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This boiler may be divided into three distinct the back. In these lie the ends of the head of a the gun when worked on his improved system. portions—first, the generating tubes; secondly, T-shaped bolt about lin. in diameter, which It relates, thirdly, to a plan of transporting, the vessels which serve to lead the steam away passes through the back plate of the heart be training, and traversing an upper or main deck from the tubes, and from which they are sup. Itween the oval holes before referred to, and is gun, by means of racers or slotways on or in the plied with water, which are termed “hearts;” screwed up by a nut. By removing this the deck, and of rollers or trucks fitted to the gun and, thirdly, the separators and receivers. The tube can be taken out at any time without disturb- slide, so as to readily turn or be turned round tubes are of sheet copper, and soldered, and icg the others. The front plate of the heart, on a vertical pivot in the required directions 1.12in. thick and fin. in diameter, by about 6ft. which is removed when the boiler is cleaned, is for transporting, training, or traversing the gun. long. They have at the back end an opening for made tight with a lead joint. The furnace is of The next improvement consists in fitting a bolt cleaning them, closed, by a screw cover; their brick, and lined with firebrick. The upper part or block to the front or rear of the slide, or to front ends are fixed upon the back plate of the is covered by firetiles, either made square with both front and rear, so as to readily drop into a heart. The interior of each tube communicates the corners out off, or otherwise arranged so as circular slotway or groove, or under a projecting with that of the heart by means of two oval open to leave openings through which the products of flange, so that when transporting, traversing, ings in the back plate of the latter; the upper combustion escape into an upper chamber, from or training the gun, the slides may be held one carries away the steam, through the lower which they pass to the chimney. The tiles are securely and likewise be ready for firing the water finds access to the tubes, which are laid on required to compel the gases to diffuse them-gun much more quickly than on the old plan of a slight incline to facilitate the escape of the selves equally among the tubes, the area of the catching a pivot point or nipple and using a steam. The tubes are laid in eight tiers or rows apparatus--the calorimeter, in fact-being so pivot bar or flap. Further, Captain Scott uses one over the other, the distance between the proportioned that unless the products of cointoothed racks upon the sides, decks, grate and the lower row being about 18in. or 20in. bustion pass through all, they cannot get away slides of vessels for the purpose of transportThe tubes are disposed so as to break joint, a fast enough to the chimney.

ing or traversing the guns as aforesaid. very essential provision, as will be seen here- In this boiler the tubes are acted on by the Another improvement consists in the use of after. The space between the tubes is about 2in. Alame in the best manner, and the circulation is training racks upon turntables when the turnmeasured horizontally. The hearts are flat- ingeniously provided for. Dr. Alban states that tables are used for traversing guns, whether stayed chambers, with cast-iron sides, tops, and several of these boilers made by him gave perfect in ships or fortifications of any kind, whether bottoms, and wrought-iron front and back plates. satisfaction, working with pressures of 901b. to floating or erected upon the land. They are about 42in. high, and something legs 150lb. on the square inch. Bat he partially ad- In our engraving, fig. 1 is a side elevation of in width. The tubes fit into annular grooves in mits that for lower pressures they do not answer a gan slide, with part of Captain Scott's improvethe back plate, which is fin. thick, the oval so well, because the volume of steam being much ments adapted thereto. The slide is shown openings coming as close as possible to the top greater it cannot escape from the tubes with ready for pointing the gun, and is held securely and bottom of each tabe. These openings are lin. sufficient facility. All the arrangements are me against the longitudinal strains arising from by lfin. The interior construction of the heart chanical and ingenious. But the author is of firing the gan by means of the head block C, is peculiar, and of much importance. Division opinion that even better results might have been which has a roller with its edge working under plates of strong wrought iron cross it nearly obtained with less expense and more certainty. the front racer k, ann holding down the head of from side to side; they are fixed to the back The boiler may be regarded as being absolutely the slide, in which position it is keyed by the plate by lags and screws, and bear against the free from the risk of daugerous explosion. The wedge g. In order to assist the hoad or front front plate. They are curved at the ends, and consequences could in no case be worse than block C in holding the slide longitudinally the divide the heart into as many distinct horizontal those of the collapse of a flue in a locomotive, trucks a a', which rest upon the racers V1', are channels as there are rows of tubes. The use of which, as every engineer is aware, is a matter provided with central flanges which run in the these divisions is to guide the steam from the of but too common occurrence. As to the actual grooves gi g' of the racers and guide the slide in apper oval openings into the vertical channel at merits of these boilers as steamh makers, there training. These tracks are, in fact, formed somethe right-hand side, and to keep it out of the is but little available data, as Dr. Alban never what like castors, that is, the flanged roller turns way of the feed opening that the proper water appears to have carried out any accurate ex. upon horizontal pivots in a block or frame prosupply may not be interfered with. The width periments to determine the point. The engine, vided with a vertical stud, pivot, or axle which of the vertical channel must be proportioned to the boiler of which has been described, cut off turns in a socket in the gun slide. . By this the number of tubes in a row; the maker allowed its steam at one-third of the stroke, and worked means the trucks and their accessories are lin. for each tube. The steam passes, carrying with a boiler pressure of from 90lb, to 1051b. up made of great strength to resist and sustain the some water with it, from the vertical channel to 34 estimated horse power. The fuel used strain produced by firing the gun. The slide up the pipe to the separator above.

was a very light, poor, unpressed peat, and of with its gun is trained or pointed by means of It remains to be seen how the circulation is this the consumption was 12:41h. per horse per suitable power applied to turn the shaft s's' and effected. A pipe at the right hand of the heart hour. Its calorific value conld not have been give motion to the pinion p which moves round extends nearly to the bottom, and opens some more than one-third that of good coal, so that upon the rack d; the pinion p is moved fromdtod' 3in. above it. Through this a stream of water we shall be on the safe side if we estimate the by means of the lever e which is secured by the continually descends from the receiver above, consumption at a little over 41b, of coal per horse pin f. The short part of the shaft s' which car. turns up, and gradually supplies the place of per hour. This is very good work for a non ries the pinion p is jointed to the shaft s' by that carried away by the steam, as well as find condensing engine working saturated steam, and means of a coupling. In order to traverse the ing its way into the tubes, through the lower the author believes that it corresponds to an slide with the gun so as to work them at another oval openings, to supply that lost by evaporation. evaporation of about 9lb. of water per pound of position or port the trucks a and a' are turned The steam, owing to its levity, collects against coal. The defects of the boiler lie principally in to the line of the traversing curves r qal by means the upper plates of the transverse chambers, its first cost, which must be great, even if iron of a lever applied at b and b'; the pinion p is and is guided away by the form of the division tubes are used. The circulation, too, does not moved by the lever e from the rack d to the plates, without interfering with the water in the appear to be provided for in the best manner; rack d', and is secured by the pin f, and the lower part of the chamber or impeding the but, on the whole, the design is worthy of con- front block c is aukeyed and turned up ready supply to the tubes. The steam and water pipes siderable attention, and it must not be forgotten for transporting the slide by means of the pinion are secured to two horizontal cylindrical vessels that.this is one of the few tubulous boilers which p working round in the rack dl. about 15in. in diameter, and half as long again have achieved any considerable practical success. Fig. 2 a plan view of the curves and racks as the tubes. They are united at the front end

(To be continued in our next.)

adapted to the stern of such a vessel as the of the heart, and at the back end by two tubes

“ Achilles," and shows the slide supposed to which carry the steam and water from the sepa

have been traversed round from the position A rator on the left into the receiver on the right. CAPTAIN SCOTT'S IMPROVED METHOD to the position B along the grooved racers r and From this last the steam is drawn for the en.

qul. The front block C has been let down and gine. The whole effect of the arrangement is to

OF MOUNTING AND WORKING GUNS.

keyed, and the fore trucks a a' have been turned perfectly separate the steam from the water, and JHE name of Captain R. A. E. Scott, R.N. ready for pointing the gun, and the pinion p

has to the engine. The boiler, taken as a whole, ments in naval gunnery. The " Scott" gun, and the training rack d, the lever e being secured by has two hearts and fifty-six generating tubes, the " Scott" gun carriage are doubtless familiar | the pin f as before. The rear trucks a' al are and two separators and a single receiver for the to most of our readers; the efficiency with which still in the traversing position, the gun being two. The details of construction may be briefly the latter works is notorious. But not contented supposed to be running out, but its weight not described. The back end plate of each tube is with what he has already done, and fully yet far enough forward to allow them to be of wrought iron half an inch thick; a groove is comprehending the requirements of the service turned; when this can be done the rear trucks turned in it, into which the end of the tube is under the constantly changing conditions of war. a'a'are to be turned to a line with the training brazed. In the centre of the plate is a hole 2in. fare, Captain Scott sees where further detailim- racer l' and the slide with its gun will be then in diameter, surrounded by a sunken groove to provement may be made, and sets himself to work ready for working in the direction B. receive a projection on the cover. This last is to accomplish it. So we have two of the gallant Fig. 3 shows a gun mounted with four fixed oval, its long diameter being equal to that of the Captain's most recent inventions to describe and trucks n n', two at each end of the slide, and end plate. It has a projection fitting into the illustrate in our present article. The first inven. having four movable trucks m m capable of being hole, and another which enters the before-men, tion relates, firstly, to a novel method of training brought in and out of action by the capstan nuts tioned groove. The two oval ears are perforated and fighting heavy revolving or pivoting guns ee'. In every position the slide is held securely for screw bolts, which are tapped, riveted, upon the decks of vessels round a fixed centre, down to the deck by the strong blocks or rollers and brazed into the end plate. The cover is and, when necessary, traversing the guns from c c!, the lower edges of which work under the fixed on by nuts oa these bolts, and is made this fixed centre to other fixed or imaginary edges of the racers llk k I'll and k' k', which tight by a lead ring put into the groove. The pivots at or near the sides of the ship. The are grooved for that purpose. These blocks or front end of the tube is secured to the back plate advantage of this plan over the turntable as now rollers c c' serve the further purpose of resisting of the heart. It is surrounded by a wrought. used with or without turrets is that it will the longitudinal strain of firing when the gun is iron ring 1ļin, wide and fin, thick, brazed on, enable the guns to be brought close to the ship's fought with its slide fixed to the central pivot. in order to give strength and a wide face for side and be fired ahead or astern clear of funnels, A strong bullet-proof protection or mantelet d attachment. On the inner surface of the tube masts, boats, and other ship’s gear. The inven. (fig. 3) is suitably supported at the front of the are riveted two iron lugs or ears, set about fin. tion consists, secondly, in the use of a mantelet gun, the muzzle of which projects through an from the end, and made with square notches at or bullet-proof protection to cover the crew of aperture in it. This mantelet revolves with the

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CAPTAIN SCOTT'S IMPROVED METHOD OF MOUNTING AND WORKING GUNS.

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SECTION AT AN

SECTION ATB. slide and thus affords shelter to the gun's crew. the endless chain or other running in and out gear necting it with the lever q, which works the The position of the slide and curved mantelet to the centre of the slide to which alone it is to be chain clutch f (igs. 5 and 7); another rod o comshown in elevation at fig. 3 is indicated by the suspended or fixed; by this means only a single pletes the connection of the compressor, chain dotted lines in the plan view fig. 4. The gun is endless chain and set of gear will be required. clutch, and rear eccentrio roller p'. supposed to have been fired upon the pivot h The invention further relates to a plan of re- To the side of the slide, either inside or outin the direction C (ig. 4,) and to be required to ducing the jar or shock to which metal gun car. side, or both, balks of wood or metal d or a be traversed to another position in order to fire riages are exposed at every explosion of the combination of the two are attached, having : in the direction D.

charge. In the engraving fig. 5 is a sectional free lateral motion, but firmly held longitudi. By referring to fig. 3 it will be seen that the elevation of part of a gun carriage and slide with nally; the sides of the slide are filled in with rear flap g has been passed over the pivot a and the improved compressor, with other of Captain wood, and a sufficient taper is given to the whole keyed, and the front flap f has been released Scott's improvements adapted thereto; fig. 6 is or any one of the parts to ensure perfect from the pivot point p (fig. 4), and is in process a sectional plan view of one of the side balks ; freedom in the motion of the carriage compressor of being turned up. The movable trucks m m! fig. 7 is a transverse vertical section of the gun plates b b when the gan is run out, and yet en. must be brought into action so as to just take carriage and slide i and fig. 8 is a side elevation sure sufficient compression on recoil. The runthe weight of the slide and gun off the fixed of the same.

ping in and out chain c is placed in the centre trucks ñ n'. This is done by turning the The compressor is composed of two plates b b of the slide, and may be worked at the rear as at capstan rats e e' by the aid of suitable levers. which are hinged to the lower extremities of the present. On the under side of the bottom plate g When this has been effected, the slide and its levers a a, and hang down on each side of the the fixed part g' of the clutch is attached, and gun can be traversed round to another position long side balks A, There is an inside plate c immediately under it is the movable part f; the as at D upon the curves or racers i l', and on its which is slotted, so as to hang freely from and extremities of the movable piece f are connected fore part reaching the pivot point h the front be supported by the bottom plate of the car. by means of the rods kk, (fig. 7) with the crank flap f is to be secured to it. The trucks m m' riage, as shown in fig. 5. The levers a a turn on and shaft i and h, which, as before stated, is are moved out of action, and the rear iap g re. the centre bolts y y, which also connect them connected with the lever q (fig. 5). The rear ecleased and turned up. The slide and gun are securely to the brackets; motion is imparted to centric roller p' is worked by the ordinary ec. now ready for pointing in the line D and can be the levers a by a right and left handed screw t centric and socket pa, which socket is connected trained round to the direction indicated by the (fig. 7), which passes through holes in the by the rod o with the chain clutch and comdotted lines.

brackets; on the outside end of the screw t a pressor lever q. An auxiliary means of working Captain Scott's second invention is represented circular nut p and plater cast in one piece are the whole is provided at the outer extremity of in figg. 5, 6, 7, and 8. It consists in placing placed. The former is slotted so as to rest be- the shaft h, to which is attached a socket 1 balks of wood or iron plates along the sides of tween two projections of the lever head, and the (ogs. 7 and 8), and a loose cam m acting with a platforms or slides instead of along the centre, as latter is perforated with holes round its outer stop joint in connection with the socket, so as to at present, thereby leaving the central part clear part, as shown in fig. 8, so as to enable it to be throw it out of action by striking the fixed stop a for the other appliances required to work the keyed in any position to the lever a as shown ; when the carriage is run out. gun. Another improvement relates to the adap this constitutes the adjusting part of the arrange- The action of the compressor is as follows:tation of a self-acting compressor or apparatus, ment. The inside end of the screw t is attached The carriage having been ran out and off its rol. which is brought into action by the recoil of the to one extremity of the lever % (fig. 5), the other lers, the compressor plates hang freely between gun. The invention further consists in adapting end of which is secured to the rod e, thus con- and on both sides of the balks, as shown in

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fig. 6. The moment the gun recoils the com.

APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. pressors run up the inclines 1 1, and become jambed, and thus retard the recoil of the gun.

FIG.I. In order to run the gun out again the ends of the levers are placed in the sockets pa and l, or in either of them, for the purpose of forcing them down, by which means the rear eccentric rollers are brought into action and the chain - will be clutched by the parts f and g'. The compres. sor b b will be released through the action of the rear roller eccentrics before the carriage is raised. The combination of the levers acting on the rear roller eccentrics as well as the clutch crank shaft and the compressor screw will make these operations simultaneous. The compressor screw t acts on the compressor

B leverg a a through the nuts in their upper cx- AL tremities, the outer nuts p being, as before stated, circular, but the inner nuts u are square to prevent them from turning. When the gan has been run out the levere or bars wbich have

(LILETY been shifted in the sockets are thrown upwards; by this means the rollers go out of action, the

FIG.2.

FIG. 3. chain w is released, and the compressor screw t

-is turned so as to bring the plates b b nearer together and ready for the discharge of the gun. Should the compression be insufficient the key s should be removed, and the disc r turned a point or two in the direction required, and the key re.

FIG. 4, placed; if the compression is too great the same operation may be performed in the oppo.

d

7 site direction.

d' Captain Scott's last improvement relates to

3 the use of wood or other suitable material as a buffer to absorb the first violence of the recoil, to which end the bracket carrying the gun should be so formed as to admit of a cushion or bearing v (fig. 8,) being placed so as to rest between the side plates and on the main framework so as to APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING LATITUDE is for adjusting the artificial horizon to the true

horizon; the cover r is to prevent this screw receive the trunnions of the gun, which should

AND LONGITUDE.

from being disturbed by accident; the telescope rest in this cushion, either with or without plates mHE accompanying engraving represents as thus constructed is attached to an ordinary of metal intervening.

TI

some highly interesting improvements in sextant. In this way the artificial horizon is apparatus for obtaining latitude and longitude, made to follow the real horizon, and thus when

and which bas recently been patented by Mr. C. the sun is visible but the true horizon is ob. PHOTOGRAPHY IN 1787.

F. Varley, a gentleman whose name is insepara-soured, its altitude can by this instrument be T a recent meeting of the photographical bly connected with the laying of the Atlantic measured with sufficient accuracy for ordinary

section of the Literary and Philosophical telegraph cable. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section, navigation. The torsion of the fibre which supSociety, Mr. J. Baxendell, F.R.A.S., vice-presi- and fig. 2 a transverse section of the instrument ports the pendulum is not great ; it is kept con. dent of the section, in the chair, Mr. Brothers invented by Mr. Varley, the other figures show- stant by the spring s, and is compensated for by read the following note on photography in 1787 : ing some of the parts separately. Between the trial. The projection w from the piece m, and - It is generally supposed that the earlier object glass A and the (positive) eye piece B of which enters the cup v, is to limit the motion of attempts to use nitrate of silver for producing the telescope a chamber is inserted whose two the pendulum so as to prevent l and h from being pictures of lace, leaves, and other objects on ends g are made of glass, and whose interior is injured by rough usage. The tube a is for filling white leather or paper were made by Wedgwood filled with pure water. A U-shaped spring s the apparatus with water. Mr. Varley makes and Davy about the year 1802 ; but it will (figg. 1 and 2) stretches a silk fibre f and keeps it the spring and pendulum of the platinum silver appear from the following extract that at least tight; this fibre passes through a light metal alloy supplied by Johnson and Matthey, as it fifteen years earlier than the date named, and frame C, and also through a piece of metal m, does not oxidise. To obtain pure water free from within ten years of the time when Scheele in about fin. long and fin. in diameter, to which air for use in this instrument he puts some vestigated the subject of the action of light on also it is cemented. This piece of metal m forms lumps of clear pure ice into a bottle. This appathe salts of silver, the possibility of utilising the the pendulum and carries two heavy-headed ad. ratus can be used for ascertaining the elevation action of light was known. The title of the book justing screws a and al for adjusting the position above the horizon of lights and other objects, from which the extract is taken is “Rational of the centre of gravity. A third screw b con- and thus furnish the data for computing their Recreations in Natural Philosophy,” &c., by W. nects the light lever 1, which carries at its end distance from the observer. Hooper, M.D., 1787, and the paragraph is the horizon line h (figg. 1 and 3), which also is a headed “How to print letters by sunlight.” silk fibre. The screw a is for adjusting the “Dissolve chalk in aqua fortis to the consistence height of the horizon line h; the screw al is for LONDON ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN of milk, and add to that a strong dissolution rendering the horizon line horizontal. The

ENGINEERS. of silver. Keep this liquor in a glass decanter, pendulum is able to swing either longitudinally well stopped, then cut out from a paper the let or transversely of the instrument; this freedom THE ordinary monthly meeting of members of on the decanter, which you are to place in the means of the square frame C already referred to inst., at the London Coffee-house, Ludgate bill. Mr. sun in snch a manner that its rays may pass and shown in plan on an enlarged scale in fig. 4. Joseph Newton, president, occupied the chair, and through the places cut out of the paper and fall The silk fibre f passes from the spring s, down the spacious and well-appointed assembly room on the surface of the liqaur. The part of the through the hole c, up through the hole d, down henceforth to be devoted to the business of the glass through which the rays pass will turn through the hole d', and up through the hole ci to association was quite full. When the routine black, while that under the paper will remain the other extremity of the spring s.

duties of the sitting had been disposed of the white. You must observe not to move the bot- The water effects two objects, the one that of chairman proceeded to deliver a lengthy and tle during the time of the operation."

deadening the motion of the pendulum so that interesting address. He reviewed the past his. At the same meeting Mr. Coote exhibited the rolling of the ship does not set it sensibly tory of the institution and congratulated his fellow some snow scenes, the negatives of which were swinging, the other that by its refracting power members on its steadily increasing influence taken on collodio-albumen plates. Some of it briugs the centre of motion of the image and value. It was satisfactory to be able to anthese beautiful views were slightly defective in within the telescope to coincide with the centre nounce that they now had a local habitation in the high lights, a number of vein-like markings of motion or support of the pendulum carrying all ways eligible for the purposes of the society appearing in the sky and foreground.

the horizon h. An adjustment may be provided He considered it fortunate that they were fairly Mr. Wardley stated that these defects were to make this coincidence as accurate as may be established in the heart of the city, and where entirely caused in the development, and had no required; it is effected by the two prisms p and they had abaudance of room for the reception of connection with the character of the collodion pol. One or both can be moved so as to increase their friends. As in the past the society had used or with the preparation of the plate. He or diminish the thickness of glass through which been completely successful, so in the future it considered that the imperfections were produced the light has to pags, and by this means an effect would be yet more prosperous. All that was neentirely by the repellent or nonmiscible nature equivalent to the elongation or shortening of the cessary to ensure this was earnest and cordial coof the solutions, containing acids and salts, used water chamber is obtained; or a double object operation on the part of the members. It was in development, acetic acid being one of the glass may be used, and then by adjusting the not for them to rest and be thankful, but to rest chief causes of the defects. Another source of distance between them, and between them and and then move on with increased vigoar. The the evil may be a low temperature and the the front glass g, the notion of the image and of chairman appealed to the honorary members to developing solution being allowed to rest, even h are made to coincide. The U-shaped spring attend and take part in the proceedings of the for a moment, on the plate. Such defects may carrying the pendulum is mounted on a spring i, association. Among those members there were be produced in abundance on any kind of dry which is raised or lowered by means of the gentlemen eminent in every departmentofscience, plate if the developing solution is allowed to milled head 0, whose screw 01 passes through employers of labour, military and naval officers rest.

a packing q to make it watertight; this ccrew and others, constituting indeed a mine, so to speak, of intellectual and professional wealth. readily allow the planes to furl or fold up like a When the plane of the kite was made flatter, it That mine he wished to open up for the advan. screen or map, if this be found desirable. would ascend, and the string would be made tage of the institution. Numerous other points Mr. Hurry - I intended to mention this in my more perpendicular. Then, again, with the were touched upon with considerable emphasis, paper.

wind at the back of the kite, there could be no and all had a bearing on the prospective usefulness

Mr. Denham referring to the diagram, where a doubt that it could be held in position, the same of the society. Finally Mr. Newton declared the small weight, aeting horizontally, is shown holding as in the reverse case ; that the screw on the new meeting place open for the despatch of a larger weight in equilibrium upon an inclined under side of the machine, as described, would business. The first question discussed was one plane, it is evident that if the plane yields to the act as the string of the kite in the way described, having reference to a scheme of life assurance, slightest extent, as in air, the balance will be de- had this objection, that it would be using its and Mr. Fotbergill, of the Royal Insurance Com- stroyed, and a rapid horizontal speed will result. power against itself, which would be something pany, having lucidly explained the terms upon Whatever the dynamic value of this may be, it like a man seating himself in a wheelbarrow, and which each member's life might be assured for is very gratisying to find that the theory of flight trying to wheel himself forward.

19 d £100, a committee was appointed to examine into is now being brought within the verge of tangible Mr. Bright, having reiterated his statements, and report upon the whole subject. Mr. James formnlæ. An angle of rise of 1 in 3,000 for a considered it desirable to construct a model Irving next read 1 an elaborate and emi- speed of 60 miles per hour is estimated, large enough to carry a man, and in reply to a nently practical paper on "Indicating the according to Mr. Harry’s formula. My own ex. difficulty suggested by the chairman as to the Power of the Steam Engine.” This was illus- periments have shown me that at this speed the expense, said, he thought

as he had given his ertrated by diagrams and excited great interest. angle of a plane and duly proportioned weights, perience to the world, the public should take the Messrs. W. Naylor, Keyte, Fish wick, Aland, the as in the wing and body of a bird, is scarcely matter op. chairman, and others took part in the discussion measurable, and having been near and surprised Mr. Wenham.-Our friend Mr. Green, the which followed, and which owing to the lateness numbers of large tropical birds in all positions of aeronaut, has just handed me this model to illusof the hour was eventually adjourned.

We flight, when this at all approaches the maximum trate the effect of two superposed screws. It is cannot but congratulate the association npon its speed, the angle of the wing cannot be detected a very well made piece of clockwork, which rang migration from the comparatively obscure loca- by the eye alone. Recent discoveries in electric for several minutes by a woand-up spring, and lity of Doctor's Commons, and the admirable ac. city justify the inference that an electro-magnetic was adapted to raise and lower and propel a . commodation of its new quarters. machine may be constructed lighter for its small balloon some years ago at the Polytechnic

. , is the expense of working it; but if the cost is one screw only, it produces a strong corrent of

fifty times as much as steam in this case it air; but, as Mr. Green has just shown me, by AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT would be worth while to apply it. There is yet superposing another screw the current is deBRITAIN.

another observation that will admit of a reply. I stroyed and not perceptible, thus furnishing an IN IN the two preceding numbers of the MECHANICS' allude to the risk of being blown over, or a fly, experimental illustration of my first assertion. MAGAZINE We have given abstracts of the wind. Now I believe this to be impossible. The as they were called, in rotary steam engines, and ing-machine becoming affected by a current of

Mr. Oliver Byrne referred to the dead points, papers read at the last meeting of the above machine will be no more affected by currents of to the impracticability of constructing large society. We now append the interesting dis: wind impingiug against it than a balloon, as it magnetic engines ; but his arguments were after. cussion which followed :-Mr. Wenham : I will travels in the moving mass of air, whichever wards shown by Mr. Harry to be fallacious, as first make a few remarks concerning the screw. way it may turn or blow, and the only wind aot. rotary engines were already in general use in This is, perhaps, in all rospects perfect as a pro- ing on the machine will be that caused by its own many places where the economio use of steam is peller for aerial machines'; but its effectiveness motion through the atmosphere. After a strong not of much consequence, and although it would for this purpose depends upon the condition that wind the machine might be stationary with re be found impracticable to construct electric the screw must work through the air at a speed spect to the earth, but with the wind the land engines of a large size, on account of the dis; nearly equalling that due to its pitch or the speed would be doubled; but in either case the tance at which they would require to be placed mere parpose of raising a weight, as in the model progress through the air itself is the same. In from each other, it was by no means impossible before us, I consider that it is utterly valueless, of a theory totally different from any that has a small space by using a large number of small

Mr. Artingstall's paper we have another instance to obtain a high degree of magnetic power from and that the misdirected attempts that have preceded it. In the present state of the science, batteries. been made to apply it in this way have been one controversy in such a case is undesirable until

Mr. Stephen Ballard pointed out that some Of all things this is the most easily tried, and justified by further practical facts. We had best knowledge of the power of the suggested aērial the least satisfactory in its result. Many in. stances have come to my knowledge where the developed in the way supposed by the writers of certain quantity of work under a given amount

Mr. Oliver Byrne thought that force was not the windmills now in use, as they performed å

screw might be obtained by a careful study of experiment has been made by different parties

some of the papers. quite independently of each other, but all have the velocity or weight of the body put in motion, Experiments and deductions might be made for

It was not due so much to of sail, with wind travelling at a certain velocity. failed. In one case the screw was nearly 20ft. in diameter, and the utmost power of five men within which it was arrested. Thus the hammer

as to the suddenness or short space of time data so to be collected for the purpose of ascerapplied to it would not cause it to raise & weight of a man who launched a ship was made to raise taining what would be the power of the screw of half a hundred. The screw is held back from its work, and does nothing else but draw down itself was heavy, or the velocity with which it thanks to the chairman and others who had cona very great weight-oot because the hammer

The proceedings were then closed by a vote of a corrent of air instead of making progress upon was wielded was extraordinary, but because it tributed papers. a fixed column, and my own experiments, made with a vertical screw or fans of various forms He had observed the

fight of the largest birds, meeting, when the discussions upon the foregoing was stopped within a very short space of time.

It is intended shortly to call another general 6ft. in diameter, driven by gear and

accurately and had noticed that the ease with which they theories will be resumed previously to reading made, having been equally satisfactory, I could kept their place in mid-air was due to the sudnever raise or sustain a weight exceeding 101b. denness and rapidity of the movements of their

new papers.

135 0097 3415 Then as regards the double or superposed screws

to doid wings. of Mr. Bright, with motion in opposite directions,

KB ETDubais do the under screw, to be effected at all

, must have his paper as to the fact of models having been
Mr. Bright reiterated the statements made in

Legal Intelligence.ne can its pitch greatly increased to perhaps four or constructed which not only ascended by the five times that of the upper screw in order to mechanical powers they contained, but had also

Dosti od obtain any effect whatever upon the current of carried attached weights.*

VICE-CHANCELLORS' COURT air coming therefrom, and even then it must

Mr. Hurry thought there could be no question act with great loss. The first steamboat that as to a fan of this description raising a weight

April 26. was made by Bell, at Glasgow, had two paddlewheels on each side, one close behind the other; tion was, how far it could be practically applied - the toy kite demonstrated that; bu: the ques.

(Before VICE-CHANCELLOR WOOD.) and the speed being the same, the second bad -how far a practicable area of fan or to run in the current produced from the first, would lift a practicable weight by means of a

Johann Maria Marina, of Joseph’s-plata, and being sound useless, the plan was never repeated. Also, in one of the first screw experiments

practical force ?

He thought that the round Cologne, the well-known manufacturer of Ean

screw would not hold, and they had it from Mr. de Cologne, instituted this suit to restrain the recorded, one screw was made to rotate in an Wenham, that for starting or supporting, wher: defendants, who are agents of Johann Maria opposite direction to the other, through a hollow the weight was held

by the screw, the slip would Farina, of Joseph’s-platz, Cologne, from, unfairly reasons, the boat was found to go faster when be perpendicular; this would be the case in imitating the plaintiff's label.

The Vice-Chancellor thought the label com. the outer screw was removed. It is true that water, but in air, which was so much more model machines have been made on this prin. buoyant, he thought the effect would be much plained of was too close an imitation of the ciple impelled by a wonud-up spring, that will rise greater; he therefore thought that the use of plaintiffs, and he granted an injunction,

Sir R. Palmer, Mr. Druce, and Mr. Law and carry a weight, but at what expense of power? I the screw

acting as a direct support would not I think that from four to six horse power for be found practically advantageous. He did not appeared for the plaintiff; and Mr. Willcock

, every hundredweight raised will be the lowest dispute but

that a screw might be made to take Mr. Downing Bruce, and Mr. Brooksbank for the

defendants. estimate. Our member, Mr. Butler, will shortly up a small weight, as in the case of the model have one of these same machines, 'about which which had been mentioned, but he thought that

EDMUNDS V. BROUGHAM. 1998 to Bo much has been said, and has kindly offered to found as good as an inclined plane. The action for practical purposes it would certainly not be

We understand that the terms agreed on in lend it, for the purpose of having the amount of in the case of the kite, as mentioned in Mr. St.

this case, which was before Vice-Chancellor power given off by the spring accurately tested. Martin's paper, was clear and distinct, there be- / Stuart, are the following:-The plaintiff bas the supporting planes undulating may have some advantage, as this plan will give rigidity in the the string in another, and when those forces claim

originally made by the plaintiff was for

defendant (Mr William line of motion, and prevent the surfaces from were in equilibrium, the kito remained still. Brougham), Claimed as a set-off

, a sum at the bagging, which I have fonnd some difficulty in preventing in my own experiments, and will also extenso.-[ED. M. M.]

* We purpose shortly to publish Mr. Bright's paper in rate of £150 per annum for thirty years from

the plaintiff for board and lodging at the house

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upon the air.

FARINA V. CATHERY AND ANOTHER.

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the

THOMAS V. HYAXS.

of Lord Brougham while he was acting some.

rescue ships, that is, vessels whose build, fittings, solvent solution is put into the cell for cleansing an what in the position of a private secretary.

and stores, and the training of whose officers and action is set up between the copper and the rivets, crews should

be carefully and exclusively adapted and they coat themselves with a loose film of cop. May 2.

to the special purpose of saving life from drowning per which prevents all subsequent adhesion. Even

(and we might add sheltering the wounded); and under a positive current the rivet heads will coat (Before VICE-CHANCELLOR SIR R. MALINS). as nothing could interfere with the build andaccom- themselves when in the presence of copper, in a GREENWOOD V. TONGUE. modation of those ships being made such as to en: cleansing solution. The Viscount de Chabanney

it is not even necessary This was a demarrer to a bill filed for the generally be employed as health ships or hospitals that the copper should be exempt from all impuri.

sure the very best sanitary conditions, they might says in his report that specifio performance of certain agreements with for the fileets on active service. In shape, rig, colour, ties as that the deposit upon iron by means of reference to patents for machinery for combing &c., such rescue ships should be conspicuously dif. electricity is perfectly pure!" No electro-metallur. China grass. The grounds of the demurrer were ferent from all other ships, while besides, by means gist could suppose that it was necessary; but then vagueness, one sidedness, and the involving of of peculiar flags, lanterns, &c., it should be ar, the Viscount is not an electro-metallurgist. No obligations which could not be en!orced. ranged that such ships could be easily recognised doubt this problem is a very difficult one, and it

Mr. Glasse and Mr. Bagshawe appeared in sap- by friend and foe at night as well as in daytime. I M. Bernabé had brought anything new to assist us port of the demurrer; Mr. Baily and Mr. J. N. need hardly say that the said (international ?) rescue in its solution, all honoar to him; but I for one Higging for the plaintiff.

ships should under all circumstances be neutral and cannot see that he has either in mode of treatment The Vice-Chancellor overruled the demarrer respected by, all,

their officers and crews being or result obtained. But time will prove. I am, strictly bound to observe that neutrality; while by Sir, yours, &c.,

J. B.T. simply. Costs reserved.

internationalagreement and treaties the combatants May 6. The mution for an injunction to restrain the of all nations should be prohibited by the severest assigning or changing the letters patent granting and most ignominious penalties from using, for the EFFECT OF WATER ON STEAM BOILERS, licences, &o., was then brought on, but stood over purpose of stratagems, any signal or mark peculiar on an undertaking in terms as settled. to the rescue ships.-I am, Sir, yours, &c.,

SIR, -After the discussion on my paper, real

G. J. GUNTHER. before the Society of Engineers, on March 18, on Erzgebirge, Saxony, April 29.

* Water and its Effects on Steam Boilers," I COURT OF COMMON PLEAS.

wrote an addition to the paper and gave it to be April 26.

published with the paper, but I find it has not

FOULING AND CORROSION. (Sittings in Banco, before LORD CHIEF JUSTICE

appeared, and the manuscript has been lost. 1

SIR, -I have been a good deal interested in the shall feel greatly obliged by your kindly inserting BOVILL, and JUSTICES Brles, KEATING, and question of the fouling and corrosion of iron ships this letter in your next publication. Nearly all, i? Switz.)

and have read everything which has appeared not all, waters used in steam boilers may be divided

respecting it with avidity not only in your valuable into three classes. 1st, those which form incrusta This was an action to recover damages for the paper but in every other that has come before me; tion in boilers, but do not contain enough perinfringement of the plaintiff's patent for a sewing consequently I have read not only that article manently soluble salts (as common salt, &c.) to machine; and at the trial before Ir. Justice

referred to by Mr. Maitland in your last impression render them strong saline solutions in the boiler Byles the verdict was for the plaintif, but there invertion, and must confess that I was much of the water above Kew and some well waters are of this

The Thames but also the abridged specification of M. Bernabé's until after some considerable time. were certain points of law raised, and these, it same opinion as that expressed in the article, class. 2nd, those waters which form little or no was said, would be discussed in the Court of namely, that the process described in the speci. incrustation, but from the fact of their containing Error,

fication was virtually that which had been used for a considerable quantity of permanently solublo Mr. Edward James, Q.C., now moved for a many years. Now, I have had much experience in salts rapidly become strong solutions in the boiler, new trial, and argued at considerable length that electro-metallurgy for many years past, and have and set up galvanic action between the brass and there was misdirection

by the learned Judge, be tried to render the surface of different metals clean iron wherever they come in contact. The waters of cause he had not properly left to the jury the more perfectly and more expeditiously by making the deep wells of the London Basin, but more questions of the novelty of the invention and its them first positive before making them negative to especially sea water, and some waters 'into which usefulness. He further submitted that the ver. deposit a coating of another metal upon them; but sea water percolates, and the Thames at Crossness dict was against the weight of evidence. I have never obtained a sound deposit by so doing are of this kind. 3rd, those waters which both form

an incrustation and also rapidly become strong The Court beld that there had been no misdi. except the metal on which I wished to deposit was rection, and that the verdict was warranted pure, such, for example, as thickening a coating saline solutions in the boiler and corrode the

of silver. 'In that case I always do it, and I think metals. The water from some of the London by the evidence.

it is the best method that can be employed; but pumps (Bishopsgate-street, &c., analysis of which Rule refused.

for depositing a coating on an impuro metal I do were given in my paper), are of this kind. It fol. not believe in its efficacy. I have tried to deposit lows from the above, that the injurious effects of the

copper on iron in that way more than two years various waters on boilers is either; the formation Correspondence.

ago; but found that I could obtain a much better of an incrustation the formation of a strong result by first pickling the iron in chlorhydric acid saline solution, which corrodes the metals and

and then brushing it in an alkaline solution with a causes leaks, &c.; or lioth of these together to PRESERVATION OF LIFE DURING

fine wire brnsh till perfectly bright before pulting a greater or less extent. Before any efficient remedy NAVAL ENGAGEMENTS.

it into the ordinary cyanido depositing bath. By can however be applied to prevent these evils (or

that means an adhering film can be obtained that which perhaps incrustation is the least) the comMECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

will stand a red heat without blistering, even on position of the water must be known, and this can SIR,- Permit me, in continuation as it were of cast iron ; but if that film were increased to only be found by an analysis of the water. The some remarks on the "Introduction of Arms of the one hundredth of an inch it would stand no composition of the water being known, the remedy, Defence into Modern Armies," published in the Me: such test.

if any, is easily found. For waters of the first class CHANICS' MAGAZINE of May and October, 1857, and I have tried very many thicknesses of deposit as the 'Thames water above Kew, &c., where the evil August, 1866, to add a few suggestions relative to from the thickness of an onion skin to 3-16in., and to be prevented is incrustation, a little carbonate the prevention of loss of life in naval warfare. The it is only the thinnest coatings that will stand a red of soda, or still better caustic soda, added in solu. great protection against the enemy's projectiles beat without blistering, and that only when the tion to the water in proper quantities will entirely which shields of a construction peculiarly adapted cleansing has been performed with the most scrupu. prevent incrustation, and will not set up other to the circumstances of that warfare would afford lous care. No doubt this is because of the imperfect mischief. This will be found to be much better to the men engaged in boarding, passing under the adhesion of the deposit through the impurities in than any other substance, patent or otherwise, enemy's fire, landing on a hostile coast, &c., may the iron and the difference of expansibility under but it must be done properly and in proper quantibe inferred to a great extent from my previous re- heat of copper and iron. Further, I have tried to ties. It will, in the long run, be less trouble then marks. Doubtless, one of the most important deposit pure copper on commercial copper by removing incrustation, and the boilers will last daties of the authorities is the protection by proper first making the copper positive so as to thoroughly longer, besidcs the saving of fuel. The only remedy precautionary measures of the sailors and soldiers cleanse it as I had done iron; but the deposit for the formation of strong saline solutions is to against the danger of drowning. The least that would not adhere, and the reason was very clear to blow off the boiler partially or completely when. could be done and easily done too-but which I me. All commercial copper has lead and other ever the water is beginning to do mischief. To adil am afraid generally is not done, is the supplying impurities in it, and when the copper is made soda to these waters would be to increase the each man with a portable lifebelt as part of his usual positive these are left as a kind of mud on the plate, mischief and do no good. The effect of a little fat personal outfit, and with instructions how to use while the surface of the copper is dissolved away, being put into the boiler where very salt water the same in cases of emergency. Of course, on and the like happens to all impure metals when they (as sea water) is used is this:--Common salt is as board of ships of war, the arrangements and appa- are made positive by electricity in any electrolytic soluble in cold as in hot water, and separates the ratus for the destruction by far outweigh, perhaps solution, unless it be an alloy of different metals in surface as a scum or scales as the water evaporunavoidably, the means for the saving of life; their electric equivalents.

ates, and causes priming. The fat, when put into bat to mention only one out of many openings for But suppose now all these difficulties overcome the boiler, melts, and being lighter than water, improvement, it would certainly not at all interfere and I believe that copper can be made to adhere floats on the surface in a thin layer, and covers the with the service if each man-of-war was supplied firmly enough to iron for all practical purposes, if salt preventing priming, but it does not prevent with an extra number of lifebuoys to a far greater that were the only difficulty. Suppose the plates the action of the water upon the metals ; and the extent than hitherto, the which lifebuoys, during of the ship's skin coated in detail, they have then addition of fat to a boiler is in itself highly an engagement, should be continually dropped to be riveted together, and then how are the rivet dangerous.--I am, Sir, yours, &c., overboard, so that a large extent of the surface of heads to be protected ? Certainly there are two

HENRY K. BAMBER, F.C.S., the water would be strewn over with a number apparent ways out of that difficulty. The one is to 5, Westminster Chambers, Victoria-st., S.W., them, thus offering numerous chances of rescue o coat the head of the rivet first, and the other is to

May 7. the drowning crews of sinking ships. The object use scrow bolts coated with copper.

With the of spreading the life-saving agency of the various coated rivets I have found that the copper spreads apparatus over a larger area would be greatly as- and peels from the head of the rivet in the process sisted by adding to the usual lifeboats, lifebuoys; of riveting. The screw bolts I have not tried Mr. Gutzknow presented to the California Acaalso life-nettings and life-guide lines, that is, float because of their cost, and the imperfect joint that demy of National Sciences a sheet of chemically ing lines which are connected with and extend from would be made. Certainly there is one other way pure silver, 3ft. in diameter, about 3oz, in weight, one or more buoys, &c., and which are to serve as which seems perfectly easy in theory, but from er. and as thin as fine paper. The colour was beautiguides to the drowning men who may happen to be perience I know is not so easy in practice--that is, fully white, and the texture like fine lace. This at a distance from the buoys. It strikes me, how.coating the beads of the rivets after riveting., A silver was obtained by mixing solutions of protoever, that the sablime object of saving the life of cell with one side out can easily be made to adhere sulphate of iron and sulphate of silver in a large fellow-men-in the accomplishment of which men to the side of the ship by pneumatic means or dish, when the silver rose to the surface and there of all nations shonld show a noble rivalry-could otherwise, and the deposit can be made; but then formed into a sheet. Successive sheets will rise be far more effectually, gained if every squadron or the previous cleansing is the difficulty, and the with each stripping. This easy mode of obtaining Aeot wore accompanied by one or more life-ships or adhesion depends upon that. Besides, when any chemically pure silver is of much practical value.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE

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