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second the construction of the necessary appli- they are usually forgotten or at any rate for it has many blocks of substantially built ances and tools, and the third the means or given, and a complete triumph in many in-stores. It is said to be by far the most adpower of setting the instruments in action. stances recorded of what is but a very poor vanced and comfortable place of residence be« Supposing the first of these obstacles removed display of engineering skill and practical tween the large cities of St. Louis, Chicago, we might safely count upon overcoming the energy and execution. With the subject of and San Francisco. According to Mr. Whitothers. We have arrived at so excellent a pitch boring is intimately connected the solution of ney's description no city could well be more of workmanship and quality in everything re- the various theories relative to the constitu- pleasantly located or blessed with a more lating to the production of iron and steel that tion of the interior of tne earth, into which we genial climate, never experiencing the rougher boring tools could be produced of almost any have not penetrated comparatively an inch. storms met with in the mountains above, and size and weight, and having regard to the

having a mild and uniform temperature in tremendous mechanical agents at our com

summer. Denver city is destined to be the mand, it might be asserted that no difficulty COLORADO AND ITS MINERAL great central depôt of the different railways would be insurmountable in getting them

WEALTH.

now in course of construction, It is divided down. The piercing of the hard vein of

by a rapid stream which furnishes an uns quartzite encountered in the Mont Cenis INmuch to develope and bring into noto-rounding it are immense deposits of iron-ore,

limited « got through, is the best proof of what iron and riety many hidden and comparatively unknown fireclay, and coal, which are being rapidly steel tools backed by effective power can ac

corners of the earth. They have defined the developed under the direction of eastern complish.

practical value of many a land, and have placed capitalists who do not fail properly to estimate Viewed in a purely scientific and not con- it in its proper position in the scale of nations. the great value of their possessions. structive light, the chief utility of boring mani. Tested by the unfailing standard of their works

Leaving this favoured city let us turn to fests itself most strongly in connection with and their productions, countries have been the mineral productions of Colorado. Taking the great and extensive science of geology, suddenly. brought prominently before a them in the order of their intrinsic value we and the practical value of the latter will in. world which had previously known but little will first notice gold. This mineral is chiefly crease more and more accordingly as the former respecting them. So, the Paris Universal sought in the counties of Gilpin and Cleat is enabled by new applications and improved Exposition, although following closely on the Creek, although many other sections of the instruments to render it more worthy assist- heels of others, is doing good work in defining territory contain gold-bearing veins. The ance. It is not sufficient that the result of the the progress that various countries have made gold veins, found wholly in the granite forma operation should indicate merely the different within the last few years. And in these days ation, vary in width from a mere streak toa doscriptions of soil through which the tool of unceasing thought and restless action, a 40ft. or 50ft. in widtk, the average, however, passes; it should also enable the geologist to very few years suffice to mark a vast stride in being about 4ft

. or 5ft. The surface indicadetermine their fossils, their precise character, progressive advancement. Amongst other tion is a light porous quartz, discoloured by the naturo of the stratification, and other places of comparatively recent development, oxidation of base metals in which small pardetails of equal importance. By a careful and which have greatly advanced during the ticles of gold are disseminated, sometimes in and accurate series of borings conducted in last few years, stands prominently Colorado. the form of small scales, fine dust, or stringy this manner, geological charts can be con- She has progressed, too, under the most un pieces, but seldom in the form of nuggets

. structed with remarkable fidelity and of in- favourable circumstances, having survived a The precious metal, however, is sometimes: calculable value to the engineer, the sailor, war of extermination waged by the Indians found in this form, and in the Paris Exposi-1 and the miner. In borings made for obtaining against the settlers. And withal she flourishes tion are a few dozen pieces weighing from half a supply of water the diameter of the tools and presents a highly creditable appearance an ounce to a pound. These are some of has been considerably increased beyond at the World's Show in Paris. Her minerals the finest specimens ever obtained in Coloradors former dimensions, and that of the wells also form a goodly show, and comprise samples which has rarely given such as these. The in a corresponding ratio, It might be ex- from all parts, which, from their character, are value of veins is usually determined by crushes pected that in order to diminish the weight of highly indicative of the wealth of her re- ing a few pieces of the surface ore in a hand. the apparatus it would be advantageous to sources, and frora their number at once bespeak mortar, and washing the powder in a pan, employ steel. This latter material is used a vast amount of industry. Mr. J. P. Whitney, The ore is seldom so poor as not to exhibit with great success for the “bit” or boring ex- of Boston, Massachusetts, who is the commis- a streak of gold dust at the bottom of the pan. tremity of the instrument, but there are two sioner from the territory, has prepared a Some surface ores are so rich that with a hand difficulties to be surmounted in the application schedule of these mineral contributions, to mortar and a pan, and a few pails of water, from of it to the rods. At present there is a good which he has added some useful and interest- three to ten dollars per day can be obtained. deal of trouble occasioned, and a large amount ing information respecting the region and its by one person. The course of the gold veins of care and skill required to be bestowed upou resources.

tracts, or “belts" as they are called, is the welding together of the two different The territory of Colorado is situated directly north-east by south-west, cropping out at descriptions of iron composing the rod and the upon the line of travel from St. Louis and one point at surface and disappearing beneath, handle, and this job would become still more Chicago to San Francisco. It is only a few where they may be found in their continuar arduous were the rod to be made of steel and hundred miles distant from the navigable tion. welded to an iron handle. The remaining waters of the Missouri River, and about a Many alluvial deposits containing gold are difficulty lies in the greater chance of rupture thousand from the Pacific Ocean. Its average found in the territory, some of which have with a steel rod than an iron one when exposed extent is 380 miles east and west, and 280 been worked to advantage. One peculiarity to the action of torsion. Of all the strains to miles north and south. The Pacific Railway of the Colorado veins is that they invariably which ironwork is exposed that of severe tor- has already reached the line of Colorado 800 prove richer the deeper they are sunk upons sion is most to be feared, both on account of miles west of Chicago, and 1,800 miles dis- The gold, however, is not found to any ex. the uncertainty of its action and the want of tant from New York, and it has contracted to tent in a free state after leaving the surface reliable experiments respecting the best means construct 225 miles during the present summer, ore, it gradually combines with the sulphurets: of counteracting its influence. Numerous ex- which will bring it to the foot of the mountain of iron and copper, which take the place of periments have been made with regard to the range in Colorado. Passengers are now carried the soft and porous surface ore. The great effects of torsion upon shafts and axles, and by rail from New York in four days to within percentage of the precious metal is found in rules and formulæ deduced for proportioning 230 miles of Denver city, the capital of timately associated with the sulphurets of iron; their strength; but these are inapplicable to Colorado, to which latter point they are daily copper, silver, lead, antimony, and arsenic, the case of boring rods, the length of which is taken by coach. It was so lately as 1858 Many miles of shafts have been sunk and out of all proportion to that of the ordinary that Colorado first came into notice as a likely tunnels run in Colorado, although as yet no examples taken as the base of mathematical mining region, and this was owing to a dis- great depth has been attained. The deepesti calculation. If there is one particular de- covery made by some emigrants of gold near shaft at present is one in the Nevada disscription of strain more than another which the site of Denver. This discovery ssimu- trict, which has been sunk down to 525ft. would test the soundness and strength of a lated emigration, and in course of time a and exhibits ore superior to any yet previously weld it is a violent wrench, which, similar to regular stream set in to Colorado, where just discovered in the lode upon which it is sunke all strains of torsion, tends to cause one por- before rot a white resident was to be seen in This ore is now yielding, in an ordinary stamp tion of the weld to rotate round the other con- the territory, except a colony of Mexicans in j and pan mill, a sun three times larger than sidered as a fixed axis. Of all engineering the extreme southern part. The American that expended in mining and treating it. And works those of boring and sinking are the moet war, however, did much to check emigration, yet assay shows that scarcely 25 per cent of uncertain to estimate; any one of a hundred added to which the Indian tribes upon the the gold contained in the ore is really extracted contingencies, and some are sure to be en- plains combined to drive out, or rather to ex- from it. Within the last year a considerable countered, sufficing to vitiate the most terminate, the invaders. Fearful massacres of quantity of ore taken from several mines laborious and careful calculations. At the the whites took place, the Indians endeavour- was forwarded to Swansea, that skilled exper same time it is of all others the one in which ing to regain sole possession of the regions rience and modern appliances might be brought the motto "the end justifies the means" re- they had so long considered exclusively their to bear upon it. The ore thus treated gave ceives general acceptance. Notwithstanding own. But help, and with help a turning yields of between 200 dollars and 300 dollars that an immense amount of time and money point, came, and since the American war Colo-to the ton, the same ore not yielding more may be consumed in getting down piles and rado has 'so prospered that she now boasts a than from ten to fifteen dollars per ton by the cylinders, and numerous errors and mistakes, population o- 36,000, exclusive of Mexicans stamp and pan mills in Colorado, and yet pardonable and unpardonable, may be com- and Indians. Denver itself contains about 8,000 paying a profit upon that amount. There mitted, yet when the work is accomplished, I souls; its streets are regularly laid out, and ! is certainly an opening here for some specula

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lative genius to introduce the necessary plant

HOT-AIR APPARATUS. and machinery to prevent such a golden waste.

Title parcourbon valgeid some BFIG: 2.11 30 hat er Silver is plentiful in Colorado, being found in

foris 4920 og stelle o fatou vler all the gold mining districts associated with the ores containing gold. It is not, how

K

000OOOOO ever, present in remunerative quantities under

100000 LULOOD these conditions; it is when isolated from the gold deposits that its value is manifest. Im. mense belts of silver veins, thus separated

-H from those ot the gold ores, exist upon the western declivities of the Rocky Mountain

EO

08 range. This has only been known to be the

lo abied

q case within the last two years. The chief

TOILET

? A and localities of silver are the Argentine and the

· Id

Aesd Nidw
Griffith districts, the veins there having been

TALE
1311

how la

BIN di ai followed to an altitude previously unknown

1909 in mining experience in Colorado. During the

| short time that has elapsed since the discovery of the silver mining regions, good roads have been made connecting them with the more

120m settled sections of the territory. Seventy-six assays of ores from the silver mines of Summit

lliy Alade

NO County made during the past year, show an

Enoleilits elgal hoba average of 121.64 dollars' worth of silver to the

bread ton of 2,000lb. of ore. Thirty assays of the same ore made by another chemist at the mint

9790

Ploti

grilom at Denver showed 130.28 dollars to the ton

IN raios od 2131920*" of ore. Fletcher Mountain, in the Ten Mile

C. district, is now being tunnelled into from its base to its centre by eastern capitalists, the

ob VITU LT 1997 til det is! object being to intersect a lode at great depth which exhibits upon the surface indications of region. One third of the plains are estimated our houses in winter to the proper temperaturo great wealth. This vein, known as the to be underlaid with this material, which we took away the necessity for fireplaces, we "Compton," shows at surface a crevice over abounds universally, except in the mountains. should soon cease to care about the mere ap

The two methods most in a mile long, and of an uniform width of 10ft. The coal is now being used for grates, steam pearance of it. From shafts sunk upon it it has given some purposes, and reverberatory furnaces, and can favour for heating buildings are those of hot of the richest ore obtained in the district. be bought in Denver for from 6 dollars to 10 water and hot air, and it is with the latter of

There is no lack of copper in Colorado, dollars per ton. Petroleum, too, will serve well of these that we shall concern ourselves at where it is plentifully distributed through all future generations, as inexhaustible quantities present. We do not intend to enter upon the the gold and silver mining regions. Exten- can be obtained in a fluid state from the plains, question of the relative merits of the two sive veins have recently been found about and from the coal found in the parks. Springs methods, but we maintain that the hot-air thirty miles south of Denver, running parallel are numerous, from which the oil saturates apparatus, from the economy of its first cost, with the belts of the gold mines. They are the ground for hundreds of feet around. The its facility of introduction, and the rapid and richer than any previous discoveries ; they only well sunk in Colorado for petroleum variable production of heat according to the contain a grey ore, which yields as high as gave a yield of 34 barrels per day, froin a depth temperature that may be required, is at least 60 per cent. of metal. The metal is generally of 75 feet. Deposits of dry salt are found in on a par with its rivals, and in many instances found in the form of sulphurets in the gold Colorado, and salt springs are plantilul in greatly to be preferred. Among the objections, mines, and the deepest shafts exhibit these some parts, extensive works being in operation which are admittedly valid, it is stated that sulphurets in immense and continuous masses. for boiling and evaporating the brine. the hot-air apparatus supplies a dry, burning Copper is sometimes found in a native state, Amongst the sundry deposits in Colorado, we element of heating, occasioned by the contact and, according to recent reports, large masses may, in conclusion, mention alum, fluor-spar, with metallic surfaces, and also that injurious of native copper are to be seen in the bottoms fireclay, gypsum, lime, manganese, zinc, sul- ingredients are introduced into the pipes which and on the sides of some mountain streams. phur, and soda, which are all found in con- are not carried away by the exhaust pipe as Not much attention, however, has as yet been siderable quantities. Thns favoured with it ought to be. In addition to these must paid to copper as a source of mineral wealth, natural productions, and blessed with a mild be included the necessity of watching the apalthough, from the indications, we may con- and healthful climate, we may hope in a few paratus very closely and the constant renewal clude that it will be found as profitable and years to see Colorado assume a leading posi- of the fuel, demanding the services almost of as inexhaustible as gold and silver. Lead tion, for which she appears eminently quali- a regular-stoker or fireman. exhibits itself in many of the gold mines in the fied.

With the view of obviating these disadvanform of galena, but diminishes in quantity as

tages a hot-air apparatus has been lately the the depth increases. In Ten Mile district it

subject of a patent by MM. Geneste and Her. is more plentiful than in any other; there it

HOT-AIR APPARATUS.

cher, a firm well known for the especial atis sometimes found projecting in large masses

tention they devote to all processes and invenabove surface upon the line of vein. Pieces MHAT the plan in general use for heating tions relative to the question of warming and weighing from 500lb. to 1,000lb. are often rooms by open fireplaces or stoves is a ventilation. This new apparatus is called a detached in a partly oxidised condition. Upon relic of the olden times and adhered to, as Thermoconservator, or preserver of heat, and Fletcher Mountain it is very rich on the surface, many other obsolete methods are, solely for has the following peculiar advantageous feacropping out in all directions. The galena that reason, there cannot be the shadow of a tures :- In the first place, unlike many of its is never found free from silver, yielding from doubt. Notwithstanding that the present age rivals, it can burn any description of fuel, 1002. to 500oz. to the ton of metál. Assays is essentially an age of economy, we might whether coal, coke, or charcoal, and at the made by Professor Hayes on samples of galena, almost say of parsimony, we have done very same time economises the fuel in two ways. from nine different districts, give an average little towards a real economisation of our fuel It has a large heating surface, and utilises the exceeding 130oz. of silver to the ton. Like and its products. More caloric passes away products of combustion to a maximum by the copper, lead has not been much sought, in through the kitchen flue of an ordinary house employment of a firebox of fireclay, an exfact, it has only been obtained for the pur- in one day than would suffice to warm the ternal envelope lined with sand or any nonpose of fluxing other metals.

whole of its interior for twice that period of conductor of heat, and reservoirs of water Iron ore is found in beds along the bases of time. There is certainly some truth in the which impart hygrometric qualities to the air mountains in irregular masses, in the form of common observation always adduc d, when and regenerate as it were the supply of ozone. limonite of a brown and red colour. It yields the subject of abolishing open fireplaces is In this apparatus, when once charged, the from 50 to 70 per cent. of metal, and contains, alluded to, "It looks cheerful.” Undoubtedly combustion will maintain itself forabout twenty in addition, manganese and alumina. Little it does so, but very few people nowadays sit hours, and one of the improvements introduced or nothing has been done to develope this much over the fire as it is termed, and the is the substitution of a refractory substance metal, une furnace only having been erected, real reason why they have so great an affection for the sides in lieu of the ordinary metallic but that even is not running. This is the for its very appearance is that it fails in reality envelopes used in other appliances. The dismore to be wondered at, as the deposits at to accomplish its purpose, and one is obliged tinguishing characteristics of this new invensome points are immense, and coal is found to look first to see if there is a fire before they tion consist principally in the disposition of in profusion upon the plains in the same begin to feel its warmth. After entering any the firebox, the introduction of a series of localities as the iron. It is, however, but young large room or building warmed to a certain tubes of small diameter affording a large days yet, and time will doubtless show better comfortable temperature, one never thinks amount of heativg surface, and the substitution things. The presence of coal argues well for about a fire or its appearance simply because already alluded to. This tout ensemble prothe future manufacturing interests of the they do not feel the want of it. If, by heating duces the following effects :- It causes one

[graphic]

cess

single charge of fuel to last a long time; it

kind of hydrogen would that be which is six PREPARING TIN PLATES.

times denser than the hydrogen we know of ? of the fuel, and protects the metallic portions Theoprons fase or sulphuric acid in the pro- form? Is it not rather something other than heated, and consequently burned out. The pre-cess known as the “Black Pickle.” This pro- hydrogen, if such a gas does exist, that is like ceding cut* fig. 1 represents a vertical section

is both expensive and dangerous to hydrogen in everything except that it is six through the centre, and fig. 2 also a vertical health ; besides which, the contributions of times denser. section at right angles to the former. At the this poison to many of the mountain streams of

This of course is on the supposition that it inferior extremity of the firebox A is placed Wales have long since driven the trout and is an essential property of this quasi-hydrogen the grate g. The firebox A is itself protected salmon from their waters. To abolish the to be of that density; but it is not an essenby the sides of fireclay which prevent the manifold evils attending this process of pre- tial property of it; for on being excluded exterior envelope from becoming burnt, and paring plates for tinning, has been the aim of from the iron it became like other hydrogen. obviates the replacement always accompanying Mr. 7. F. Parsons, of Maindee, who substitutes How, then, can there be an atmosphere of cast iron when subjected to too violent a heat, the more natural method of cleansing by ordinary hydrogen, but six times denser than The firebox is covered by a plate a (soe fig. 2). friction. In the process usually employed for ordinary hydrogen? Why, by no other means upon which is superimposed the conical-shaped preparing iron plates for being coated or plated than that of external pressure. But how are box A', forming the receptacle for the fuel. with tin or its alloys, the oxide, cinders, and we to get that external pressure ? Hydrogen In communication with the plate a are the other impurities adhering to the plates are being the lightest thing we know of, it will tubes B terminating at their other extremity removed by the action of the sulphuric acid naturally arrange itself external to all other in the receptacle D, which is surmounted by only. This method involves a considerable matters in any atmosphere. If we assume the chimney or funnel d. There is a small outlay, and the plates become corroded and other matter to exist which is lighter than door at l for the purpose of charging the appa

retain their corrosion in the pores of the iron, hydrogen to press externally upon it-and ratus, and another at m (fig. 2), for lighting in spite of the washing and pressing to which doubtless there is such matter, for example

, the fire, cleaning, or any other emergency that they are afterwards subjected. Now although nebulous matter-still that will not help us might arise, but it should never be used for the surface has its showy coating of tin, there much; our atmosphere is surrounded with introducing the fuel. Below the firebox is the lurk beneath it the seeds of weakness and short such matter, which is seen, as the zodiacal ashpit G, the orifice of which is situated at o withstanding the wear and tear which it might of our earth it certainly is a part of it, and

Hence it is often found incapable of light. Though we do not reckon it as part small button r. Crowning the apparatus is reasonably be expected to resist. The more with it we take the density of our hydrogen. an annular reservoir k filled with water and natural method of cleansing is that adopted by But is there not an easier way of accounting pierced with holes in its external envelope to Mr. Parsons, who, by simple friction on the for it than by such an assumption, which even allow of the free circulation of the air. A de- surface, makes the plate clean, smooth, and will not account for it without other assumpscription of the actual modus operandi of this bright, the friction taking place in pure water. tions? First, has it been ascertained that little apparatus will be of more practical use

The cleansing is effected by means of a simple ordinary soft 'iron can be made to absorb six to our readers than a dissertation upon its machine composed of guide or feed rollers, times its natural quantity by being heated in details. Having opened the slide e by means which are used to govern the passage of the an atmosphere of hydrogen compressed six of the screw E, a little fuel is placed upon the plates through a pair of polishing rollers. fold? Secondly, has it been ascertained that grate, in the manner usual in commencing to These latter rollers revolve at high velocities, this meteoric iron, after the hydrogen has been get up steam or heat in any machine, and and produce a perfect cleanness and smoothness expelled, will re-absorb three times its bulk lighted. A draught is at once established by of surface. The machines are said to cost under the same conditions that ordinary soft means of the tubes B upon closing the slide about half as much as one pair of cold rolls iron absorbs only

one-half its bulk. Till these by the screw E, and it only remains to put in at present cost, and they can be easily worked are done an assumption is hardly admissible. the full charge through the door l. The air by two boys. They are so constructed that

Assuming these experiments to have been to be heated is introduced into the apparatus they can either be fitted themselves with a pair made, and that ordinary soft iron will not through small apertures made in its under of cold rolls, and thus turn out the plate com- absorb three times its own bulk even under surface, and after passing through the tubes plete for tinning; or the polishing rolls only pressure, nor will meteoric iron re-absorb the B acquires certain salutary properties by the may be fixed to existing cold rolls, two boys same quantity which was previously driven evaporation of the water contained in the re

only being then required, as at present, one to out of it, we will venture just one assumpservoirs k and k'. The size of the apparatus feed and the other to receive. After passing tion, which we think will not involve so many represented in the cuts is that of one equal to through the machine the plates are then ready difficulties as the assumptiou of a dense 18in. in diameter and 5ft. in height. Its for coating, and the

white tin being applied to atmosphere of hydrogen. Suppose now that capability of heating equals that of raising

a surface already bright, must undoubtedly the meteoric iron was expanded into a state through 30 deg. Fah. a sufficient quantity or give the best results. No pernicious particles of vapour even till it was of the density o air to warm a space of 325 cubic yards. The of acid are left on the plate to eat away the ordinary hydrogen, which is not too much to following table shows the different sizes of the heart; oor to blemish the surface. It is antici- suppose in the case of a shooting star. Then apparatus and the other details connected with pated that in addition to the saving effected by suppose it to enter an atmosphere of ordinary

the disuse of the acid, one annealing and one hydrogen in that state. In passing through it :

cold rolling, instead of two, will be sufficient such an atmosphere it would be cooled and to produce plates more durable and having would condense, and in so condensing would far more perfect reflecting power than are at enclose much hydrogen and imprison it, and present turned out.

in gradually shrinking and cooling it would compress the hydrogen, and it might easily be

to the extent of that in the Lenarto iron. 3.12

INTERSTELLAR IRON.

Moreover, this absorption and condensation 200 37

might all take place in our own atmosphere. 325 23

PAPER has lately been read at a meet. It is a very interesting phenomenon, and we

A 3.85

ing of the Royal Society, by Thomas should like to see it investigated by some 4.1

Graham, F.R.S., Master of the Mint, on the 4.4 900 amount of bydrogen given off by a sample of competent head and hand, whether Mr. Gra

ham's or some other equally competent expe1,300

the Lenarto meteoric iron when in a state of rimentalists. The inferences that have been

ignition. He found that it gave off three drawn and the explanations that have hitherto As the temperature or the degrees of tem- times its volume. Now, ordinary malleable been given do not appear to us to be satisfacperature through which the air can be raised iron will hardly absorb more than one-half its tory; but the matter has received but little to afford the results given in the above is volume. From this difference the author

attention as yet. 30 deg. Fah., it is clear that, except in frosty infers that the iron mnst have passed through weather, there would be no necessity for using a very dense atmosphere of hydrogen when in so much fuel. It is, undoubtedly, the trouble a state of ignition. We cannot see the force and inconvenience of having to fix up in of this inference, much less can we agree with

SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS. house a special apparatus of this kind that one of our contemporaries, who in writing of prevents, our economising our fuel as we

ought it says that we must look for this atmosphere Ten prebendent vicepresident, suncity, and.com to do, but if it were once taken up by the far beyond our solar system — in fact, gineers, having just visited the l'aris Exhibition, builders of houses its advantages would be that we must look upon it as proved the opportunity was taken by the president, W.H. recognised at once. We are gradually dis- that this iron has come from some of the Le Feuvre, C.E., F.R.G.S., to deliver an address covering that builders will avail themselves fixed stars, because it is proved by spectrum to M. Eugene, Flachet, president of the French allthe new houses are fitted up with self-acting Suppose now that this iron has passed through of the Society of Engineers, the pleasing duty of all improvements in house construction, for analysis that some of them contain hydrogen' Society of Civil Engineers. The following is a boilers and other conveniences, provided they a very dense atmosphere of hydrogen, so much has fallen to me of presenting to you, as preare really satisfied of their utility and their denser than our hydrogen as the amount sident of the Society of Civil Engineers of France, permanent economy.

absorbed by the meteoric iron is greater than an address on behalf of the council and members the amount we can cause ordinary soft iron to of our society.

At the last meeting of our We are indebted for the accompanying engraving to our which the inference is drawn. But what it would be very desirable that advantage should absorb; for this seems to be the grounds on council

, held in London, it was suggested that valuable contemporary Le Genie Industriel.

Weight of Diameter in Height in feet Number of cube fuel for every inches. and decimals. yards heated. 10 hours ia

lbs.

3.0

90

130

12 14 16 18

12 15 18

3.3

20

27

450
650

22 24 26

38 45 63

4.7

to

our own.

, of

be taken of the opportunity arising from the these works we have to notice also, that during nonoe in this work, that they should be honoured presence of several of our members in Paris, to this period some of the most marvellous scientific by those, at all events, who, following in the mark that sense of esteem and high regard in discoveries have been made. To many of your same direction, know how to estimate the diffi. which many of the mernbers of our profession in distinguished countrymen the world is indebted culties which must have been encountered before your country are justly held by us. It was con. for discoveries which now play a most important the dreams of art become converted into sidered that the most appropriate way in which part in its affairs; and, no doubt, there are at stone and iron, and made becoine this wish could be carried out would be by seek the present moment others engaged in the pro- landmarks of history. It is in this spirit ing, in the first place, to make known to you the secution of researches calculated to prove of vast of admiration, Mr. President, that we offer object of this deputation, and requesting you benefit to the general interests of society. In this address to you, as representing one whose kindly to convey these sentiments to the Société according you that tribute which the iudefatig. life has been devoted these labours. das Ingénieurs Civils of France, in your ca- able and suocessful labours of your great philo- It is the labour of men whose works will live pacity as president of that distinguished body. sophers have so richly deserved, I may be after them, and beget the gratitude of posterity. I need hardly say, Mr. President, how cordially pardoned perhaps for noticing that we, too, have We, therefore, Mr. President, wish you happiness this proposal met with my entire concurrence, endeavoured to contribute something towards and success, and that you may live to carry out and, more especially, since we have recently the general good. Bat, perhaps, the greatest many of those undertakings which history tells had the honour of seeing your name enrolled as triumph of modern times which we have to us to regard as instalments towards the features one of the members of our Society. This cir. record is, that at length electrical communica of a future age. In closing the remarks I have cumstance has afforded us the most lively grati- tion has been established between the Old and the honour of addressing to you, I feel it fication, and, it is to be hoped, that it may be New World.

impossible not to recognise the wonderful regarded only as the commencement of that good As one of the exponents of the progress of inspiration given by the illustrious occupant of feeling and friendship which may prevail be- modern civilisation, reference must be made to the throne of your country to all those undertween the various institutions of this nation and the locomotive; and, it may be regarded as one takings likely in any way to serve the public

of the results of International Exhibitions that, god, either at home or abroad. Especially to In commemorating the great Exhibition of whereas formerly England supplied France with your august Emperor is to be attributed the pro. 1867, which we have now come to visit, we locomotive engines, France has lately sent a large mulgation of those peaceful sentiments which at cannot but be sensible of the peaceable career supply of locomotives to England. Whether length seem to have taken possession of the opened up to nations by these undertakings. this is to be attributed to the numerous strikes minds of surrounding and adjacent nations. Let By & singular coincidence, the first idea of an which have lately taken place in England, and the us hope that he may be long spared to complete Exhibition was conceived during one of the most consequent disorganisation which has resulted be- that mighty mission which is entrusted to him ; stormy and disastrous eras of modern history, as tween labour and capital, or to some better and and that in the end it may be said that not only if it then appeared that in the promotion of the more economical nethod praotised under the France, but that the world is at peace. Arts and Sciences, the passions of mankind French system of manufacture, we cannot yet would be restrained, and peace afforded to the determine. It is certain, however, that in this world. Little more than half a century has respect we do not seem to have kept pace with elapsed since the first Napoleon, as a member of the times, although we have the credit of having

ARTESIAN WELLS IN ALGERIA, the Institat of France, accompanied by Ber- been the originators of that wonderful railway MWENTY-THREE years ago (says the Athen. spection to the factories and workshops of Paris, globe. It has sometimes occurred to me, as far their first attempts to sink artesian wells in their and the great industrial centres of the Empire, as I have been led from personal experience to newly-acquired territory; but after boring in two with the view of forming an Exhibition of its consider the question, that superior skill and places in the province of Oran to a depth of 98 manufacturing products. Fifty years after that science has been brought to besr upon the and 176 mètres without striking water, the visit, the illustrious Prince Albert, as president management of the ironworks of France and attempts were abandoned. In 1856, operations of the Society of Arts of London, conceived the Belgium than is to be discovered in our own

were resumed by the military corps of engineers, idea of an Exhibition which should comprise a country, and this would, necessarily, have much and from that date, with two or three exceptions, display of the collective industries and manufac. to do with the different results. For some years every boring has succeeded; and at the end of tures of all nations, and this was for the first time past, I have frequently obtained from the Con- 1864, seventy-five wells were flowing and deliver. + carried out in the great Exhibition of 1851, in tinent samples of iron that our leading ironing 4,200,000 litres of water every hour, or London, These Exhibitions have since that masters at home stated it was impossible to 100,000 cubic mètres a-day. The water is limpid period been repeated from time to time, until at produce.

and drivkable, but generally a little brackish. length they have culminated in the vast desigo But as an indication of the progress which The effect of such a supply on the social life and we have now come to your capital to witness. has been made in the manufactoring processes and industry of the country may be imagined. A

It has been truly said that our age has been applied sciences in England, it may be observed village and date plantations rise up around every one of Exhibitions, where we begin to recogaise that, in 1824, the first locomotive constructed by well, and the natives, having something to lose, the arts of peace striving to assert their pre- George Stephenson only travelled at the rate of prefer peace to predacity. Thirty-five of the dominance over those wars and jealousies of six miles an hour. In 1829 others were con- wells are in the Ouled Rir district, which stretches nations, which have done so much to sadden the structed which travelled at the rate of fifteen far to the south. The deepest well is 175 mètres, history of former times, and distract the peace miles per hour. In 1839 locomotives attained a the shallowest 29 mètrus, and the total of all the of the world. It must be a matter, therefore, velocity of thirty-seven miles per hour; and at borings amounts to 6,628 mètres. The entire calculated to afford our profession the deepest the present moment we have locomotive engines cost, defrayed by a tax on the natives, was satisfaction to reflect that our mission is to aid which have reached a speed of seventy miles an 400,000f. Among the material results, we are 80 materially in those works which have for their hour. These facts clearly demonstrate the vast informed that 150,000 dats trees have been planted object the promotion of that peace and concord improvements which have been effected in the in the Ouled Rir district alone, besides fruit-trees in the development of which we see the principal mechanical arts within a period of fifty years, of other kinds, and more than 2,000 new gardens nations of Europe now happily engaged. That and at the same time indicate the possibility of have been formed. We may expect that these peacefal emulation and rivalry under which the father improvements yet being made. The im- beneficial operations will be continued, for four attraction and magnitude of each successive mense benefits conferred on nations by the ope- boring brigades have been established, all well Exhibition is sought to be increased, serves only rations of railways will serve in future times to provided with implements, for the purpose of to spread with greater force the enlightened mark the character of the present era. They systematic exploration, and to sink wells in places ideas by which they are called into

existence. aftorda wonderful means for abridging labour and likely to yield water. Guided by years of expuriWe now see, for the first time, as forming part facilitating the operations of commerce, and ence, their failures are now bat few, and year by of an International Exhibition, the external thereby the acquisition of capital; and that year their knowledge of the local hydrography, world of Nature brought into alliance with the rapid intercommunication which could scarcely surface and subterranean, becomes more com produotions of Art and Science; and I am sure be attained ia any other way than by the loooo plote. it will not bat strike every one as adding a very motive, has led to an entiro transformation of great additional charm to these undertakings, the conditions and character of society. En.

THE ATLANTIO CABLE. and one which it would be at all times desirable trusted with all the elements which could be made to see associated with them in future. If any to render life agreeable, and impart to as a hibitions have upon the opinions of mankind, it the uninspired passions of men, has been turned the repairing of the Atlantic cable of 1866, proief were wanting of the moral force

these Ex higher knowledge of the future, the world, hrona THE Telegraph Constraction and Maintenanos may readily be seen in that fascination by which into a wilderness, where the fairer prospects of which has been recently injured in Trinity Bay. 80 many illustrious personages have been drawn humanity have seemed blasted and destroyed. The Company's ship • Chiltern" sailed for the towards your capital, and, by the multitude of But now we see the boundaries of nature every- Bay last week with the necessary machinery, and visitors arriving from all quarters of the world where yielding to the genius of inan. Abroad, an efficient staff. It is expected that the solely to comtemplate man's handiwork and some are boring through mountains to make way “ Chiltern" will arrive at Newfoundland by the genius. Princes have bowed down in homage for that swift messenger of civilisation, the loco 15th instant, and we shall doubtless soon hear to those principles which constitute the trae motive; others seek to connect vast seas, whose that the damage done by the only iceberg which prosperity of nations, and the recognition of uncontrolled and sudden union might even disappears to have touched either cable will be which can alone render kingdoms secure and turb the equilibrium of our globe ; some mount repaired. The * Chiltern" has taken out à happy.

in air; others endeavour to accelerate the inter- quantity of spare cable to be left in Newfound. It becomes the subject of legitimate pride to course between nations divided by measureless land, the Anglo-American Telegraph Company our profession, that the more we reflect upon the expanses of water; while extending around, and having decided that a reserve stock of cable, to peculiar features of our times, the more clearly encircling us on all sides, railways, viaducts, meet accidents, should be kept on the other side we may discover the important influences bridges, and magnificent structures of various of the Atlantic. The revenge of the Atlantio brought to bear upon the enlightenment of na- kinds go to make up a portion of what we are cable has not been in the least affected by one tions by our labours. The mere contemplation seeking to contribute to change the condi- cable breaking down, but it appears a want of of those stupendous and beautiful works with tion of the world. We are architects whose mis- foresight not to have a proper vessel, with which the world has been enriched and adorned sion it is to repair the ravages of time and reno- machinery and officers, to watoh over the only only within the last century, must have nded vate and preserve material things from decay. portion of the cables likely to be occasionally in a very great measure towards the elevation It is but due to those engaged in these labours, deranged by the icebergs which drift into Trinity and refinement of society. In conjunction with and to those especially who have obtained emi. 1 Bay from the Polar current.

THE “ FIELD" PATENT SAFETY BOILER,

ugual manner.

These boilers are perfectly accessible for examination and repair, and as the different working parts are of the most simplo construction, and very few in number, we are in. formed that these boilers can be produced ready for work at a very moderate cost, below that of other descriptions of tobulous generators, while the extremely effective character of the heatiog surface enables a very considerable saving to be effected in the length and weight of the boiler, and consequently also in the cost of setting.

The lightness of each of the various parts, combined with their simple construction, and the ease with which they may be put together in almost any situation, are important features, which render this boiler peculiarly suitable for transportation and erection in situations where it would be impossible to employ boilers of ordinary construction. Another point in favour of the Field safety boiler is, that it can be most readily enlarged by connecting additional series of tubes in cases where it is desired to increase the effective power of the boiler. The question of tubulous boilers is now attracting considerable attention, and the conviction is steadily gaining ground that it is the true system both for economy and safety. The manifold advantages embodied in the one we have been describing point to a success which we think it cannot fail to achieve.

[graphic]

AMERICAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.
PROJE
ROFESSOR TILMAN, on taking the chair

at a recent meeting of the Polytechnic, read a number of scientific items, from which we learn that, according to Sir C. Lyell, fish have been found in the artesian wells of the Sahara. They were brought from a depth of 175ft., and had perfect eyes. According to an

opinion offered by Mr. Balfour Stewart, in a the flue. On the upper part of the inclined pipes lecture before the Royal Institution, London, the THE “FIELD" PATENT SAFETY

are formed & nnmber of bosses, through which spots on the sun's surface are produced by down. BOILER. holes are drilled above each of the Field ward currents of the surrounding atmosphere

, O" F the many classes of steam generators in tubes, and rather larger in diameter than the depth of which had been estimated at not less

the construction of which an onter shell or the latter, thus affording ready means of than 72,000 miles. A downward rush of the its equivalept are employed, there is none that access

not only to them but likewise to atmosphere occasioned an exposure of the body moro perfectly complies with the requirements other parts of the interior of the boiler. Each of the sun, and produced an appearance of a of safety and thorough efficiency than does the or. hole is covered with a tapering plug secured dark spot; an upward rush of the atmosphere dinary field boiler, now in such extensive use, and in its position by two bolts and nutr. The produced the bright fecalæe that surround the which possesses many advantages, already enu- radiation of heat is prevented by iron plates rest; dark

spots, and are seen more conspicuously on merated in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE," and not ing on ledges above the idclined tubes, and the borders of the son’s disc. Asiatic cholera the least important of which is the great saving covered with ashes. Cast-iron plates are placed is said to be produced by animalcule, supposed it offects in the amount of space occupied. More across the upper and lower parts of the flue for to be a vegetable organism, owing to the great over, there is no limit to the extent of steam and directiug the costa of the products of combustion rapidity of the progress of the disease, water rooni which may be given, nor is there so that they may impinge in the most efficient

Dr. Van der Weyde stated that he was long the slightest danger of explosion even in case of manner upon the Field tubes, the circulation of of opinion that the

san is a molten sphere, cool. shortness of water. It is nevertheless an unde- the water in which, as is well known, is of ing

imperceptibly, and that the spots are fissures niable fact that much greater strength can be the most porfect character. Thus a much larger in its side sinuilar to those we see in masses of attained in a properly constructed boiler formed quantity of water is evaporated within a given molteu metal. He gave some interesting details entirely of tubes than can possibly be had in a space than is the case in boilers of other con of observations which were made for many years generator of which an outer shell or casing of structions, and almost the whole of the heat at Washington under the direction of the late comparatively large diameter is a component generated in the furnace (with the exception of Professor Bache, by which the exact form of the part. Hence, among many employers of steam what is necessarily employed for the purpose of solar spots was drawn. By these observations power the first-named class of boiler would no

maintaining a snfficient draught) is utilised in it was discovered that the spots are much more doubt gain preference over one otherwise the production of steam, thoroughly efficient, effecting an enormous saving

This boiler possesses an advantage, the im. angular than they appear even throngh the tele

scope. Referring to the statement that cholera in space, but calculated only safely to withstand portance of which can scarcely be over-esti- is produced by animalcule, he believed that it was what are under ordinary circumstances con mated, in doing away with that, inevitable possible that it might be so. He instanced many sidered high testing and working pressurer. defect of tubes fixed at both ends without etrec diseases produced by insects, visible only by We believe it was in view of this fact that the tive provision for expansion and contraction the microscope. proprietors of the Field boiler introduced the namely, leakage, the destructive effects of which cule entirely distinct from vegetable substances

He showed also that animalpatent safety boiler, of which our present en.

are well known. The means by which this resalt sprung up with amazing rapidity, as those that graving represents a longitudinal vortical section is attained have an important effect in simplify produced the so-called phosphoresence of water, in perspective, and which, as will be seen, is of ing the construction and reducing the cost of the which is, in reality, the effect of an electrical the strictly“ tubulous" class.

boiler. Although we have already referred to discharge from these animals. The furnace is constructed of brickwork in the the very perfect circulation of the water in the

Dr. Rowell, gave an account of a jonrney in ordinary manner, a large flue or chamber being "Field’ tubes, it may, nevertheless, not

be out the interior of China

to a distance of 150 miles, formed at the back, into and through which the of place to remind our readers of the precise performed entirely by water, which affords, in hented products or combustion pass to the action which takes place. Upon lighting the fire, the Celestial Empire, the most convenient mode chimney. Across this flue or chamber are

placed the consequent heating of the tubes immediately of locomotion. In place of canal locks the a number of inclined cast iron tubes connected causes the water in them to commence circulat. Chinese use mud slides, up which the boats are

increment of heat, however drawn by bamboo ropes. by ilanged joints with bolts and nats, at their higher extremities to a longitudinal cast-iron trifling, added to the water contained in the

Professor Tillman stated that a trial of the tube constituting the ingin steam space. A annular spaces, between the inner and outer strength of lead-encased block tin plates, the corresponding longitudinal cast-iron

tube tubes, lessening its specifio gravity, causing it to most satisfactory evidence was given of their similarly connected to the lower ends of the ascend, and cooler water to consequently descend

strength. A conversation followed, in which inclined tabes, and protected by brickwork from the inner tubes to supply its place. This action very strong opinions were offered by the memthe direct action of the products of combastion, goes on increasing gradually until ebullition bers as to the danger of drinking water poisoned serves as an equivalent for the water casing commences, at which

time the velocity of flow.is by lead piping. employed in the ordinary vertical Field boiler, increased enormously, owing to the great difand constitutes a receptacle for the collection and ference between the specific gravity of the deposit of sediment. The under sides of the mixed water and steam ascending in the annular

The receipts at the Exhibition during the month inclined cast-iron tubes have bosses cast upon the imer tabes Sediment is carried

ap by the of May have realised an average of 50,000 in die the showing and tapering holes are bored, circulation in the

seriould's tubes, and, alded

in without reckoning the payments for weekly tickets drifted in such manner that they hang down into the boiler under notice, by the excellent circu. are being made by Prussia, Austria, Russia, and

lation in the inclined cast-iron tubes, is thrown other countries, and many of the most instructive

to the bottom of the main water tube already and usefal objects have been already secured by * Soo TICHANICS' MAGAZINE for July 14, 1865. referred to, from whence it is blown off in the them.

ing,

every

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