facts. Regarding its value as a coating which it offered in passing through water were in yard, where it will undergo the planing, slotting, for ships' bottoms, I am not sailor enough to speak, comparison greater or less. From what has been and boring processes, in readiness for being bolted but I may mention that a frigate's armour plate before stated of the construction of the rib it is evi. to the tower. coated by this process was submerged and attached dent that the resistance would be immeasurably to a barge in the arsenal above named, where it legs. Having never taken any interest in balloon very best accounts of the working of the Snider

We (Army and Navy Gazette) are glad to hear the remained for five months. When taken up and construction I cannot say how far this idea may be rifle with the No. 3 cartridge. It appears to leavo examined no alteration had taken place, save a dull practicable. At the same time I may renture to nothing to be desired, and both officers and men appearance on the copper. The iron was intact. In state that if the maintenance and generation of the all other branches of the trade, however, the process gas to any required

quantity be not impossible, then its merits.

now engaged in practice are quite enthusiastic about seems to be fully appreciated if I may judge by the is the feasibility of the proposition well nigh proved. number of articles sent, as simples, to be coated, Should the foregoing remarks prove useful to

One of Martin's improved patent self-canting two and without having as yet ever been advertised. aeronauts they will have falilled the object for Aaked anchors, manufactured by order of the I am, Sir, yours, &c., W. H. MAITLAND, which they were designed.--I am, sir, yours, &c.,

Board of Admiralty, was lately tested in the East India-avenue, E.C., May 1, 1867.

H. P. B. hydraulic press at Woolwich, according to the strict Rantalard, Whitehouse, near Belfast,

regulations of the service. The anchor weighs (TRANSLATION.]

April 30, 1867.

19 owt. 1 gr. 171b, and the stock 2 qr. 21b., and is Prefecture du 5me Arrondissement Maritime.

intended for use on board H.M. steam storeship Cabinet da Prefect.

Industry.” The strain was worked up to 20 tons, MY DEAR SIR,-I received you: letter of the

and on examination the maximum variation of the 13th of this month, as well as the number of the Meetings for the dateek. metal was 3-16ths inch, which, however, fully reMECHAICS' MAGAZINE of the 12th of April, for

gained its position without leaving the slightest which I am obliged. You ask me to give you my

permanent change. opinion upon the article concerning the method Mon.--Royal Institution.-General Monthly Meeting, 2. According to the mosl recent intelligence Franco employed up to this day for preserving iron from

Society of Engineers. On Water Tube is busy in placing her troops on a war footing two the corrosive action of sea water. Mention is made

Boilers,” by Mr. Vaughan Pendred, 7.30.

corps d'armee are now supplied with the Chassepot of a new galvanoplastique process, for which a

Royal United Service Institution. — " Explosive patent has recently been taken out, and it is further

Shells Applied to Military Purposes,"oby gun, 250 ambulances are also ready and 20,000

Captain & V. Fosbery; and, “On the Do- horses for cavalry remounts have been purchased. stated this process is nothing more nor less than

magnetisation of Iron Vessels," the process General orders have been issue i that leave of absence that which has been employed for twenty years to

will be shown by means of a model illustrat- was not to be granted on any pretext whatsoever, coat small articles of iron with copper, with this

ing operations on H.M.S. “Northumberland," not even for twenty-four hours. The Paris coraddition, that the iron is rendered in the first in.

by Mr. E. Hopkins, 8.30.

respondent of the Star writes that the Artillery of

TUES.- Royal Institution, -- " stance positive by means of electricicy, before

“Plato,” by Professor the garde have received a newly.invented revolver receiving the deposit of copper. The author of

Blackie, 3. the article in question adds that there is no advan:

Institution of Civil Engineers. —"On Optical cannon, which is expected to produce as devastating

Apparatus used in Lighthouses," by Mr. results in the ranks of the Prussian army as the tage in this, and assures the public the impurities

James T. Chance, M.A., 8.

rifled guns among the Austrian troops. These guns of the iron as well as those of the copper render

WED.-Geological Society, 8.

have been mounted since these rumours of war bean adherence between the two metals impossible.

THURS. ---Royal Institution.—“Ethnology," by Professor gan to circulate, and have been tried by the regi. If it is Bernabé's paten: that he means, I can

Huxley, 3.
Fri.—Royal Institution.". Correlation of Force in its different principle from the small copper cannon

ments quartered at Versailles. They are on a declare that this assertion is erroneous. In all the

Bearing on Mind,” by Professor Bain, 8. applications that have been made of this process in

Royal United Service Institution. "Plan of served out to the garde, and only intended for the the Arsenal of Toulon, the penetration of the cop.

Sustaining and Lowering Ships' Quarter infantry. They have been made at the Emperor's per into the iron, and the adherence of the two

Boats,” by Captain C. H. Simpson, 3.

firearm factory in the reserved park of St. Cloud. metals are such that the iron coppered can be

Architectural Association. - Special Business One of them was taken the other day to the hammered without detaching the copper there.

Meeting, 7.30.
Sat. -- Royal Institution.—“ Ethnology,” by Professor wrapped in tarpaulin that it was impossible to

fortifications to be tried ; but it was so carefully from. Large pieces as well as small have been

Huxley, 3, coated. These results are obtained, not only by

discern its shape. the action of the salts made use of in the two suc

The Admiralty authorities having decided on cessive baths, but also by the particular manner in

disposing of the stores of ballast iron at Chatham which the galvanic currents are directed. It is not


dockyard, better known as " Seely's Pigs," orders necessary that the iron should be pure; inasmuch The MECHANIOS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to sub have been received for 2,000 tons of the iron at that as cast iron can be coated as well as wrought iron. scribers of £1 Is. 8d. yearly, or 10s. 10d. half-yearly, pay, establishment to be at once sold, and the proceeds All that is necessary is that it should be weliable in advance. cleaned. It is not even necessary that the copper

Advertisements are inserted in the MEORANIOS' MAGA-carried to the public account. The whole of the should be exempt from all impurities, as that de sertions, or 4d. a line for 26 insertions Each line con- intrusted by the Admiralty to Messrs. Ryland, of

EINK at the rate of bd. per line, or 6d. per line for 13 in. / arrangements for the sale of the iron have been posited upon the iron by means of electricity is sists of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same Birmingham, who will be paid a commission of 5 perfectly pure.

rate as type. Special arrangements made for large adver- per cent. on the amount realised. The iron will be Thus, there is no obstacle to the employment of tisements.

disposed of by tender, the minimum price to be the iron or copper of commerce in order to obtain a All communications should be addressed to the Editor, received having been fixed by the Admiralty. perfect adherence between the two metals. At all 166, Fleet-street. events, and whatever may be said, the facts are

To insure insertion in the following number, advertise

The old stock of anchors now in Woolwich there, and they demonstrate in a manner nt to be

ments should reaah the office not later than 6 o'clock on dockyard, are to be disposed of ; some of them Thursday evening.

have lain in the yard since 1846, and are now disputed the solution of the problem as to the com. We must absolutely decline attending to communica-occupying a space of ground on the

wharf uselessly. plete protection of iron against the corrosive action tions unaccoinpanied by the name and address of the Some of those of the most recent date, it is stated, of salt water by means of a coating of copper, and writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of

arə to be issued for moorings and for the use of perfectly adherent to the iron, which prevents the good faith.-Ed, m.m.

coastings vessels, as the metal has been proved to be oxidisation, as well as, at the same time, prevent.

of good quality. An application has been made to ing the surface of the copper from becoming dirty. RECEIVED.-G. and B.-T. C.-J. P. J:--M. $. -Sir Mr. Martin, to break up the remainder of the stock This process can be applied to the hull of iron-built S. C.-L. P. S.-Messrs. T. and W.- T. PW.Is and refurge the metal in the construction of new ressels by coating them on the outside piece by W. H. M.-J. F. R.-A. W.-R. 1. G. B.-c. w. M.– anchors under bis patent. piece; and if, in consequence of a blow, any por. J. C. E.-R. J.-G. J. G.-J. A. H. and Co.-H. G. M. tion of the iron should be laid open, it can be re

Some sensation has been created at Liverpool by coated on the spot, the copper having at the same

the arrival of a Dutch steam ram, such an incident not having occurred for many years past. This

," over every other employed up to this day, and it is only necessary to examine the results to be on that

call was Texel. The "Vedel" is a four-masted screw head thoroughly convinced. Such are, my dear Advices from Italy state that Admiral Persano steamer, and judging from her build she is evi. Sir, my views upon this new invention, and I has sent challenges to an admiral and two captains dently both

a strong and formidable vessel. It is thus answer the questions you have put to me. I who gave evidence at his trial.

understood that her visit to Liverpool is for the beg of you to receive the assurance, &c., VISCOUNT DE CHABANNES, We are glad to be able to announce that the purpose of undergoing some alterations and re.

pairs. Secretary for War has authorised a reward of Admiral and Prefect Maritime. £10,000 to Major Palliser, R.A., for his improve

The Chassepot rifle appears to heat very rapidly; Toulon, April 23, 1867.

ment in projectiles, and another £5,000 will be pro- according to the Figaro, ten shots fired from this posed in next year's estimates.

gun make the weapon so hot that it is impossible to A Yankee has invented a small vessel to cross the An order was sent to Spain a few days ago for

hold it, and a leather holder is, therefore, suggested. AERIAL NAVIGATION.

Atlantic without sails or steam. The motive power 35,000 of these weapons, and a bonus was offered SIR,-To those who still cherish dreams of suc. is on the principle of a windmill.

in case the Chassepots can be delivered before the cees in aerial voyages by sea, Mr. Hodsman's late The committee on breech-loaders has been hard time named in the contract expedition may suggest a few ideas. The great at work since the commencement of last month. difficulty hitherto experienced in making aerial tra. Their task is no light one. Ninety-three different velling of some practical value appears to have been systems have been submitted, upon each of which, the means of direction, and the prevention of what with its cartridge, a careful judgment has to be pro

Miscellanea. is nautically termed making lee-way. Now let us nounced. imagine some such invention as a thin rib of iron The French papers give a description of an explating, whose width shall offer but little resistance traordinary cannon which can be carried like a sedan A ton of merchandise is carried from Liverpool in passing through water in a longitudinal direc. chair by two men, and which is likely to be as to New York for £7, whereas a ton of letters costs tion. Let us next suppose that an appliance for the useful in war as that article. Just as one set of £3,564. generation of gas be affixed to the foregoing struc. inventors is engaged in devising means of carrying

The largest farm in the world is that of General maimed men out of the battle, another set is de Urquiza, in Buenos

Ayres, who has other A trigato's armour plate coppered by this process is employed in improving the means of maiming, and estates also. It covers 900 square miles, or 576,000 exhibited in Class 66 of the Paris Exhibition. rendering them more portable.

acres, and employs 20,000 men.

Bernabe process has an inconceivable advantage Naval, Military, and Gunnery Jtems. mand of Captain Koopman, and her' last port of


Patents for Inventions,





Conspicuous among the philosophical instru- A meeting of the Council of the West of England ments exhibited at General Sabine's " conversa: Agricultural Society was held at Truro zione" was the Aelioscope, an apparatus intended Saturday, when it was determined that the inpual by its inventor to supersede tho barometer, and exhibition for life stock, except horped cattle, and thus named by him because its special function is for implements, &c., shall be held at Launceston, the viewing or indicating of storms.

in the eastern part of the county, on May 29 and A gauge of 3ft. 6in. has been extensively adopted 30.

ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OP for the railways of Norway, and is strongly advo. We see by the American Artizan that Congress cated by Mr. Carl Pihl, the government engineer is about to do justice to an American inventor, Dr.

PATENTS, of that country, on the score of great economy of Charles G. Page, of the United States Patent first cost and working expenses.

Office, by an Act authorising him to apply for and Tae Abridged Specifications of Patents given below are The Chinese silkworm is perfectly acclimatised receive a patent for his induction apparatus and classified, according to the subjects to which the respective in Austria, and is now in its fourth generation electric circuit breaker, known as the induction inventionsrefer, in the following Table. By the system there, as in France. Last year M. de Bretton got coil,” the merit of which was awarded by the Em- of classification adopted, the numericaland chronological 4,000 cocoons of this species, which yielded nearly peror of France and a French Commission to order of the specifications is preserved , and combined with large silk.producing establishments in Moravia and vention. 300,000 eggs. This year he is organising three Ruhmkorff, without knowledge of Dr. Page's in all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be

understood that these abridgements are prepared ercla.

sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by in Slavonia.

According so the Northern Iron Trade Review, the Government, and are therefore the property of the The tunnel through Mont Cenis continues to the question of rating blast furnaces is again crop- Proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby progress much more rapidly now that the quartz ping to the surface in the Middlesborough

district. warned not to produce them without an acknowledgsrock has been passed through and a softer material A dispute has arisen between the overseers of Midencountered. The whole distance as yet pene- dlesborough and the proprietors of the Tees Iron BOILERS AND FORNACES,-—2546, 2559, 2586, 2605

BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, -2582, 2594, 2595, trated is, on the south 4,119 metres, and on the works. The former have assessed two large furnaces north 2,528 metres; total, 6,647 metres, which, as belonging to Messrs. Gilkes, Wilson, Pease, and OHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY2593 the entire length is 12,220 metres, leaves yet to be Co., at something over £1,100 each, which, to say CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural impleexecuted 5,573 metres. the least, is about three times the proper amount,

ments and macbiner, - none The Montreal Gazette notices the first bloom These officers have also assessed the dismantled ELECTRICAL APPARATUA.- none made in that part of the world with pare peat fuel, furnaces, and demand rates for works which are in FIBROUS , FABRIOS, including machinery for treating thre

palp, paper do.,-2557, 2562, 2563, 2564, 2596, 2601, 2603, and pronounces it of the very highest quality, equal po sense in beneficial operation. The assessment to the best Sweedish iron. The bar was bent cold bas been confirmed on appeal.

FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing by a vice, and doubled up close at right angles with

The Bureau Veritas, of Paris, shows that the

food for men and anlınals, -2560, 2571, 2572, 2687, 2009, an edge without a crack or flaw appearing, the total number of ships reported lost during the

FORNITORE AND APPAREL, including household atensils, outer corners remaining smooth and sharp; a test month of March was 257, of which 134 were Eng

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments. &c.

2654, 2555 2465, 2569, 2576, 2577, 2579, 2584, 2588, which it is said no coal-iron made in Canada will lish, 42 American, 33 French, 11 Norwegian, 7 2592, 2600 stand. The act is of great importance to all those Prussian, 4 Dutch, 4 Italian, 4 Russian, and 18 GENERAL MACHINERY, -2548, 2549, 2550, 2552, 2652, 26ss, countries where coals are scarce but peat and iron bearing various flags. The total number of vessels 2556, 2570, 2573, 2375, 2578, 2513, 2585, 2598 abundant. The peat resources California are al. lost during the first three months of the present LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, -2558, 2587, 2531 most unlimited, and their utilisation and ultimate year is 902, a decrease of 45, as compared with

the METALS, including apparatus for their manufacture, value is merely & question of time.

disasters of the corresponding period of 1866. MISCELLANEOUS, -2599 The government of Queensland has offered a re

The following is brought forward by Mr. Bernard ROADS AND VERIOLES, including railway plant and earward of £3,000 to any person

Lietar, of Brussels, as An improved method of riages, saddlery, and harness, &c., -2651, 2597 who shall, individually or jointly, make welding iron upon iron, steel upon steel, and iron Ships And

Boats, including their fittings,–2547, 2665 discovery of a gold field situate at least twenty opon steel.” 1 kilogramme filings of iron or steel; 100 STEAM ENGINES -2666: 2574, 2590, 2691

WARFARE, -2580, 2689 miles àistant from any gold field already programmes salt of ammoniac; 60 grammes of boras; claimed within the colony. Such reward will be 50 grammes of balsam of copa yva or copæiba ; cal. payable as soon as it shall be shown that the field cine the whole and reduce to fine powder. For an or. 80 discovered bas attracted to it, and supported for dinary solder one of the pieces of iron or steel is heated 2546 H. FISHER. Improvements in boilers and boiler the space of six months, a population of not less to a red heat, and after the part to be soldered has furnaces. Dated October 3, 1866. than 3,000 persons. been carefully cleaned with a file or wire brush, the We cannot bere give space to the voluminous details of

Patent completed, The metrical system of weights and measures piece at a white heat is immediately placed upon it above composition is spread upon it, and the second this invention.

2547 W. D. Scott. Improvements in raising vessels, and has been established in the Sandwich Islands. and welded together.

in the machinery or upparatus cinployed therosor. Dared The temporary bridge across the Thames at

October 3, 1866.

Russian America is inhabited by 50,000 fishing, Blackfriars is shortly to be closed for repair, and trapping, fur-bearing Esquimaux, and 9,000 or raising to the original plane of flotation of vessels or shipg

This invention has for its essential object, first, the vehicles-already delayed by the drainage barri. 10,000 Russians, Russian Americans, and people which have been sunk; second, the emersion of such cades around the Elephant and Castle-will have whom the gazetteers call Aleoots and Kodiaks. craft as may require repairs or external examination. I to go round to Fleet-street by Southwark Bridge. The Queen has signified her intention of laying export a yearly diminishing quantity of furs. The frame is provided, and this is constructed so as to fit around

the vessel's bottom. The frame is provided at one side with the first stone of the Hall of Arts and Sciences on country is a frozen wilderness, better known to

a strong hinge, whilst the opposite end is tapered to receive Monday, May 20. The contractors for the build. artic artic explorers and whalers than to most other a ring cramp. The sides of the frame are fitted with ing, Messrs. Lucas Brothers, are busily engaged in men, and probably of no possible value to any man pontoon attachments consisting of ring bolts. making preparations for the ceremony. The ground but them, the semi-civilised tribes that support ex. toons are provided with drop hooks, which, being drawa is being excavated to some feet in depth so as to istence there, and the Russian suttlers who trade through the rings, catch therein, and in this way, as several mark out the amphitheatrical form of the build. with them. The territory is rather larger than force is conserved to raise the sunken ressel, wbich is ing.

eight States like New York would be, its area being brought to the surface resting in the frame work. By this The number of Cornish pumping-engines re: 394,000 square miles.

means the undergirding of sunken vessels is avoided, and ported for March is 24. They have consumed 1,959 At the annual meeting of the Swedish Academy the soapping or breaking of the chains or ropes as they are tons of coal, and lifted 157 million tons of water of Science M. Nordenskiud announced that a dis the vesse itself is also raised in less time than formerly, 10 fathoms high. The average duty of the whole is, covery of great importance to geological science the process of lowering the framework is rendered sell

. therefore, 54,100,000lb., lifted ift. high, by the con had been made in the hill of Nullaberg, in Sweden. acting on accouut of the required depth of immersion and Bumption of 1121b. of coal.

A large deposit of bituminous gneiss, 33 metres in allowing sufficient length of rope between the frame and A strong solution of sulphate of magnesia mixed thickness, has been found embedded in layers of Boating

chambers, so that the frame may be floated out at with whitewash, says the Chemical News, will pro- to felspar, quartz, and mica, of a black substance Under the second head of this invention, that which are the gueiss and mica schist. It is composed, in addition once to the vessel which has to be raised and around which it

is made secure by a cramp being placed over the taper ends, houses. It will, if used in the same way, be found like coal, containing carbonated bydrogen-in face, above been described as a framework with pontoor astuchuseful for rifle targets. A small quantity of this a real organic

substance, formed of the remains of ments is now made a ponton proper, and fitted with slics salt used along with starch adds considerably to its plants or animals coeval with the deposit. He added valves, by which, being opened, water is aamitted and the stiffening powers, and renders the articles to a cer.

that there could be no doubt as to the antiquity and pontoon sank to any depth required: tain degree fireproof.


situation of the strata of Nullaberg ; incond part of the invention to raising Feasels out of the A new ten oared, double-banked lifeboat has duced was that the crystalline stratified rocks of the water, being held by the pontoon gripping the keely

filtration was impossible. The inference to be de water pumped out so that the vessel is speedily lifted out of been sent to Exmouth, South Devon, and will be Scandinavia were formed when there existed ani- whilst additional support is given by stays or orops Tastieg inspected and launched in the course of a few days. mated creatures, but at a time long anterior to the ou the upper part of the pontoon. Patent abandoned. The boat is fitted up with every requisite accommo- period when life is supposed to have first existed on

Improvements in machinery for dation, and a carronade for calling out the crew in the earth.

cutting files and rasps. (A communication.) Dated Oslocase of emergency has been fixed. Her length from

ber 3, 1866. stem to stern posts is 33ft. 4in., breadth from out- proaching meeting of the Royal Agricultural first, in the means by which a pointed cutter, or a

Active preparations are being made for the ap

In general terms this invention may be said to consist, side of gunwale 8ft. 6in., and depth 3ft. 4in. Society, at Bury St. Edmund's. Nearly the whole pointed cutters, is given sidewise movement over the face

Borings are continued the whole length of the of the show-ground has been fenced round of the blank to be cut ; and, secondly, in the means by railway lines in the kingdom of Poland ; these ope- with high wooden palings; the grond itself which an intermittent forward feed movement of the blank rations, which have already led to the discovery of has been levelled where levelling

is effected. Patent completed. four seams of coal, have now obtained a still further qnired, and additional drains have been laid 2549 W. R. LAKE. Improvements in Ale-outting machisuccess, as a fifth seam has just been found at down.' A uumber of the wooden pavilions which nery. (A communication) Dated October 3, 1866. Dombroff, and a sixth in the forest of Stohemes. will be used as offices, &c., are in course of erec

In cutting from the narrow to the wide parts of the face chiton.

tion, and the ground is being staked out for the of a file blank, or vice versa, it is not only necessary to During the past fifty years the number of houses various departments of the exbibition. The horses, width of the blank, as is well understood, but it is desirable in the city bas been reduced to the number of 5,581, which it is expected will form a great feature of the to variably space the teeth, so that they shall be farthest yet the value of the remainder has so increased that show, are to be placed at the west end of the apart where the file 18 widest, and shall regularly vary in the present few far outbay the former many ground, in the space between the farmyard and the distance apart, according to the width of the blank; During the past ten years only the annual value of main line of the Great Eastern Railway. A large

and this invention consists, principally, in modifying the the City has increased no less than a million and a space will be set aside as an exercise ground.

of the blank relatively to each other by means of cams half sterling, or at the rate of 273 per cent. The There are six lighthouses now in process of con- placed on the same shaft, when this is actuated by one and 17,413 inhabited houses of 1811 had decreased to struction by the British Government-one situated the same device to operate the cams, and thereby the 18,431 in 1861; but the rental of 1811, which was on the Little Basses Rock at Ceylon, one on the mechanism controlling the blow and the feed and in the 4565,243, had increased to £2,109,935 in 1866. Roman Rocks at the Cape of Good Hope, two in manner of effecting the food of the blank Therefore, the fewer houses of 1866 are worth more the Bahamas (on Castle Islands and Imagua Isby £1,544,692 than the more numerous houses of land), one on Sombrero Island, and one on the sentation of opaque objects to an enlarged scale. Daled

These pon

2548 W, R. LAKE,



force of the cutting blow and the extent of the feed motion

2550 J. H. WRENCH. Apparatus adapted to the toprs. 1811 Dellemarra Point, at Malta.

October 3, 1866.

Patent com

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