« EelmineJätka »
great errors. Undoubtedly the velocity of microscopes by different persons. A very care possible day of observation. Stars observed electricity is very great, but there are reasons ful series of observations was made, expressly to with the transit circle are :-Clock.error-stars, for doubting that it is as great as that of light determine this point; care being taken to ad. to the number of 118; nautical almadao stars, -of which this is one the electric force is more just the eyepieces accurately to focus. All as far as they are visible to us; azimuth stars, local in its action than that of light, conse- appearance of personal equation then vanished. among which we may with advantage sometimes quently, more external; therefore, less subtle I think that these experiments throw great light include stars of the Redhill catalogue ; stars and less active. . Magnetism lies nearer to where there is no movement of the object ob moon: completions of onr own published cata.
on the origin of sapposed personal equations culminating with the moon, or occulted by the light than electricity in universality and subserved.
logues; completion of the re-observation of tlety, but electricity is external to magnetism;
Attention has been given to the compensation Bradley's catalogue (of the whole number, about electricity requiring a special medium, but of the chrunograph barrel clock pendulum, and 1,211, the number wholly observed is 1,065, and magnetism is exerted through a medium as its rate is now very steady. It known to the the number partially observed 1,159); stars used general at least as that of light. But the velo- Visitors that the one second punctures on the in the British, American, and Indian surveys; city of light is perfectly definite, and certainly barrel-sheet follow each other on a spiral whose stars useful for refraction theories; proper motio n also is that of electricity, but being more inert interval of coils is one-tenth of an inch; and stars (including Sirius); variable stars; Argeit experiences much more interference, and that, for easily reading these, an impressed lander's special list of stars. especially by the magnetic sphere.
It would spiral line is necessary. Hitherto, the spiral line The equatoreals have been used principally as be well if the relation between electricity and has been traced by ink flowing from a glass instruments for observations of phenomena not magnetism were clearly traced out; it would pipette. The difficalty, however, of procuring requiring circle measurement, and for inspection
Drawings of Saturn solve many difficulties, and notably that of in- pipettes suitable to our wants has induced us to of special appearances.
employ the continuous indenture produced by a exhibit no trace of that supposed difference duction, about which very much has been said, steel point. It requires the application of greater between the outline of the ball and the outline but very little understood, though we are force for turning the barrel under it, but in other of the ball's shadow on the ring, which has been sorry to find that there is as much dogmatism respects it is very satisfactory. The motor ascribed to the curvature of the ring's surface. about that as there is about other branches of clock is in good order. This clock is kept to Drawings of the spot Linnæus on the moon leave the electric science.
mean solar time with all the accuracy that we no doubt that it is still a vory shallow oup. can give to it, by application at pleasure of mag- Complete preparations were made for an elabo
netic or galvanio attraction or repulsion on a rate system of instrumental measures during the THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY,
magnet fixed to its pendulum. It is used to solar eclipse of 1867, March 5 (somewhat similar
maintain several clocks in the Observatory to to those made successfully duriog the solar GREENWICH.
accurate mean solar time, and to distribute eclipse of 1860), by which the errors of the tabu. E have been favoured with a copy of the seconds' galvanic currents and hourly galvanic lar elements of the moon's place, and the tabular Board of Visitors of the Royal Observatory, to chauge connections of wires which enable us been determined. The bad weather prevented Greenwich, read at the annual visitation of the to receive signals from distant clocks and time the carrying out of this intention. Eight occul. Royal Observatory, June 1, 1867, and from which balls.
tations of stars by the moon have been observed we make the following interesting extracts:-Ro.
The south-east equatoreal is in excellent order. (four disappearances and four reappearances), ferring first to the telegraphic system of the esta. No alteration has been made in the telescope, and seventeen phenomena of Jupiter's satellites. blishment we find that the eight telegraph wires except by the introduction of a solar eyepiece, The end of the solar eclipse of 1866, October 8, are now led (by arrangement with the Electric with a green glass in front of the field glass. and the beginning of that of 1867, March 5, were and International Telegraph Company) under. A direct view spectroscope, the property of Mr. observed. ground to the Greenwich railway station, and Stone (first assistant) has sometimes been used The meteorological instruments, whether thoge thence to the poles of the South-Eastern with it. The chronometer carried at the eye read by eye for indications at the moment, those railway, and by a cable under Deptford Creek. end of the telescope, and adjusted by galvanic read for definite part registers, those which give At Deptford station, by the liberal permission of regulating action to exact sympathy with the continuous mechanical registers, or those which the South-Eastern Company, a turnplate is fixed, transit clock is perfectly successful. To give give continuous photographic registers, are all into which two of the wires are led; and from audible indications of the seconds' currents, ove in good order. They include barometers, dry the Admiralty wire which passes through the of the old galvanic chronometers is used. The and wet thermometers, radiation thermometers, High-street of Deptford, a loop is led into the water.clock, which gives motion to the equa- thermometers in the Thames, Osler's and same tarnplate, so that the Admiralty loop can toreial, is driven by the force of water from the Robinson's anemometers, Osler's and six other practically be extended into the Royal Observa- ordinary supply pipes acting through a turbine, pluviometers. The photographic barometer has tory, and can, when necessary, be interrupted
the opening of the last tap being determined by shown a tendency in its indications to "jump," there. The Astronomer Royal states that he Siemen's chronometric governor. The mean indicative of some friction which I have not yet has been desirous of maintaining this command velocity of the clock, as I believe, does not investigated. In Osler's anemometer a surface of wire with the hope that he may yet have depend upon the openings of the preceding taps, of two square feet it now exposed to tho wind occasion to use it for the transmission of signals but the rapid inequalities of velocity do depend instead of one foot as formerly; and the plate is to Devonport in reference to the exhibition of on them in a way which it is very difficult to supported by weak vertical springs instead of time signals on the Start Point, or in other explain from theory, A tap has now been rods running on rollers. Its indications are directions for similar purposes. established in the immediate vicinity of the much
delicate than formerly. This The proposed line of railway through the water-clock, and by experiments on this we have change was made by Mr. Browning. With town of Greenwich and on the north side of the acquired complete mastery of the instrument. the new pressure-plate of Osler's Hospital Schools, promoted by the South-Eastern It can now be made to move uniformly, without meter the pressures per square foot regis. Railway Company, which was considered unob any sensible inequality, and with astronomical tered in the last six months are larger than jectionable in reference to the interests of the accuracy.
any that we have had before. Whether any Observatory, received the entire sanction of the The new portable altazimuth by Mr. Simms part of this is due to the circumstances that tho legislature in the summer of 1866. Bat no action has been tested by observations for the latitude, plate is larger and its motion easier, or whether is yet taken on it, and no immediate action is and found to be sensibly perfect. I may mention it is wholly due to the great violence of the wind contemplated. The London, Chatham, and that a study of defects in the vertical circle of in this stormy season I am unable to say. With Dover Company have made no new application a small altazimuth formerly used by me, and Robinson's anemometer there is connected å for sanction of their line of junction with the an inspection of the operations in the instrument revolving barrel moved by clockwork to be South-Eastern Company's line (rejected last year maker's workshop have convinced me that the covered each day by a sheet of paper, on which on a point of standing orders). It seems not principal error to be feared in instruments of this a pencil carried by the anemometer makes a impossible, says the report, that in a fow years class is ovality of the graduated limb; this trace, exhibiting continuously the speed of the we may have to fight the whole battle over again. cannot be eliminated by two microscopes, and wind and the aggregate of its motion.
With respect to the astronomical instruments, such an instrument should never be fitted With regard to magnetical and meteorological the Astronomer Royal observes :-I alluded in with two only. Our instrument has four. The observations daily communication is made to M. my last report to the probability of finding the portable transit by Mr. Brauer was received in le Verrier for his meteorological balletiu; and astronomical flexure of the telescope, after cutting the summer, and appears to be everything that weekly communication to the Registrar-General away small portions of the central cube, sensibly could be desired. I had fully expected that em- for his sanitary report. The meteors on changed. Cast iron, apparently, is always in a ployment would have been found for both these November 14 were well observed. Eight thou. state of constraint, and the removal of a strained instruments in determination of a fundamental sand three hundred were registered. part usually alters the form and stiffness of all American longitude, but the necessity has been variations of frequency at different times were that is left. Very lately a most careful set of removed, as I shall explain in a subsequent sec- very well noted. The points of divergence were observations has been taken by Mr. Dunkin for tion.
carefully determined. determining the astronomical flexure with the Turning to the astronomical observations we Under the head of chronometers, communicahelp of the new collimating reversed telescopes; find Professor Airy stating that long ago, it has tions of time, determinations of longitude, the and the co-efficient for southern objects, which been indicated by continental writers that the Astronomer Royal reports as follows:-On 1867, formerly was +0":76, is now-0":34. This is best employment for & principal established May 3, we have on hand 192 chronometers, thus confirmed by another series of observations.] observatory is the determination of fundamental classified :-95 box chronometers, 14 pocket The difference of flexures of the two ends has, places of important stars, and fundamental ele-chronometers, and 10 deck watches, the property therefore, been altered more than a second of aro. ments of the motions of the earth, moon, and of the Admiralty ; 17 on trial for purchase to I have no information on the state of the absolute planets. From the foundation of the Greenwich replace six bought by the Japanese authorities ; flexure. The plan of stretching the horizontal Observatory these objects have been kept steadily 55 makers' chronometers on competitive trial. wire in the field of view has proved unsuccessful; in view, and as much so in the last as in preced. All chronometers, except those which have been the wire soon broke, apparently from dampness ing years. In particular, the moon has received in our hands so long that we have great famiof atmosphere.
that extraordinary attention which has been liarity with their rates, are compared every Some results of observation had given rise to given to her at all times in our history, but more day with a clock which is sympathetic with the the idea that there is really a personal equation particularly in the last twenty years, when two motor clock; those in the excepted case are in the determination of the runs of micrometer. instruments have been directed to her on every compared once a week. All are sabjected to
some weeks' trial in a temperature not exceeding THE INSTITUTION OF HYDRONOMICAL with hydronomical and nautical science and art 90 deg. Fah. All estimations of the value of AND NAUTICAL ENGINEERS.
for the examination of such inventions, and , all
for giving publicity to the same at a moderate tendence of repairs rest with me. Por issuing In ingerite prato
page 288 an inquiry
as to cha- Seventh. To advance the interests of authors packing has been introdaced. "It is found that racter and objects of the Institution of Hydro and inventors by granting permission (ander with reasonable attention the chrouometers can pomical and Nautical Engineers. The first in.
proper regulations and restrictions) that any be sent safely by railway to almost any distance. timation since our inquiry of the existence of this book, pamphlet, manuscript, model, chart, plan,
The motor clock, and the apparatus connected society has been the receipt by us of a pamphlet drawing, instrument, or appliance which shall with it, are in good order. This clock is com-embodying its proceedings. We are now, there have been approved by a committee of the insti. pared and regulated by an easy practical pro: the society. It appears that the Institution was referees thereof, may have such approval re
fore, glad to be able to give some particulars of tution, or by the dály appointed referee or with itself; it regulates clocks in London, sends established on July 4, 1866, with the following corded thereor under the official stamp or seal signals through Britain, drops the Deal timeobjects :
of the registrar of the institution. ball, fires guns at Newcastle and Shields (I think
First. To promote the acquisition of that
Eighth. To afford a recognised and authoritative alsoʻat Sunderland), and puts communications in species of knowledge and skill which
is required medium through which medals and premiums such a state that we can receive automatic refor the right exercise of the profession of a
may be awarded for the encouragement of ports from the signal places, as we may desire. hydronomical and nautical engineer, or, in other hydronomical and nautical science and art. I may, however, specially mention that daily words, that which constitutes the art of direct.
Ninth. To afford facilities for the public dissignals are now sent to some places in Ireland; ing and applying the powers and materials in cussion
of any matter or subject forming part of
, and that, during the expedition of the “Great nature to the
use, convenience, and defence of or connee:ed with, hydronomical and nantical Eastern for laying down the Atlantic cable mankind in the pursuits of navigation, maritime science and art, and for the appointment of time signals were sent on board twice a day to commeroe, submarine telegraphy, and naval special committees in relatiou to any branch enable her constantly to determine her longitude. and described as being exemplified in the several
warfare ; and which art may be further defined thereof. A most important determination of longitude
Tenth. To aid in the diffusion of sound in. has been made. In the autumn of 1866, arrange applications of hydronomical, nautical, physical, formation on subjects connected with
the pro ments were made by me, with the view of deter chemical, geological, mathematical, and me- viously defined professional duties of a hydro. mining the longitude of a primary point in New chanical science to the determination
of the laws nomical and nautical engineer, by granting perAtlantic cable , in the spring of 1867. However
and motion of fresh, brackish, and right and expense of editing and printing) that in October of 1866, the authorities of the United salt water; to the determination of the causes any book, pamphlet, manuscript, chart, plan, or States Coast Survey determined to act, and my waves,
and of the laws regulating the passage of perly appointed referees may be printed and
and motions of streams, tides, currents, and drawing which shall have been approved by pro. friend Dr. B. A. Gould, having made all neces: bodies in and through water; to the construc- published among the published papers of the in sary arrangements at Heart's
Content, and on arriving in London having secured the friendly tion, fitting, equipment, maintenance, locomo. stitution. assistance of the directors of the Atlantic cable, tion, armament, and means of attack and defence
Eleventh. To obtain a more general attention proceeded to establish a transit instrument at of sailing ships, steam, and other vessels ; to the to the necessity for the farther cultivation, con Foilbommerum, in Valentia. Advantage was
location, construction, adaptation, improvement, solidation, and advancement of hydronomical taken of this opportunity for determining the equipment, maintenance, conservancy, and and nautical science and art; and to procure the longitude of Folhommernm from Greenwich means of attack and defence of harbours of removal of any disadvantage of a public cha. After overcoming various difficulties all opera- bours, arsenals, naval and mercantile dockyards, or prospective development thereof.
refuge, breakwaters, piers, commercial har-racter which may impede the present progress tions were sucoessful. I have been favoured by and of river navigation, docks, floating and of the institute is No. 8, Bury-court, St. Mary
The office Colonel Sir H. James, superintendent of the Tri. gonometrical Survey, with the geodetic measure all appliances for the building and repair of
graving docks, and also to the construction of Axe. of difference of longitude between Foilhommerum and my first station Feagh Main ; and I have vessels, or for loading and discharging their
DEATH IN THE CISTERN. the longitude of Feagh Main, found by different cargoes; to the sailing, conducting, navigating, methods, as follows:--By chronometers in 1844, ti in of ther position at sea; to the preparation of SOE interesting investigations have recently
and piloting of vessels, and to the determina. 41m. 23.238.; by galvanic communication with
been made by Professor Hannon, of the Knights Town in 1862, 41mn. 23-378.; by gal. tion of the regime and actual hydro-geological produced by vegetable organisme. His researches
charts and sailing directions; to the determina- University of Brussels, with regard to diseases vanio communication with Foilbommerom in 1866, 41m. 23:192. Dr. Gould, immediately after state and condition of tidal and other harbours, have led to important discoveries, the professor his return to America, determined the aro of shores, estuaries, and rivers; to ascertaining thé having been able to prove that the spores of Joogitude from Heart's Content to Cambridge,
extent and causes of changes which may have some species of fresh water algæ, at the period U.S. The collected results for longitude of Cam. taken place therein, and to predicating the pro. of their fructification, are capable of producing bridge from different sources are--By moon
bable effects of existing agencies, or of the execu- intermittent fever. The observations and reculminators, Walker in 1851, 4h. 44m. 28:42s, to the location and construction of buoye, lead to the belief that many other diseases to
tion of any proposed works connected therewith ; searches of several eminent medical authorities Newcomb in 1862.3, 4h. 44m. 29568., by beacons, and lighthouses; and to making or which tho human frame is liable have their eclipses, Walker in 1851, 4h. 44m. 29643, constructing all other edifices, engines, machines, origin in the vegetable organisms which abound by occultalion of Pleiades, Pierce, 1838-1842, instruments, or appliances for the use, con in water. Some of the spores are probably 4h. 44m. 39-91, 1856-1861, 4h. 44m. 30-908.; venience, and safety of seamen. by chronometers, W. C. Bond in 1851, 4h. 44m.
thrown off into the atmosphere, and, being drawn 30-66s, G. P. Bond in 1855,45. 447, 31-898
. ; classification, election, and registration, a reliable far the larger portion doubtless find their way
Second. To establish, by a careful system of into the lungs, are absorbed by the blood, but by by Atlantic cable, 1866, 4h. 44m. 30 998.
register, of duly qualified hydronomical and into the stomach, and so give rise to disorders of
nautical engineers, of nautical experts, and of the alimentary canal. Their tenacity is said to BREECH.LOADING RIFLES.
other persons possessing hydronomical and be so great, that the temperature of boiler water nautical science and experience.
is insufficient to destroy their vitality, and even THE sub-committee on breech-loaders has THE
Third. To afford facilities for the appointment beer and bread, notwithstanding the heat to concluded the first stage of the inquiry; or selection of duly qualified assessors or referees which they have been subjected, in many cases and the result is, that nine systems have been for the assistance of any court or tribunal, or for show abundant evidence of the existence of these selected for further trial. The fortunate compe- making any inquiry, judicial or otherwise, in re- algæ. These facts all point to the necessity, so titors are Messrs. Albini and Braendlin, Mr. lation to any matter requiring a competent frequently urged by us, of filtering the water Remmington, Major Fosbery, Mr. Burton (two knowledge of hydronomical and nautical science used for 'manufacturing purposes as well as for systems), Mr. Peabody, Mr. Martini, Mr. Joslyn, and art.
domestic use. To meet this necessity, which and Mr. Henry. We understand for the best of Fourth. To afford facilities to suitors, and to becomes very special at the present period of these arms, whether adopted for the service or the promoters or opposers of any project, scheme, the year, we would direct attention to a method not, £1,000 will be awarded, and for the arm or undertaking, for procuring accurate, complete, of filtration which appears well adapted to meet which, while attaining & satisfactory degree of and trustworthy information in relation to the evil in question. This is embodied in the excellence in other particulars, is selected for questions of hydronomical and nautical science Main Service Filter, manufactured by the Silimerit in respect to its breech mechanism, £600 and art, either by the discussion of a paper on cated Carbon Filter Company which can be will be the prize. If the best arm appears to the the sabject at a discussion meeting of the insti. adapted to the sapply-pipe of any brewery dis. committee to be worthy of adoption, it will be tution, or by the appointment of a referee or tillery, or manufactory, and thus purify all the placed in competition with the Snider rifle, referees, or a committee of properly qualified water before entering the building. The value which it will be required to beat before its persons; or, if necessary, by appointing a com- of such a method of purification will be appro. adoption is confirmed. If, on the other hand, peteut person or persons be an inspector or ciated by those wlio have ever seen the inside of none of the prize arms should in the opinion of inspectors, for the purpose of making a local a large cistern after having been used for some the committee satisfy the service requirements, survey or inspection in relation thereto, or other time without cleaning. The quantity of vegethen the best of those arms which from failure to wise.
table matter which covers the sides of such & fulfil the conditions laid down are out of the prize Fifth. To afford facilities for the appointment cistern is astonishing, and it cannot be a matter compotition will be selected on their merits to or selection of hydronomical and nautical sur- for wonder that disease is propagated by water continue the contest. Each of the accepted coa veyors, draughtsmen, or other competent per- kept in such a receptacle. Mere straining of petitors will be required, within four months of sons, for making, preparing, examining, and water through animal charcoal is not sufficient his receiving the notice, to furnish for experi. verifying measurements, levels, soundings, to stop this vegetable matter, but the principle of ment at Woolwich six arms in strict conformity models, maps, plans, drawings, charts, specifica the Silicated Carbon Filter is the employment of to the specimen arm submitted, with 1,000 tions, statements, reports, and other documents a porous slab cemented into a filtering vessel. rounds of ammunition per arm; and a sum of in relation to hydronomical and nautical science This arrangement effectually prevents the passage £300 will be paid to each sach competitor to cover and art.
of any extraneous substance, and the combinathe expense of the six rifles and of the supply of Sixth. To afford facilities to inventors and tion forms a very efficient mechanical and che. ammunition,
other persons interested in inventions connected'inioal water-purifier,
Thoroughligim good blasting powder causes
In 20 min........
HALOXYLIN. ON THE OCCLUSION OF HYDROGEN GAS
sult of the experiment with this substance showed BY METEORIC IRON. THE vast' importance to the miner of a that a firmer enclosing wall was required than
with powder; the effect upon the rock was more BY THOMAS GRAHAM, F.R.S.
considerable interest to attach to all inventions cleaving than crushing, and on account of this S (OME light may possibly be thrown upon the relating to the manufacture of that article, property it promises considerable advantages
history of such metals found in nature as especially when additional advantages are ob- over powder for the blasting of coal. In the are of
a soft colloid description, particularly na- tained without a corresponding increase in the ironstone mines of Morawieza the experiment tive iron, platinum, and gold, by an investiga cost of production. For some time past a new
was made in less firm rock, with large bores, and tion of the gases which they hold occluded, such blasting compound-the novelty of which, how
a charge of 25lb. to 30lb. of haloxylin produced an gases being borrowed from the atmosphere in ever, consists rather in manipulating the effect exceeding by one-third that of gunpowder. which the metallic masses last found
themselves in materials than in the materials themselves--bas Such evidence as this is suficient to prove that a state of ignition. The meteoric iron of Lenarto been extensively used in the mines and quarries haloxylin has, at least, some advantage over appeared to be well adapted for a trial. This of the Austrian empire, under the name of ordinary blasting powder; and when the quantity well-known iron is free from any stoney admixture, haloxylin, which appears to have given great of blasting powder annually used in Great Britain and is remarkably pure and malleable. It was satisfaction, both from the quantity of work done is taken into consideration, it will be readily found by Wehrle to be of specific gravity 7'79, and the manner of doing it. It is one of those understood that, assuming even the smaller and to consist of
powders which has the property of merely burn- estimate of 30 per cent. of saving, the induceIron.......
ing away when in the open air, and yet exerting ment for the miners of this country to adopt it Nickel...
..8.450 a great rending force when properly confined in will be ample to ensore, under any circumstances, Cobalt....
....0.665 the blast-hole; whilst it is not liable to ignite a fair remuneration to those undertaking the Copper.... ..0.002 spontaneously, and cannot be exploded by per
manufacture. -Mining Journal. From a larger mass a strip of the Lenarto iron cussion or friction. The smoke resulting from 50 millimetres by 13 and 10 millimetres was cut the explosion is less in volume than usual, and, by a clean chisel. It weighed 45•2 grammes, in addition to this, it is free from the usual
SHOT AND TARGETS. and had the bulk of 5.78 cubic centimetres. The suffocating character of powder smoke; in fact, and then repeatedly bybot distilled water anddried. or even disagreeable, so that operations can be
. In the release of the recent praticie detailing er to
results practice against the Such treatment of iron, it had been previously carried on without intermission. A pound of Chalmers target on the continent we reproduce found, conduces in no way to the evolution of haloxylin will occupy nearly twice the space of the following paragraph from the Pall Mall hydrogen gas when the metal is subsequently llb. of gunpowder; and as haloxylin does fully Gazette :-The opinion which we yesterday exheated. The Lenarto iron was enclosed in a new two-thirds the amount of work, bulk for bulk, as pressed as to the worthlessness of some recent porcelain tube, and the latter being attached to a any powder now in use, it follows that a material experiments at Vinoennes, in which 9in. steel Sprengel aspirator, a good vacuum was obtained saving of cost is effected. It is claimed that shot fired with 431b, of powder failed to penetrate in the cold." The tube, being placed in a trough haloxylin has a tendenoy to cleave rather than a 5ļin. Chalmers target, receives strong con. combustion furnace, was heated to redness by scatter or crumble the rock in which it is used; firmation from the fact that the same target has ignited charcoal. Gas came off rather freely, but as this is a property possessed equally by all now been penetrated through and through with viz.
slow-burning powders, it may well be passed 9in, Palliser shot fired from the same gun and In 35 min.......... ....5-38 cubic centimetres
but the circumstance of the explosion under precisely the same conditions. These In 100 min. ...... 9:52
leaving the rock free from soil or stain would, broad results of the experiment, of which the .1.63
no doubt, be a great advantage in salt mines, in details have not yet reached us, supplement the
marble quarries, and where metallic traces teaching of the former experiment, and accord In 2 hours 35 min. 16:53 should be preserved from discolouration.
with all our recent experience at Shoeburyness. . The first portion of gas collected had a slight The invention of haloxylin is due to Messrs. They furnish one more proof of the tremendous odoar, but much less than that of the natural Wilhelm and Erust Fehleisen, of Styria ; it efficiency of the Palliser projectile and of its gases occluded from a fire by ordinary malleable consists in manufacturing an explosive compound superiority to steel; and if our Government can iron. The gas burned like hydrogen. It did of sawdust, charcoal, saltpetre, and, usually, only succeed, as no doubt they will, in obtaining not contain a trace of carbonic acid, nor any hy. ferrocyanide of potassium, although the latter full and trustworthy details of the experiment, drocarbon vapour absorbable by sulphuric acid. ingredient is sometimes dispensed with. The we may perhaps be saved the expense of conThe second portion of gas collected, consist- proportions in which they are combined are structing another Chalmers target to fire ating of 9:52 cubic centimetres, gave by analysis, generally about 9 parts by weight of sawdust, unless Mr. Chalmers can give us something
Hydrogen........8.26 cubic centimetres 85.68 3 to 5 parts of charcoal, 45 parts of saltpetre, stronger than his Vincennes target.
4:46 and, when the ferrocyanide of potassium is used, It is only fair that we should supplement this by Nitrogen.........0.95
9.86 1 part of ferrocyanide of potassium. The saw a letter from Mr. Chalmers, wbich subsequently
dast, which if not from a non-resinous wood appeared in the Times. The inventor of the 9.64
100.00 should have the resin extracted from it, is passed target writes :-The results of the recent experi. The Lenarto iron appears, therefore, to yield through a fine sieve, and then mixed with finely ments at Vincennes and Shoeburyness having 2:85 times its volume of gas, of which 86 per cent. powdered charcoal (from light woods) and left the question of shot and armour still undenearly is hydrogen. The proportion of car-powdered saltpetre. The mass is moistened with cided—the Palliser party claiming a complete bonic oxide is so low as per cent. Thegas oc- about a quart of water to the hundredweight, and victory for chilled shot and the French claiming cluded by iron, from a carbonaceous fire, is very then stamped or crashed. By this means the the superiority for their plates—I am desirous different, the prevailing gas then being carbonic whole is rendered homogeneous. The mass is of saying one word in favour of the backing. oxide. For comparison a quantity of clean horse now moistened again with water under ordinary The 7-ton gun, with 151b. charge, penetrates shoe nails was submitted to a similar distilla- circumstances, and with a weak solution of unbacked 7in. plates at Shoeburyness, and the tion. The gas collected from 23.5 grammes of ferrocyanide of potassium when a quick powder 12-ton gun, with 43lb. charge, fails to penetrate metal (3.01 cubic centimetres) was
is required. Thesubsequent processes of caking, 5fin. plates at Vincennes with a backing, the In 150 min..........5.40 cubic centimetreg. granulating, and drying are conducted in the shot need at Shoeburyness being Palliser shot In 120 min..........2:58
same way as is usual in the manufacture of and at Vincennes steel. But the great difference
ordinary powder, and the grains can, if desired, in result may be due as much to the backing as In 4 hours 30 min. 7.98
be polished as usual, but this is found to be un. to the shot. It should also be borne in mind The metal has given 2.66 times its volume of necessary.
that the target at Vincennes was only a section gas. The first portion collected appeared to Owing to the great cost of carrying explosive of a wooden ship, that I was not permitted to contain of hydrogen 35 per cent., of carbonio materials, the importation of haloxylin from superintend its construction, and that the plates oxide 50'3, of carbonic acid 77, and of nitrogen Germany is, commercially, out of the question; in the backing were placed wider apart than I 7 per cont. The latter portion collected, gave is, therefore, proposed to manufacture it in recommended. Hence the target did not promore carbonic oxide (58 per cent.) with less by- this country, There are at present three perly represent my system. It is generally addrogen (21 per cent.), no carbonic acid, the re. factories in Styria, Hungary, and Moravia re- mitted that Major Palliser has produced the best mainder nitrogen. The predominance of car. spectively, yet they are scarcely able to keep pace shot, and the experimental committee believe bonic oxide in its occluded gases appear, to attest with the continually increasing demand, and it is that I have produced the best backing. In order, the telluric origin of iron. Hydrogen has been to this circumstance alone that is to be attributed therefore, that these principles of attack and recognised in the spectrum analysis of the light the fact that until now no efforts have been defence may be fairly tested (if the Government of the fixed stars, by Messrs. Huggins and Miller. made to introduce it into England. The Hunyad refuse to give me another target with steel plates The same gas constitutes, according to the wide board of the Kronstadt Mining and Smelting in the backing), I shall furnish one on the followresearches of Father Secchi, the principalelement Company made careful comparative experiments ing conditions:--It shall be of the same weight of a numerous class of stars, of which a Lyræ is in their Telek iron mines, and obtained with half per square foot and depth of structure as the the type. The iron of Lenarto has no doubt come the weight of haloxylin the same results as with improved “Warrior" target, with 8in. plates, from such an atmosphere, in which hydrogen the powder in ordinary use; but such a high duty and be fired at under similar circumstances. If greatly prevailed. This meteorite may be looked as this probably resulted from some exceptional the Palliser shot go through the target, I shall upon as, holding imprisoned within it, and bear. circumstance not having been taken into account; bear the expense myself; but if it fail to go ing to us hydrogen of the stars. It has been that 2lb. of haloxylin, however, will do as much through, then the expense, not exceeding £1,000, found difficult, on trial, to impregnate malleable as 3lb. of other blasting powder appears to have to be borne by Major Palliser. The thickest iron with more than an equal volume of hydro. been well ascertained. The Austrian State Rail- plate of my target shall not exceed 5in. gen under the pressure of our atmosphere. Now way Company certify, as the result of the experithe meteoric iron gave up about three times ments made at their mines in the Banat, that the that amount, without being fully exhausted. The trials in the coal mines of Donan took place in a inference is that the meteorite has been extruded cross-course when very dense vapours prevailed;
The Society of Arts have this year awarded the from a dense atmosphere of hydrogen gas, for nevertheless, the place could be approached Albert
gold medal to W. Fothergill Cooke and Prowhich we must look beyond the light com immediately after the blasting, no smoke being labours in the introduction of the electric telegraph."
fessor Charles Wheatstone, F.R.S., "for their joint matter floating about within the limits of the left. As to the effect, 2 oz. to 24 oz.of baloxylin are The medal has been struck in duplicate, and a copy -solar system. - Chemical News
equal to 3oz. to 3} oz. of blasting powder. There will be presented to each.
nats f f on the frame c, and the right hand end is MACHINERY FOR THE MANUFACTURE provided with a handle y, whioh is turned accord,
AERONAUTICS IN FRANCE, OF CRUCIBLES.
ing as the former a and the block b are required THE
CAMILLE FLAMMARION has under are used demand that the utmost care should and down in slots h h formed in two uprights be observed in their manufacture, in order to en. ij, and its weight is counterbalanced by weights periments under the scientific commission. He sure that only the very best class of goods should k k on the ends of chains or cords 1 1. passed over has made two ascents, in one case confining his enter the market. To this end Mr. T. V. Mor. pulleys m m and connected to the frame c. n is observations to one zone, between 500 and 800 gan and Mr. E. Hyles, of the Patent Plumbago a catch on the upright j to secure the frame c metres in altitude, and in the other attaining the. Crucible Company, Battersea, have just patented in position when the former a reaches its low greatest possible height under the circumstances some improvements in apparatus for the mang- est position. o is the mould into which the at daybreak. In the latter case, in order to facture of oracibles from plastic materials. Their plastio material is fed ; this mould is carried on avoid all extra weight, M. Flammarion recently invention consists in fitting the forming tool so an ordinary lathe or jigger, 7, to which rotary mo- ascended alone from Barbison, a village on the that in addition to being capable of an up and tion is imparted as usual.
confides of the forest of Fontainebleau, at ten down movement, it is free to be moved and ad. When the frame c is caught by the catch n,
minutes to four a.m. At first the humidity caused justod horizontally as the crucible is being and the mould is cansed to rotate, the threaded the balloon to rise very slowly, but as the sun moulded, and according to its required size or rod d is turned by its handle g so as to cause the sky was perfectly clear, and in an hour the
rose the ascensional power soon increased. The thickness. They also employ a lover to prevent former a to move horizontally and spread the altitude attained was 1,000 metres; at 5.30, it all vibration or movement of the former when at plastic material against the side of the mould had risen to 2,000 metres; at 6, to 2,400 metres; its final position in the oracible. The invention 0, and when it has been moved to the required at 6.45, to 3,000 metres ; at 6.47, to 10,000ft. The farther consists in the employment of a brake distance, which is regulated by a scale on the difference in the amount of humidity in the air to stop the revolution of the lathe or jiggerwhen frame c, the back end of a lever q carried on the the driving belt is moved from the fast to the top
of the frame c and free to move backward by surface the hygrometer stood at 95 deg.,
was very remarkable; at 120 metres above the
whereas loose pulley of the lathe shaft. apparatus, while its front end extends to the pressed down by the attendant, so that this lever the rarefaction of the air, produced a paiuful composed of a horizontal bar hinged behind the in an upright t, and its forward end is then at the greatest altitude reached it only marked
25 deg. This excessive dryness, together with front of the apparatus near to the attendant. bears forcibly upon the frame c, and prevents vi. The bar carries a block «, and when the brake bration or movement of the former a.
With this ex
When the sensation in the langs and ears. is to be applied the attendant by his foot moves crucible is finished the handle g is turned to bring ception no inconvenience was felt, nor did the the bar on its hinge w, so as to cause the block the former a to the centre of the crucible, the slightest accident occur in the descent.
to bear against a collar or other revolving por lever q is moved forward out of its hole s, the tion of the lathe.
catch n is released, the frame c is raised up, and In the accompanying engraving, fig. 1 is a the mould is removed in the ordinary manner, The House of Commons Committee of the Lon. front elevation, fig. 2 a side elevation, and fig. 3 all being then ready for the next operation. u is don, Chatham, and Dover Bills, group 12, have & section through the line A A of fig. 1 of an a horizontal bar under the platform v and hinged passed the following resolution :-"That the Com.. apparatus constructed according to Messrs. at w, while its front end extends to the front of mittee cannot, at all events, sanction the raising of Morgan and Hyles' improvements
. a is the the apparatus. is a block on the bar u, and yang additional capital, with priority over those former or forming tool; it is fitted to a block b, is a callar on the lathe shaft. When it is required with a fall kaowledge of the circumstances of the which is free to be moved horizontally in a frame to stop the revolution of the lathe, the attendant And the chairman further went on to say c by means of a horizontal threaded rod d taking moves the bar u on its binge w, so as to bring that it must be a question of further consideration into a corresponding thread e in a nut bl in the the block a against the collar y. & is a horizon- whether they would allow any priority under any block b. The ends of the rod d work in fixed tal bar or guide for the bar u.
GRAIN SORTING MACHINE.
MANUFACTURE OF ALKALI. NHE report for 1866 of the Government the Alkali Act has just appeared. We learn therefrom with satisfaction that a further ad. vance has been made in the manner of prevent. ing the escape of muriatic acid during the processes of manufacture of various salts, the amount of escape last year being 0 73, against
0.88 of the preceding year. This improvement, Q
though small it be in apparent amount, is a real benefit to the residents in the neighbourhood of chemical manufactures, as the difference of 0:15 represents more than 15 cwt. of muriatic acid per diem, or 4 tons per week. The condensation of the dangerous acid is thus shown to be generally satisfactory, although some allow.
ance must still be made for leakage, which will. GRAIN-SORTING MACHINE.
In consequence of their shortness the it is difficult to estimate, and which it requires springs Q in front of the ordinary sorters easily increased vigilance and possibly an amendment
The manufacture of siding at Place Napoléon, Lyons, has convenience a double cross piece is used instead chemical salts appears to be still increasing, the patented the invention illustrated in the accom- of a single one, and of double the length of amount of salt decomposed during the first year panying engraving. The principle of the inven- those now in use. At the extremity of the of inspection having been 288,000 tons, in the tion lies in the cleansing and causing all the spring Q was a hole, through which ran a bolt, second 310,000 tons, and duriug the third (1866) round oleaginous grains to go out from the corn, and, like the other pieces, had the inconvenience 371,950 tons. The report adds :-It is possible barley, oats, and of all cereal plants, and that of soon being worn out throngh the friction. To to do a little more by careful management of the by means of a cylinder of larger dimensions remedy this a cope is made, which, instead of powers granted by the Act, chiefly by giving perthan that ordinarily used, which, pierced with a bolt, contains bearings that draw closer by manence to the habits begun, and giving stability oblique holes and having a round bottom, retains degrees, according to the abrasion. The cope is, to work which had been hastily done to meet the round grains and prevents their spilling with therefore, not liable to wear away, and all that it the exigencies of the occasion, although impossithe corn, The inventor has increased the length requires in the shape of repair is the bringing ble to use the Act so as to satisfy all the of the cylinder and diminished its diameter, so nearer of the bearings, whilst in the old systems demands of the public when the works are in a as to have a greater yield than by the old in the it was necessary to change the whole piece. It very crowded district. The inspector can duly same amount of time, and to give the corn a bet- was formerly necessary to change at every mo. see that the proper arrangements are made, and ter cleansing, which happens through the velo. ment the spring of the grate, which was of wood. that they are in order when he makes his visits. city the cylinder acquires by reason of its This is modified by the adoption of an iron At all other periods he must leave the public to diminished diameter, and the consequent increase spring, which is put in motion by a spiral spring watch," in the amount of ground that the corn in the K, and completes the economy, since it is cylinder travels over. This sorter is represented a saving of repair. M. Lhuillier has also patented IMPROVEMENTS IN PHOTOGRAPHY, in the accompanying engraving, which shows a & machine for piercing the holes above alluded longitudinal section in elevation. The to-and-fro to in sheets of copper, sheet iron, or zinc, of a HE invention which we are about describe pendulum A by means of the rod Q. By this to other as possible, equally distant from one for igniting and burning any powder or other and-fro movement the oleaginous or round grains another, and pierced straight or at any inclina composition either in a solid or liquid state, the are taken from the cylinder by the holes so as to tion to the plane of the metal sheet.
flame or flash of which being sufficiently actinic allow the grains to descend until they find
is applied for the production of photographio picorifices to get out. The old sorters were sub
tures, and which has been patented by Mr. ject to being frequently repaired, the result
Thomas Skaife, o132, Sussex -place, Regents' Park. either of a viciðng arrangement of the parts or TREATING TITANIFEROUS IRON ORES. For this purpose the apparatus consists of a of wear. M. Lhuillier has remedied these in.
R. GEORGE CRAWSHAY, of the firm of platform of metal perforated with touch-holes, conveniences by the following means:-In the old system the holes of the axis and of the
two Gateshead-on-Tyne, and Mr. John Thomas, of permit of its being easily vibrated or thrown extremities of the forked pieces
of the rod wore Newcastle-on-Tyne,'have recently patented some into a tremulous motion by the touch of the finger. by reason of their constant motion and con. improvemerts in the treatment of titaniferous Connected with the platform is a parabolic resequently occasioned frequent and onerous re- iron ores and in extracting iron therefrom, also lector pierced with a groove, through which pairs. This system is modified by a forked piece for utilising the scoria produced. In treating form by which it may be touched, so that by of a single piece, the axis of which is furnished titaniferous iron ores so as the better to obtain with an axle or axle end C, in bronze bearings. the iron therefrom they calcine the ores, and the The deflagrating powder or other explosive ac
means of the springs it may suddenly vibrate. This prevents abrasion and renders repair easy, ores while hot are thrown into water so as to tinic substance being strewn upon the perforated since it is only necessary to take out the bearing disintegrate the lumps, and at the same time to platform is suddenly brought into contact with when worn out. Fo“ greater solidity in the con convert a portion of the titanic acid into titanic a light from an ordinary spirit lamp placed unstruction the bearings of the forked piece are oxide. After this the ores are properly dried, derneath it, at the same instant the platform made in steel
, as also the bolts, which act as when they are ready for the operation of smelt- being thrown hinges, and so as easily to adapt the forked ing. Before subjecting the ores to the operation cates this motion to the particles of the
into vibration communi ag to be able to adapt also bronze bearings. The of the blast they should be analysed, and this powder or other substance to be ignited. crossbar R being liable of frequent replacing may be done either before or after the process of the result of this is that every particle through wear, å fat pin is substituted for it
, calcining, in order to guide the regulation of the explodes or is ignited simultaneously, and which lowers by degrees as the crossbar wears, proportions of the different materials to be used produces a flash of light which, acting upon a sen. so that whatever wearing away there may be with the charges in smelting. The furnace is of sitised plate in an ordinary camera, produces the there is never any play. In the old sorters the the ordinary construction, such as is used in the picture of any object i laced before it. When hammer had also the inconvenience of not being smelting of iron ores, and
when heated is charged the picture of a near object is required the powder able to be changed or suppressed at will, and with the ores and following materials:-1 ton of may be placed over a touch-hole of the picture moreover, when the oil got to be bad and titanic iron ore; 1 ton of pig or cast iron ; 3 cwt. of a distant object is to be taken ; then the powder formed coom, it could not slide in its groove, of clay, raw or burnt; 4 cwt. of lime, chalk, or may be distributed over the platform and over and thus prevented it from rendering such ser limestone ; and about 15 cwt. of coke, wood or several touch.holes, to all of which the light may vices as were expected from it. In the new peat; charcoal may be used with advantage, where be applied. method the hammer P is so disposed that by it is obtainable, instead of coke. The cast iron means of a cam forming a lever it may slide thus added to the charge becomes titanised uni.
A wealty citizen of Berlin has applied to the easily, and so strike on the circle of the cylinder formly with the iron obtained from the ore.
municipality of that town for a site on which to 0. In this way the hammer can neither get de. The above proportions are altered according erect a statue to Francis Drake, as the introducer ranged nor require repair, and offers, moreover, to the analysis, inasmuch as titanic iron ores of the potato into Europe, and offers to subscribe the advantage of being able to suppress it at containing a greater or less percentage of titanic 15,000 ihalers (£2,250) towards the statue.