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1687 E. G. FITTON. Improvements in machinery for The patentes claims adapting the articles to be operated with chains or cams which connect them with two or more apon to the grinding surface or tool by means of a signals or switches, so that each movement of the lever preparing and spinning Aaa, tow, jute, and other Abrova weighted rod spindle or holder, which will press the article shall affect one signal or switch without altering the posi- substances. Dated June 26, 1866

This invention is not described apart from the drawings. against the grinding surface, and at the same time impart tion of the other signal or switch. Secondly, he makes the

Patent completed, to it rotary motion, while the grinding or polishing tool is levers pass through plates in which are openings, aperalso rotatlog and grinding or polishing the article, as set tares, or perforations with straight, diagonal, or otherwiso 1688 0. E. BROOMAX. Improvemento in looks or fasten. forth. Patent completed

shaped slots, and arranged in such wise that one plate geneings. (A communication.) Dated June 15, 1866 1674 A. V. NEWTON. An improved construction of rotary rally is acted upon by more than one lever, so as to be ca

This invention is not described apart from the drawingu pable of producing more than one combination, whereby, it Patent completed. engine. (A communication.) Dated June 22, 1866

any one of the levers is moved, all other levers actuating This engine is designed moro especially for use as a

1689 O. E, BROOMAX. An improvement in wood borowe. the signals or switches which it would be dangerous to motor, in which case it may be driven by steam, water, or other duid, but it may, by having power properly applied those levers actuating signals or switches the movement of move at the same time will be locked or fastened, and all (A communication.) Dated June 25, 1866

This invention consists in so forming tho borolled under to it externally, bo used as a pump. The pistons are

side of tbe head of the screw that it shall act as a counterwhich would not be dangerous will be liberated. Thirdly, attached to two parallel sbalts geared together so as

he arranges the apparatus in such manner that the more sink, whereby the screw may bo used oven in hard woode. to rotate in opposite directions at the same velocity, and

Patent completed. ment of any lover causes the looking plate or platos to slide are of tbe forms of segments of rings ooncentrio with their

backwards or forwards, so that the stops which are formed 1690 J., 8. A., G. E., and F. F. READING. Certain in respeative shafts. Their outer arc-tormod surfaces aro Atted to and rotate within two parallel laterally-communi- by the slots cat in the plate or platos shall be presented to provemento in fastenings for articlot of dress. Dated June

or moved across the edge or edges of the otbor lovers, 25, 1866 Gating bores in the samo oylindor or casing, and their inner

This invention relates to a modification or arrangomont are-formed surfaces are Åtted to and rotate around two actuating signals

or switches

which it would bo dangerous

to move at the same time. Ho cuts these slots in such of a bolt or bolta actuated by a bolical spring ur springs or stationary hubs concentric with their respective shafts and

form or shape that no signals can be moved until the corre- othor equivalent means, in connection with a projecting bores of the cylinder. The axes of the shafts and their respective bores of the cylinder are situated at saob distanco ponding points or switches are in proper position, and such part or parts, for forming a catch or catches that may booster

signals when lowered or placed at "all right" will fasten tached with their constituent parts, either by sowing or the use apart and the aforesaid fixed hubs are so recessed in a con

the corresponding points or switobes, so that they cannot of metal eyelete, loops, or other equivalont means, to a band, care arc form that the onter arc-formed face or faces of the be altered until the signals are returned to the dangor.” belt, chain, cord, or other suitable material or parts of of piston or pistons of one shaft fit tho rocesses in the fixed Patent completed.

appendages to dress for completing a band or bolt, so as to bab which surrounds the outor sbaft in such manner as to

1682 W. POUPARD. prevent the steaa, water, or other fluid from passing between

Improvements in apparatus for form the connection of such or other parts or appendages of

dress for uniting or connecting the parto. Patoni completed the piston of either oylinder and the hub of the opposito vereening coale and other materials. Dated June 23, 1868 ont. The induction and eduction pipes aro arranged in

This icvention consists in the employment, instead of the opposito positions, where the two bores of the cylinder ordinary straight bars, of bars which, while being fitted most. In the operation of the engine

as a motor, the steam lengthwise of the screen or shoot, and forming continuous or other motivo agent acts upon the piston or pistons of saob openings in that section of the screen of which they constitute

PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. sbatt alternately, while the piston or one of the pistons of a part, are so formed or shaped that the whole of the coal the other shaft serves as an abutment. In using the engine whilo sliding down the shoot must necessarily pass alterwa pump, the vacuum is produced for the entrance of the nately over a part of such bars, and over the space or open.

Dated November 3, 1866. liquid, and the liquid expelled by the piston or pistons of ing between them, whereby the coal is sufficiently screened without the aid of supplementary appliances or means.

2863 J. &. Gisborno, Liverpool, cleotrioal onginoor. wall att alternately. Patent completed. 1675 G. DAVIES. An improved stoam gauge. (A com- vention bars of serpentine or zigzag or similar form, which The patentes prefers to employ for the purposo of the in. Improvements in mariners' and other compasses.

Dated November 10, 1866. munication.) Dated Juno 23, 1866

will produce the effect aboro described.

Patent com- 2936 H. Hitchins,

Grosvenor-street West, Eaton-squaro, We cannot hero give space to the details of this intonpleted.

and W. Wood, New Weston-street, Bormondsoy. Improve tion. Patent abandoned.

1683 T. S. HODAON. Certain new and useful improve ments in machinery for cutting or dressing stone for build1676 T. DEAKIN. Improvements in overhead railways, ments in machinery for printing surface or canoelling ing purposes, and for moulding and turning same for and in machinery for moving, turning, and weighing goods, revenue or other stamps. Dated June 23, 1866

architectural purposes. waggons, carriages, and engines for railway and other pur- This invention is not described apart from the drawings.

Dated November 13, 1866, poses. Dated June 23, 1866 Patent completed.

2971 O. E. Brooman, Bleet-street, patent agent, An inHitherto overhead railways have been in parallel lines,

1684 W. WILBOURNE. Certain improvemente in proved method of and arrangement of engine for towing or and a turntable was required at every intersection of the

canistero for containing tea or other subotanoos. Dated engine is also applicable for other traotiro purposes. (A crow roads to allow the suspended weight to be turned and then run on to the cross road, In case of traversors being

June 25, 1866

This invention is designed for the sxed on the floors of railway stations or goods warehouses

purpose of proventing


Dated November 30, 1866. the main lines of the rails have been interfered with, and the accumulation of tea dust or similar deposits at tho

3051 J. H. A. Gruson, engiucer, Westminster Palac. cross roads are required, the traverser moving only across bottom of canisters containing ton or other substances, and

Hotel. Improvements in the manufacturo of guns or heary also for enabling the attendant to take tea from the cansuch lines of railway where the cross roads are fixed. The

ordnance of cast metal. isters without touching it with the hand, or removing the object of the present improvements in overhead railways is

Dated November 26, 1866. to dispenso entirely with the use or necessity for turntables subdividing a canister, box, or receptacle inte several vercanister from the shelf, and the improvements consist in

3105 W. R. M. Thomson, Glasgow, engineor. Improveby using a compound carriage, viz., two carriages, one supe

monts in the modes of cutting metal tubes or pipes, and in porting and carrying with it the other carriage. One is

tical compartmonts transversely from side to side, the said the longitudinal carriage working along the whole length ing platform placed inside

the canister a slight distance divisions extending from the top of the canister to a slant

the machinery or tools employed for thone and other analo.

gous parposes. (Partly a communioation.) of the main line, and the other is the transverse carriage to which the weight is suspended, and by which it is carried conveniently large to allow a small scoop to be inserted from the bottom thereof, this distance or space being left in the treatment and spinning of juto, hemp, flas, and other

3109 W. Taylor, Templo Mills, Duudeo. Improvements along to any of the intersections (right or left) or cross therein.

fibrous substances, and in tho machinery or apparatus omroads, and then freely run on to it without turning, the traportion of the canister to admit the scoup. The middle

A swing or sliding door is placed in the lower

ployed thoroin, verser being always in position for any lino. Patent aban

Dated November 29, 1866. doncha

compartment of the canister is provided with a door which, 1677 T. Dunx. Improvements in machinery for turning, one having a clear open passage through the diagonal place wheels called " disc wheels," formed from ono piece or man

3145 W. Brookes, Ohancery-lano, civil engineer. In. when closed, divides the said compartment in two, the back provements in the construction and manofaoture of railway shaping, and cutting metal. , Dated June 23, 1866

form into the space in the bottom of tho canister, and the This invention is not described apart from the drawings. bottom or diagonal platform of the two outor or side com

of iron or steel. (A communication.) Patent completed. partments are provided with a sliding door which, when

Dated Doormber 1, 1866. 1873 H. GARDNER. Improvemento in cases for packing withdrawn or opened, also allows an open thoroughfare 3161 W. E. Newton, Ohancery-lano, civil engineer. Im. and transporting bottled ales and other liquors, and in the from the said side compartments into the aforesaid space in provoments in rolls of spinning, drawing, and other 2013 method of pocking the same. Dated Juno is, 1866

tbe bottom of the canister. Thus, when tbe canister is ohines. (A communication.) This invention relates to cases in which it is usual to filled with tea (for example), the density thereof in the

Dated December 8, 1866. pack ales and wine for transport without straw or other middle compartment prevents the swing or divisional 3195 0. E. Brooman, Fleet-street, patent agent. In. stofing, which cases are also often used to keep the con- door from opening until the whole of the tea in the back provements in the manufacture of colouring mattori. (A ents while being used up. These cases are usually fitted compartment has been discharged, at which time the colamunication.) with diaphragms having a series of round holes in them to weight of toa in the front compartment forces open the

Datod December 6, 1866. hold the bottles steady, and in close proximity to each

said door 80 as to effect a communication for discharge 3920 P.W. Turner, Linslade Works, Linslade, Bucking. other, the one diaphragm having larger holes to receive through the said passage into the bottom; 80 soon

as hamshiro, engineer. Improremonts in roaping and showing the body of the bottle near the bottom, while the holes in

the centre compartment is empty, the slide in one of the machines. the other receive the necks. As these diaphragms are said compartments is withdrawn, thereby allowing the

Dated December 7, 1866. fixtures in the box, the bottles have to be inserted neck first, tea contained therein to be discharged, and so on in like 3229 W. A. Richards, Holloway, commercial clork. An which necessitates the lid being at the bottom of the bottles, manner with the opposite compartment, the discharge of improved recoptacle for tobacco. and renders such cases very unfit for holding bottled ales tbe tea from the several compartments in the lower 3233 O. E. Samuelson, Hamburg. Improvements in and wines. According to this invention the inventor inserts space of the canister, as described, being regulated accordo apparatus for propelling vessels. (A communication.) in these cases a number of cross bars, so as to pass between ing to the quantity withdrawn from such space by the

Dated December 13, 1866. each bottle, the bars running lengthwise of the box, being roop. Patent completed. half checked into those disposed across or transversely 1685 E. HEMINGWAY. Improvemente in looms for weay.

3269 I, Baggs, High Holoorn, practical chemist. Ime thereto, and somewhat loosely, in order that they may eaching Dutch carpets by power, and in the manufacturo of such

provements in the manufacture and treatment of hydro

chloric and nitrio acids. move laterally a little, so as to accommodate themselves to fabrics. Dated June 25, 1806 any little difference in the sizes of bottles, the meshes or This invention consists, firstly, in constructing and Improvements in the construction of vehicles to be used on

3271 J. Murpby, Newport, Monmouthshire, civil enginoor. openings between the bars being such as just to receive the arranging loom to be driven by power for wearing Dutch railways. bodies thereof. He disposes one series of these bars near carpets, in such manner that two beats up or two strokes of the bottom of the bottle, and another just below the the lathe or batten will be given at each pick of weft. This proremonts in the treatment of lead and argentiforous

3273 O. E. Brooman, Fleet-street, patent agent. In. shoulder, that the bottles can be lifted out with the neck is effected by having the gear wheels (by which motion is litbarge. (A communication.) uppermost, and may always be kept in that position; the communicated from the crank sbaft to she tappot shaft, or cross bars are not fixed at the ends, but rest and are held the shaft which gives morsion to the picking arms) made in

3275 J. T. Kent, Norden Corfe Castle, Dorsetshiro. Indown by small slips fixed on the sides of the case, which the proportion of one to four, or so that for one revolution

provoments in taps or cocks for drawing off liquids. allow of the lateral motion before mentioned. Patent aban- of the tappet shaft there will

be four revolutions of the Yorkshire. Improvements in the manufactors of Abrons

3277 W, and J. W. Wood, Monkbill, Dear Pontofract, dona orank shaft; therefore, for each pick of tbe shuttle from

yarns or threado 1679 P. BARLOW. An improved method of exhibiting the each end of the loom respectively, there will be two beats

3279 H. W. Ripley, Lightclifte, near Halifax, and T. time on the dial platus of clocks and watcher. Dated June up or strokes of the

lathe or, batten. Secondly, by means Barker, Bowling, near Bradford, 13, 1866 of the first part of the invention, and the employment of boilers, and in applying heat thereto.

Improvoments in steam The patenter claims exhibiting the time on the dial wide looms, the inventor is enabled to weare such carpets

328] 0. C. Adiey, Dublin, civil engineer. Improro. plates of clocks, watches, and other time-keepers by dis

in wider widths and of better quality than bas heretofore playing such figures or signs only at one and the same been produced ; also to facilitate the production and aroid

ments in the construction of telegraph standards and in

sulators, time for the hours and the minutes as serve to denote the joining together of Darrow fabrics, thereby improving

Dated December 14, 1866. the time at which sucb figures or signs become dis the manufacture and reducing the costs thereof. Patent

3285 F. B. Baker and L. Lindloy, lace dyers and dressers. played, so dispensing with the use of the hour and the abandoned,

Sberwood-street, Nottingham. Improvements in stretch. mioute hands, as well as the stationary figures by which 1686 E, G. BREWER. A new or improved coupling for ing or tentering and in dressing or finishing lace or other they are encircled, as described. Patent completed. railway carriages, trucks, and waggons. (A communica- fabrics, and in machinery or apparatus employed therein. 1880. 4.Les. Improvements in preparing wool or other tion) Dated June 25, 1866

3289 A. V. Newton, Ohancery.lano, mechanical dratto. animal Horous substance, yarne, and woollen fabrics for coapling, and,

at the same time, to shorten the distance communication.)

The object of this invention is to provide an efficient Ao improved construotion of steam motori. (A dyeing. Dated June 23, 1866 The patentee claims the subjecting of such substances to heretofore generally existing between railway carriages,

Dated December 16, 1866. the action of steam in an enclosed vessel at a pressure of tracks, and waggons after being coupled up. The invention 3293 F. W. Reeves, Cambridge-terrace, Notting Hill, from one to six pounds on the square inch. Patont com

consists in the employment of two links, one link being civil engineer, and J. B. Muscbamp, Pembroko-road. As leted.

somewhat longer than the other, one link, for example, improved explosive substance. 1661 H. Hill: Improvements in the working, governing, are united by a lever wherein there is, by preference, but not apparatus for propelling vessels.

being-say, 14in. long, and the other 18in. These links 3296 0. Randolph, Glasgow, engineer. Improromonta in or locking of railway signals and switches. Dated June 23, necessarily, a slot, and in which one link is free to travel. 3297 8. Chatwood, Bolton, Lancashire, safe and lock la performing this invention the patenteo arranges levers

This lever is provided with an arm which, after the links engineer, and J. Stargoon, Burley, near Leeds, Yorkshire, in a frame in such manner as to admit of certain of them waggon, is drawn back or reversed, thus bringing the two

are booked to the drawhooks of the earriage, truck, or consulting engineer. Improvements in bammers aad in having two different movements, a forward and a backward links over one another, and reducing the distance betwoon

mechanism used therewith. morenent. Ho provides woh lovers with slotted rods, or

3298 J. P. Gillard, Paris, civil engineer. Improvements the carriages by itt, or 18in. Patont abandoned.

in apparatus for attracting, exciting, and dissributing in


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various directions rapid successions of electric currents de

Dated December 21, 1866.

3368 J. Howard. Reaping machines. (A communicarived from the voltaic pile or other electric apparatus, 3364 W. H. Harfield, Royal Exchange-buildings, City, tion.)

3299 G. Bertram, Edinburgh, engineer. Improvements engineer. Improvements in the method of and apparatus 3452 G. T. Bousfield. Cut-off in steam engine. (A com in machinery or apparatus to be used for the manufacture for propelling vessels.

munication.) of paper.

3368 J. Howard, Bedford, agricultural implement maker. 3301 A. Rollason, Commercial-road East, Limehouse, Improvements in the construction of mowing and reaping The full titles of the patents in the above list can be chemist. Improvements in the manufacture of blasting machines, (A communication.)

ascertained by referring back to their numbers in the list of cartridges and fusees.

3372 W. Clark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements provisional protections previousiy published. 3302 D. Kirkwood, Birmingham, gun action filer. Im- in scrow valves. (A communication.)

Opposition oan be entered to the granting of a patent to

Dated December 22, 1866. provements in breechloading firearms.

any of the parties in the above list who have given notice 3303 J.W. Swan, Gateshead, Durham, chemist. Improve- 3376 H. Goodfellow, Madeley, Staffordshire, manager. of their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from mients in the treatment of gelatinous tissues of gelatine and Improvements in machinery or apparatus for grinding clay the date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by gum, and of compounds containing such substances.

leaving at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing 3304 W. E. Newton, Chancery-lane, civil engineer, 3380 O.J. Wahab, Valleyfield, North Britain, civil engi- of the objection to the application. Improvements in welding steel to malleable iron, and tem- neer. Improvements in apparatus for filtering or straining pering the steel by one and the same operation, and in liquids, and for

washing and wringing cloth, rags, and simi

lar textile and fibrous substances. tempering steel after it has been welded to iron. (A com

3382 J.S. Benson, merchant, and J. von der Poppenburg, PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £50 munication.) -3306 J. Symm, Newton Stocksfield-on-Tyne, engineer, mechanical engineer, Birmingham. Improvements in

HAS BEEN PAID breechloading firearms. Improvements in sheep and cattle racks.

3384 W, E. Gedge, Welllingtor-street, Strand. Improved

64 J. Coppard -3307 C. E. Brooman, Fleet-street, patent agent. Im

114 J. Howard, E. T. 82 W E. Newton

Bousfield, and J. provements in the preparation and application of certain apparatus applied to millstones for grinding wheat and other grain. (A communication.)

89 W. Welch

Pinney fatty bodies. (A communication.)

Dated December 24,1866.

100 W. Denton and J. .3308 W. Clark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements

139 J. Thompson 3386 H. A. Dufrené, Rue de la Fidélité, Paris, civil en


142 E. J. Vinot in carburetters. (A communication.)

neer. Certain improvements in the manufacture of the exDated December 15, 1866.

tract of madder. (A communication.) 3309 J. Hauworth, Todmorden, Lancashire, manager.

3388 J. Toussaint, Barnsbury-road, Íslington. Improve- PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £100

ments in the manufacture of cement. Improvements in steam boiler and other furnaces.

HAS BEEN PAID. 3310 G, A. Neumeyer, De Keyser's Hotel, Bridge-street, Blackfriars. Improvements in gunpowder for mining pur

72 J. Jameson

130 W. W. Hewitson and LIST OF SEALED PATENTS.

82 O. de Bergue

B: Walker poses. 3311 H. Hall, Stocksteads, near Manchester. Certain

Sealed January 11, 1867.

90 A. O. Twentyman

209 F. Walton improvements in the preparation of size, and in apparatus 1812 E. M'Nally

1852 W. Ager connected therewith,

1814 W. Walker

1869 J. M'Vitie 3312 O. Mole, Farringdon-road, boot and shoe manufac

1823 J. N. Fournel

1907 A. Magnin

LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS PUBLISHED turer. An apparatas for the more expeditious and effectual 1824 W. Naylor

1943 E. H. Bentall attachment of skates to boots or shoes. 1827 W, G, Walker and 1972 W. E. Gledge

For the Weekending January 12, 1867. 3313 E. Howell and T. Hardy, Poole, Dorsetshire. Im.

E. F. Smith

1979 W. Beaumont and provements in the construction of horse-rakes.

1830 J. Ward and J.

W. M Master

No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. *3314 A. V. Newton, Chancery-lane, mechanical drafts.


2048 G. B. Harkes man, An improved construction of elevator. (A commu. 1841 W. Thompson and T. 2086 J. B. Edmondson and s. d. s. d.

s. d.

s. d s.d. nication.)


J. Carson

14311014421 014521 4146210 8 14720 814820 4 3315 G, Nimmo, Jersey, U.S. An improvement in the 1842 R. Roger

2117 A. V. Newton

143210 4 14430 4 14530 61463)0 4147310 8 1483 0 4 mode of constructing shovels and spades.

1846 A. Prince
2706 0. E. Brooman

14330 8 1444 414540 4/14640 8/14740 8/148410 3316 M. Weber, Cheapside, surgical instrument maker.

1848 W. Justice

2875 W.J. Matthews 14340 4 14450 41455 0 414650 4 1476 1 14850 Improvements in the construction of firearms,

1849 J., O., and H. Samp- 2931 H. A. Bonneville 14351 814460 4 1456 0 414660 8 14760 10148610 4 3317 W, S. Mappin, Birmingham, manufacturer. Im.

son and R. Burlison

14360 4 144710 61457 1 4146710 6 147704870 10 provements in breechloading firearms, and in cartridge case

1437 0 10 1448 1 10 1458 0 6 14680 814780 14880 4 extractors for breechloading firearms, and in cartridges for

Soaled January 15, 1867.

1438 0 6 14490 6114592 411469/1 614790 1048990 81 breechloading firearms.

14390 41450 1 414600 8147010 814800 4/14900 81 3318 W. Wood, Birmingham, machinist. Improvements 1856 R. Soans

1902 J. Saunders and J. 1440 0 4 1451 1 4 14610 414710 8 14810 (149104 in breechloading firearms.

1870 J. Macintosh and W.


14410 8 3319 J. Baker, Lieut.-Col., Army and Navy Club, Pall


1912 G. T. Bousfield Mall, and J. Imray, Westminster Bridge-road, engineer. 1877 J, and E, Goad

1913 G. T. Bousfield Improvements in cable stoppers.

1881 W. Tongue
1931 H, Lea and T, Lane

Notr.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the 3320 F. N. Meixner, Manchester, engineer. Improve

1890 H. Trotman
1953 J. Orr

Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on re

1896 G. Canouil ments in turbines.

1977 E. I. Billing

ceipt of the amount of price and postage, Sums exceeding 1897 G. Canonil and F.A. 2342 J. Williams

5s. must be remitted by Post Office Order, made payable at Dated December 18, 1866.

2541 T. Forster

the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr.Bennett Woodcro 1, '3321 J. M'F.Gray, engineer, Liverpool. Improvements 1911 T. Andrews

2711 T. Restell

'Great Seal Patent Office, 25, Southampton-buildings, in steering apparatus, referring to a steering telegraph and

Ohancery-lane. rudder indicator and a steam steering engine.

3322 W. E. Gedge, Wellington-street, Strand. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for carding wool.



REGISTERED 3326 L. Schad, Warrington, Lancashire, chemist. Im

From the London Gazette, January 15, 1867,

Date. Nos.

Names. provements in treating aniline colours for dyeing and

Subjects of Design printing. 2272 C. Reeves. Cartridge case extractor.

1866 3327 W. R. Lake, Southampton-buildings, Chancery.

2278 T. G. Webb. Furnaces.

Oot. 18, 4819, O. Bathoe....... Olip or file. lane, consulting engineer. An improved mode of rendering 2280 J. Wilson. Street gas lamp.

29, 4820, J. B. Fenby and T. Fastener tor paint uninflammable. (A communication.) 2284 R. 8. M. Vaughan. Polishing boots.

W. Jones 3329 A. V. Newton, Chancery-lane, mechanical drafts. 2285 A. V. Newton. Electric ciocke. (A communica

30, 4821, J. W. Lewis......... Soent portrait man. Improvements in machinery for spinning yarn. (A tion.)

locket. communication.) 2293 G. V. Fosbery. Breechloading firearms.

31, 4822, J. Cave and Sons Basket, 2294 T. Berney. Ships


1, 4823, 0. H. Gardener ... Printing machiDated December 19, 1866. 2295 A. H. Hart. Signalling on railway trains,

nery. 3332 S. Buxton, Hunslet, Yorkshire, contractor. An 2296 O. D. Abel, Slide valves. (A communication.)

14, 4824, 0. Bathoe............ Bottle stopper. improved stench trap. 2306 E. T. Hughes. Water power engines. (A commu

16, 4825, F. A. P. Pigou Powder canister, 3333 J. Goodfellow, Blackburn, Lancashire, engineer, nication.)

17, 4826, J. M'Naught Shaft loop for An improved apparatus for moulding the moulds of wheels, 2308 0. Oatlow. Looms.

harness. pulleys, and circulac aad segmental works in green sand 2311 C. Hodgson and J. W. Stead. Weighing machines. Dec. 4, 4827, H. Develin............ Show stand. without patterns. 2321 o. F. de Gaudel. Boot legs.

6, 4828, M. Turnor ............

Fountain pen, 3334 R, Bodmer, Newport, Monmouthshire, engineer. 2327 W. J. Cartis. Steering steam vessel.

8, 4829, J. Gibbs............... Fireplece lintel Ap improved method of securing the nuts of bolts. 2332 T. Baldwin. Steam boilers.

and piece. 3335 S. Wilson, Manchester, engineer. An improved 2333 R. A. Hardcastle. Indicating liquid drawn off.

21, 4830, M. Wooding and J. fastening for baling bands.

2336 W. E. Gedge. Leather straps.
(A communica-


Show case, 3336 M, Henry, Fleet-street. Improvements in centri- tion.)

26, 4831, T. Harris.............. Skates. fugal pumps, and in the joints or junctions of pipes and 2340 W. E. Gedge. Inriicator. A communication.)

1867. tubes, (A communication.)

2346 T. Wheelhouse. Sanitary apparatus.

7, 4832, G. Ireland

Handle for 3337 S. and J. J. Perry, Red Lion-square. Improve2351 W. Clark. Ornamentation of pile fabrics. (A com

bottles. ments in inkstands or vessels used for containing and supmunication.)

PROVISIONAL REGISTRATIONS. plying ink. 2358 R. R. Riches and C. J. Watts. Horse hay rakes.

1866 3338 M. H. Simpson, Milk-street, Boston, U.S. Im- (Partly a communication.)

Oct. 13, 1725, T. Walton ...........,

A breaking bit, provements in apparatus for the prevention of sea sick- 2365 J. H. Johnson. Cutting frets. (A communication.)

18, 1726, J. T. Morgan and ness. 2368 J. Bindley. Fish-hooks.

W.H. Staples...... Closet pan. 3339 F. Hayman, civil engineer, Lille, France. Improve2372 N. Dunn. Water tuyeres.

18, 1727, J. Webb and E. ments in breechloading tirearms. (A communication.) 2384 W. E. Gedge. Railway. (A communication.)


Egg whisk. 2392 J. Thompson. Polishing screw nuts.

18, 1728, J. Webb and E.
Dated December 20, 1866.
2394 W. E. Gedge. Separating grain from straw. (A

Rydings ............ Egg whisk. 8342 G. B. Finch, New-square, Lincoln's Inn. An im- communication.)

19, 1729, H. Develin............ Sbow stand. provement in the feeding apparatus in cotton gins. (A 2416 A. B. Walker. Brewing.

20, 1730, S. Perry ..............

Steam cock. communication.) 2417 H. Carter and G. H. Edwards. Breechloading fire

25, 1731, A. Lorkin

Book marker. 3344 W. E. Gedge, Wellington-street, Strand, Improved arms.

31, 1732, J. F. Hannah Towel rail, locomotive machinery or apparatus working without the 2425 W. Clark. Setting types. (A communication.)


6, 1733, W. Parkinson Knife cleaning aid of steam. (A communication.) 2426 W. Clark. Securing teeth in saws. (A communi.

machine. 3348 T. and T. F. Walker, Oxford-street, Birmingham, cation.)

8, 1734, A. Middlemist and engineers. Improvements in apparatus for taking sound- 2432 T. A. Rochussen. Permanent ways of railways.

G, H. Bateman... Sewing machines. ings. 2470 G. E. Van Derburgb. Artificial stone.

12, 1735, R. Clegg

Skirt. 3348 S. Parry, Thackeray-street, Liverpool, master 2485 J. H. Johnson. Taps. (A communication.)

15, 1736, J. Park ..............

Clarionet. mariner. An improved composition for the coating of the 2596 J. Robertson, Fireplaces.

16, 1737, G. Trimmings Oricket bat. bottoms of ships and other vessels. 3143 J. Field. Steam enginee.

30, 1738, T. Leighton Watch protector. 3350 S. Belfield, Pepper-street, Hyson Green, Notting- 3183 T. Wilson. Cartridges.

3, 1739, S. Brown

Bottle, bam, drafteman, Improvements in the manufacture of 3211 L. Cobe. Ironing fabricn.

12, 1740, A. J. Barker.......... Lock for bage. elastic and ribbed fabrics. 3215 J. Darling. Penholder.

13, 1741, H. Turner............ Advertising 3352 T. Whitby, Wellesley-road. Improvements in the 3222 J. C. M ́Donald and J. Calverley. Cutting paper

frame. construction of vessels of war, and other structures requir- | into sheets.

18, 1742, J. F. Tucker......... The life guard. ing to be rendered shot-proof. 3235 T. Ubaloner and J. Billington, Tools for graining.

26, 1743, G. Harton............ Window

blind 3354 W. E. Newton, Chancery-lane, civil engineer. Im- 3273 O. E. Brooman. Argentiferous litharge. (A com

pull. provements in effecting the combustion of substances in a munication.)

31, 1744, II. Hayman

Rocking horse. pulverulent state. (A communication.) 3304 W, É. Newton. Welding steel to malleable iron.

1867. 3356 R. L. Martin, Fleet-street, engineer. Improvements (A communication)


3, 1745, W. Chamberlain ... Plough. in breechloading firearms. (A communication.) 3315 G. Nimmo. Spades.

3, 1746, G. Watson............

Breech - loading 3368 T. Huckvale, Emerson-terrace, Forest Hill. Im- 3329 A. V. Newton. Spinning yarn. (A communica

gun. provements in apparatus for cleaning knives. tion.)

8, 1747, G. F. Smith

Show stand. 3360 W. Lake, Southampton-buildings, Chancery- 33

J. J. Perry. Inkstands.

20, 1748, Wynn and Co. ......

Sardine knife. lane, consulting engineer. An improved coupling for rail- 3338 M. H. Simpson. Prevention of sea sickness,

15, 1749,
M. Davis...............

Friar Bacon's way carriages, (A communication.) 3352 T. Whithy. Vessels of war.


straps, &c.

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Mr. James Webster, Mr. Joseph Mitchell, &c. from Mr. Deane's system than from the other.
Four trials in all were made upon four spe- Although in the former there is more than 50

cimens of iron and steel masts. The length per cent. excess of metal, we must bear in MECHANICS MAGAZINE. of the pieces tried was in each case 9īt., mind that a great deal of it is doing no work

and the distance between the bearings 100in. whatever. The angle-irons, carrying the webIn each instance the test consisted of plates at their intersection, are in excess of what

à crushing force brought to bear upon the is actually necessary for the work done by them. LONDON: FRIDAY, JANUARY 25, 1867.

mast at a central point between the two bear. This point of the mast corresponds with the

ings. The first specimen tried was that of neutral axis in a girder, and is of course a STEEL MASTS.

the Government construction, and which was point at which nothing more is required than

of the section shown in fig. 1. The mast was that the parts should be held together. The THE adoption of iron in ship construction 12in. in diameter, and was made of fin. Mill- advantages of the system become more appa

has led to the rapid advancement of this wall iron, the weight of the piece being 6 cwt. rent when we take masts of larger diameter, branch of industrial art during the last few Iqr. 131b., and its sectional area 31.6in. The in which no greater strength or weight

of iron been confined principally 'to the hulls of pressure having been put on, the sample de- is required at the centre than in the smallest vessels, to the comparative exclusion of other fected 1.85in.,

when it gave way, the break- section. This is a point well worthy consiand eqnally important parts. It does not 5ing strain being113,4641b, or a little over deration, and must enter into our estimate of

With a deflection of 2.86in. the value of the system. The section of the seem to have occurred to many minds that the sample began to tear, and the ultimate angle-irons was full heavy in all the samples we masts and spars require improvement just as deflection was 4.57in., when the mast was saw, and we would suggest that the lightest much as hulls, and that iron is equally well

possible section be used for this purpose. adapted for use in former cases as in the latter. crippled.

The next experiment was made with the The formation of the joints on the outside of True, iron

has been utilised in this direction view of determining the relative values of the the mast, shown in fig. 2, may in some rebut then not in such forms as to secure the Government specimen and one constructed spects be considered objectionable, but we may maximum strength the metal affords. Iron masts are in use in some of the ships of the mast tried was of the latter construction and meter which we inspected Mr. Deane has

upon Mr. Deane's principle. The sample of here observe that in some sections of large diaRoyal navy, but their construction is compara- was made of Millwall iron, its section being avoided this by turning the flanges in and tively simple and primitive. This will at once shown by fig. 2. be seen on reference to fig. 1, which shows a being the saine as that of the previous speci- other case, however, the spaces can be filled in

The diameter was 12in., giving a smooth surface to the mast. In the Fa.2.

men; the plates were fin, in thickness, and with wood, if it be wished to give an appearFIQ.l.

the angle-irons were 2ļin. x 2ļin. x fin. The ance of finish to the exterior, although with-
piece weighed 10 cwt. 2 qr. 71b., and had a out the wood filling the mast presents a lighter
sectional area of 52.5in. The first symptom appearance.
of weakness occurred when the deflection had Taking next the two samples of steel masts,
reached 1.94in, and the pressure 166,920lb., we find them to be of similar make and weight,
or just over 741 tons, the top plate crack- and about 30 per cent. less in diameter than
ing across. The next deflection taken the previous specimens. Here we obtain a
was 3.63in., when the bottom plate gave in result which, as far as figures go, shows a
and the specimen was done for. The third superior resistance in the Bessemer steel. The

specimen submitted for trial was of the same power required to break the Bessemer sample horizontal section of a Government mast. They pattern and length as the last, but was only was about a quarter of a ton more than that consist of three plates of iron bent to the re- Bin. in diameter, and was made of 3-16in. required to break that of the Deane steel. quired curve, and are made with butt-joints, Bessemer steel. It weighed 4 cwt. Iqr. 2416., But then there are other considerations to be and riveted to three T-irons which cover the and had a sectional area of 21.2in. At a borne in mind which practical experiments like joint on the inside. This is, in fact, about as deflection of 1•024in. the first crack occurred, those we are now discussing alone can detersimple and elementary an arrangement as the ultimate strain being 57,3921b., or some mine. One point-and the most important could be devised, and is without any additional what over 251 tons. The second deflec- is the extent to which the element of safety is provision for enabling the mast to assist the tion taken was 1.486in., when two of the actually present. In the case before us it was strains brought upon it. To improve upon this outer plates cracked; at 2.92in, deflection evident to all who witnessed the trials that form of construction has been the endeavour of one of the centre plates cracked and the speci- there was greater absolute safety in the Deane Mr. Edward Deane, of No.1, Arthur-street East, men gave way. The fourth specimen was than in the Bessemer steel, as we shall show. London Bridge, and in this he has well suc- constructed in every respect in the same man- In the case of the Bessemer mast the first fracceeded. Having experimented upon the question ner as the last, except with regard to material, ture was accompanied by a loud sharp report for the last two years he has at length produced which in this case was termed “ Deane's which indicated that the mast was absolutely a form of mast which offers many advantages steel.” We are informed that it is specially done for. This was confirmed by the subseover those of the ordinary section. This is prepared for Mr. Deane; it is exceedingly quent reports, which, as the pressure was put true of it when he uses the material-iron-inalleable, and more ductile and workable on, became fainter and fainter until they of which those in ordinary use are made, but than most kinds. The weight of the sample ceased, all the parts in tension having been this is not the extent of the improvement. was 4 cwt. 2qr. 17lb., or a few pounds more separated. With the Deane steel the reverse Keeping pace with the masts and requirements than that of the Bessemer specimens. The order was noticed; the first crack was indiof the age, which is fast demanding the sub- first deflection was 1.62in., at which point the cated by a slight report, whilst as the pressure stitution of steel for iron, as a few years since strain had reached 56,8441b., or a little more increased in amount so the noise of the fracit required that of iron for wood, Mr. Deane than 25} tons. At this point one of the upper tures increased in loudness until the last sharp uses steel in the construction of his masts, plates cracked in the edges, and, the pressure report when all was over. The valuable facts which gives them still further and more strik- being continued, at 2:06in, deflection, two of to be gathered from these circumstancesing advantages, which cannot fail to be ap- the centre plates cracked and gave way, but which speak highly for the Deane steel--are, preciated as they deserve when they become not until some time after the outer skin gave that a mast of Bessemer steel would give way known. out.

and be destroyed at once, on the breaking The form of construction adopted by Mr. Such, then, are the results of a series of ex: strain being reached, whilst a mast of Deane Deane is shown in fig. 2, which shows a hori- periments which were prepared and carried out steel would give way gradually, and would zontal section of a mast. It consists of an from first to last with a fairness and honesty still have an amount of work left in it after the outer skin, formed of four plates, connected that indicate but the one desire to establish the first fracture, which the Bessemer would not. through their flanges by rivets. The mast is true value and character of each system. A Of course in all structures there is an ample stiffened by inch plates, held together in the Government specimen of a given diameter and margin of safety left, and provision is made centre by angle-irons riveted on. The outer material was first taken, and against it was for a higher strain than the material will ever edges of the stiffening plates are held between pitted a sample of Mr. Deane’s mast of the have to bear in its ordinary work. But we the langes of the outer skin. The practical same diameter and material, which was Mill-are now taking ultimate results, as from value of this form of construction, as com- wall iron. Now we know this iron, although these alone

draw comparisons. pared with the ordinary form shown in fig. 1, most useful, is not a very reliable material, An examination of the two samples after was made evident last Tuesday by a series of and the fractures in both of the present in- testing showed most clearly the superior teexperiments which were instituted by Mr. stances showed many imperfections. But nacity of the Deane steel. In the Bessemer Deane, and conducted by Mr. Kirkaldy at his this iron was taken in each case from the same sample the point at which the pressure was testing works, the Grove, Southwark. The stock, and was that in ordinary use, so that brought on, and which of course was in comexperiments were witnessed by a number of we get a fair basis for our results-po picked pression, was well crumpled up, but it pregentlemen connected with shipbuilding and material, nor special work, although in all cases sented several fractures. The material at the engineering, amongst whom we noticed Captain the riveting was excellent. The weight was corresponding point in the Deane sample was M Killop, R.N.; Mr. John Anderson, machinery of course increased in Mr. Deane’s irom the likewise crumpled up, but it had a ribbondepartment, Woolwich; Mr. Rumble, inspector extra amount in the web-plates, angle-irons, like appearance, and there was no fracture, of machinery afloat; Mr. Baker, chief engi- and joints, whilst in the ordinary specimen no separation of the fibre, as in the Bessemer neer of Chatham Dockyard ; Mr. Philip the butt-joint and T-iron effects a great sample. This is a most important fact, and Thornton, master shipwright, Chatham Dock- economy of material. As a result, however, one accounting for the gradual destruction of yard; Mr. Bull, C.E., Mr. Stainton, 0.E.,' we obtain nearly 50 per cent. more resistance (the Deane sample as against the sudden



demolition of the Bessemer mast. It is there obtained. The whole of the bricks required ing the pattern shop we found the workmen fore clear that the Deane steel mast comes out have been made on the land from its own busily einployed making models for machinery the victor, notwithstanding the breaking strain clay. The area is traversed by the high road, from drawings and tracings previously prewas less than that of the Bessemer steel. But and an unfailing stream of water, which will pared. The number of artisans in this what was the difference? Only a quarter of amply supply the wants of the establishment, department ranges from thirty to two a ton upon 25 tons-just one-hundredth of passes through the plot. The wisdom dis- hundred, according to the number and variety the whole amount, which practically goes for played in the selection of this particular piece of new patterns required. This shop has very little, the more so that only one experi- of land, and the immense value of the freehold, the following dimensions :-Length, 60ft., ment was tried with each. Possibly another will be still more evident when it is stated width_80ft., and is divided into two bays sample or two would have given results as that it is intended ultimately to make the each 40ft. span. It possesses such varied much or more the other way. On the whole, works, as far as practicable, self-contained. machinery that the most delicate and complithen, we certainly consider that Mr. Deane It contains a bed of excellent coal, occupies cated patterns in joiners' work can be perhas successfully effected a most important the very centre of a district abounding in iron formed without the application of hand tools

, improvement upon the ordinary principle of and coal suitable for the company's purposes, and the department is completely self-conmast construction. Beyond this he has ad- and is surrounded by factories, whence such tained.

We saw a pattern made entirely by vanced science another step in the production castings and forgings as may be required can machinery. It was composed of several kinds of a material which certainly embodies a be readily obtained at the minimum cost for of wood, and had all the appearance of fine greater amount of absolute safety than any carriage, and without the delay, expense, and cabinet work. Several engines are employed other at present known. We therefore pre other disadvantages incident to long journeys, to work the machinery, Among the machines dict for Mr. Deane a full measure of the suc- necessary for their direction and in- in action we noticed particularly one of cess to which his labours entitle him. He tendence. The outlay to the present time is Worssam and Co.'s, of London-viz., a general deserves well of the community, too, for the estimated, in round numbers, at £200,000, and joiner. It did its work admirably, planing, fair and impartial manner in which he has may be thus apportioned :-Workshops, grooving, moulding to various dies, morticcarried out these important experiments, £80,000; machinery, £80,000; gasworks, ing, boring, and sawing with equal facility, which afford reliable data whereon to estimate workmen's cottages, and land, £40,000. The and always with perfect accuracy. the value of each system.

workshops and cottages have been built by The brass foundry temporarily occupies part Messrs. Craven Brothers, of Sheffield, and the of what was originally designed for, and will

gasworks by Messrs. Newton and Chambers, ultimately constitute a portion of, the pattern THE YORKSHIRE ENGINE COMPANY. of Chapeltown, near Sheffield, and the whole shop. There is nothing special in its arrange

of the work has been executed in the most ments beyond the fact that there is a cupT connecting Sheffield with Rotherhamn. substantial man the last Saturday om tihe vond dan salitangels and also the cores, on suitable This the original proprietary leased to the year. It was a massive, powerful, and highly- shelves. This is fitted with iron doors, and Midland Railway Company for a guaranteed finished engine. The diameter of the cylinder when these are closed all the otherwise wasto rental of 6 per cent. upon the capital: The (inside measurement) was 161in., length of heat is conserved and the drying of the cores result has been more profitable to the Midland, stroke, 24in., and it had four coupled wheels facilitated. In this department great skill and and more beneficial to Sheffield, than the most each 7ft. in diameter. It is one of the most judgment are exercised in so mixing the sanguine or far-seeing man could have even powerful of its class, and was made for the metals that the brass shall be of such density, suspected.

By means of the junction at express passenger traffic of the Great Northern hardness, and colour as to be the best posMasborough, Sheffield was brought into rail- Railway Company. As usual, on such occa- sible of its kind for the work for which it is way communication with every part of the sions, the event was attended by great éclat. required. The crucibles used are of the best country, and during the last quarter of a cen- A triumphal arch was erected, and both it and plumbago, and are supplied by the Plumbago tury has more than doubled its population, the engine were decorated with flags and ever- Crucible Conspany of London. and greatly extended the number of its manu- greens. Having passed under the arch on

The iron and steel foundry occupies an area factures, so that cutlery, once its staple product, the siding to the branch line, it fired a royal of 80ft. by 130ft. The metal is prepared in now furnishes employment for only a com- salute, by means of fog signals, in honour of two cupolas capable of delivering ten tons at paratively insignificant portion of its artisans. the skill which had given it birth, and then a charge or an aggregate of thirty tons a day. The distance between the Sheffield terminus started for the Doncaster depôt. The journey There is an excellent arrangement for facilitatand Masborough junction is five miles, and was performed in the most satisfactory manner ing the charging of the cupolas. A stage already both sides of the line for more than at the rate of forty-five miles per hour, and passes round each cupola at the height of 13ft. half that distance are nearly covered by the state of the bearings, on arriving at its from the ground; the materials for charging gigantic works, most of them engaged in the destination, proved how exactly it had been being raised to this stage by means of machimanufacture of iron, steel, heavy castings, fitted and balanced. Large contracts are nery are regularly disposed thereon. Each massive forgings, and machinery of the most held by the company, and as soon as the cupola is 5ft. in diameter, and the air blast is ponderous and costly character. Land that present premises are completed it is contem- communicated by means of a fan worked by a few years ago would have been thought dear plated to extend the works, and it is probable steam. The castings for locomotive and or. at £50 or £60, now readily commands more that, ultimately, at least half a million will dinary engines vary from ten pounds to two than ten times that amount per acre. From have been expended on their construction tons, and for marine engines from ten pounds to Rotherham and Masborough, towards Sheffield, and on the machinery necessary for their effi- sixteen tons. All the castings are made in there is a correspondingly steady growth of ciency.

separate boxes, which are so constructed as to works along this line of rail, and it is very The block of workshops at present com- leave a narrow space round the margin. This probable that the present generation will wit- pleted measures 833ft

. in length and 130ft. arrangement enables the sand or loam to be ness one continuous chain of formidable fac- in breadth, the walls being 18in. in thickness, very tightly rammed, and thereby secures casttories throughout the entire route.

and carried to the height of 28ft. to the eaves, ings with a sharp edge and smooth surface. As stated, half the distance from the Shef- the centre of the roof being 40ft. high. The Provision is made for ten steam cranes and field end is built upon, and the last works whole of the shops are well-lighted, and are travellers for the purpose of conveying the erected are those of the Yorkshire Engine as follows:-Pattern shop, brass foundry, iron metal to any part of the foundry, and of reCompany, which are equidistant from Shef- and steel foundry, smithy, boiler shop, turn moving the castings.

Two of these cranes field and Rotherham, and named from their ing shop, with its subdivisions, erecting only are at present in operation. locality Meadow Hall Works. The company shop, and tender shop. On separate portions The smithy is divided into three bays of was formed in the summer of 1865, and is of the ground are the steam-hammer shop, 40ft. span each, the principals being supported mainly composed of gentlemen intimately and gas house, and engine weigh-table. The on iron columns. There are sixty hearths at practically acquainted, not only with the painting shop, stores, drawing and general work and three steam hammers in each bay. various and complicated machinery used in offices, are not built, portions of the present The boiler shop is contiguous to the smithy, the different arts and manufactures, but also structures being temporarily employed for and possesses much valuable, complicated, and with that required for railway and marine these purposes. When these buildings are useful machinery. We may specially notice purposes. In the autumn of the same year erected they will occupy separate and con- the plate-bending machines, which have such the land was secured and the works were com- venient sites, and the offices will be unique an arrangement of the rolls that a perfectly menced. The site chosen reflects the highest in character.' The plans provide for all the cylindrical form is given to the plate by, the credit upon the judgment of the gentlemen exigencies of the general business, and in addi- plate-planing machines, which are capable of entrusted with the selection. It is a triangu- tion, will contain a board-room, dining-room, planing the edges of angle-iron, thus saving lar piece of ground containing about 25 acres, kitchen, lavatories, &c.

the expense of skilled labour for chipping, and is bounded on each side by a railway-on Contiguous to the pattern shop is the timber while the work is performed with such ex: the north by the Midland, on the east and store. The timber consists of selected ma- actitude that when the plates are riveted south by the South Yorkshire, and on the hogany, pine, and Baltic deal, procured from caulking is unnecessary. Punching and shearwest by a branch line connecting the latter the ports of Liverpool, Hull,' and Grimsby. ing machines of every description are at work, with the former, so that the works are thus The timber trucks are brought up to the store and the whole act on such a system that, what: brought into connection with the entire rail- by means of a "siding," and the wood re-ever the diameter of the holes required and at way system of Great Britain. On the land is moved from the trucks is carefully examined, whatever distance from each other, a given a valuable quarry, from which all the rubble marked, and stacked. All wood used for lo- number of the same gauge can be defistone, and a great portion of the ashlar neces- comotive patterns must be well seasoned and nitely punched per minute. The boilers are sary for the various structures, have been have been at least two years in store. Enter-riveted by one of Garforth's (of Dukinfield)


patent steam riveters, which is capable of secur- a diameter of 12ft., and six of 21ft. each. By these works. Every locomotive is brought to ing a boiler 4ft. 2in. by 10ft. 6in. in one hour, this arrangement all heavy substances can be a weigh-table expressly constructed for the and with comparatively little noise. This shop at once conveyed from the main line direct to purpose, and by means of levers is subjected is fitted with traverses, jib cranes, and two the shop or store for which they are designed ; to the severest test. Should any regulating travellers. The whole of the machinery in and finished engines and locomotives can either be necessary it is of course done. No engine this department is worked by a high-pressure be lifted on to trucks by means of a vertical is permitted to leave the premises until the stationary engine-diameter of cylinder, 18in., jib-crane, fixed at the shop entrance, or, being managing director is personally satisfied of its length of stroke 2ft., diameter of fly-wheel locomotives, can, if required, as was the case being so accurately balanced that, in all pos 13ft., and nominal power forty horses. The in the first one made at these works, be run out tions, the centre of gravity is maintained. system of heating the rivets is worthy of at once upon the line. As a security against The gas house is a detached building, and is special notice. The furnace is heated by fire, hydrants are fixed at convenient points, erected at the northern extremity of the plot. means of flues, complete combustion of the and a good supply of water is constantly kept It contains twelve retorts erected in four fuel is effected by causing heated air to pass in the tanks.

benches of three each. The gas-holder is 50ft. over it at a distance of 2in. from the fire, The boiler shop and brass foundry are now in diameter and 25ft. in depth; and so and the supply of heat being regulatod by a nearly completed, so that the buildings tem- ranged that the pressure can be regulated damper all the rivets are brought to an even porarily occupied as such will be forthwith according to the demands of the works, thereby and fixed temperature, and, as the power ex: applied to their legitimate objects. The preventing unnecessary waste.

The main erted by the riveting machine is constant, all boiler shop is attached to the erecting shop, pipes in the buildings described are laid in possibility of a seam being unequally made, and consists of two bays, each 40ft. wide by cast-iron troughs, covered with lids of similar and consequently requiring to be caulked, is 130ft. long, and the brass foundry which material. A very important advantage is obviated. Every boiler, preparatory to being adjoins consists of one bay 40ft. wide by 130ft. thereby secured, since the mains can at any passed, is submitted by Mr. Alfred Sacré, the in length.

time be examined or altered without disturbing managing director, to a hydraulic test, exert- The gas arrangements are most effective. the permanent way or shop flooring, ing a pressure of 300lb. on the square inch, The burners required are comparatively few, Eighty cottages have been built by the whereby the slightest flaw is detected and the owing to the regard which has been paid to company for their workmen. Whatever adpractically perfect safety of every boiler is the laws of optics in their distribution. They ditional house accommodation may be reguaranteed.

are fixed at such a height, and in such posi- quired will be provided by private speculaThe turning shop is built in five bays, each tions, that by the laws of radiation and re- tors, and already much is being done in this 400ft. long and 130ft. broad, the three centre flexion she maximum of light is obtained with direction. Those built by the company are ones being supported on iron columns. This the minimum consumption of gas. The machine really models of cottage comfort and accomand some other shops are paved with wood. and the light are always in juxtaposition with modation, and have been specially pronounoed The blocks are circular in some, and of various the cutting tool. The service laid on to each to be such by the district surveyor. They cerforms in others. They are composed of larch workman is completely under his own control. tainly reflect the greatest possible credit upon or the sawn ends of deal, and are cut into six It comes direct from the adjacent main, and is the generosity of the company, and their inch lengths and firmly wedged in a stratum confined in a wooden box, the lid of which is marked consideration for the comfort of their of gravel and cinders, the substratum being fastened by screws. In the event of a leak- workpeople. The sanitary arrangements, parstiff clay. Arrangements have been provided age, therefore, he has only to take out the four ticularly those which have reference to light, in this shop for the erection of a gallery about screws which secure the lid, when he can turn drainage, and ventilation, are perfect. Some of 17ft. from the floor, on which it is proposed to off his supply at the main without extinguish- the cottages contain five, and none less than carry on the lighter kinds of work. Whenever ing the lights of any other workman in the four rooms each; and they are replete with all the erection of this gallery may be deemed es- shop.

that a workman's family can require in a pedient it can be done without interfering with In the steam-hammer shop, which is de habitation. What is a marked improvement the present machinery, or the work that may tached, there are three large hammers, of upon the character of such dwellings in be going on on the floor. Each bay is set 10 cwt., 20 cwt., and 50 cwt. respectively. All Sheffield and its neighbourhood is, that each apart for a separate branch of the manufac- the forging and stamping required is performed cottage has a separate enclosure in its rear, ture. The first bay is devoted to wheel lathes here. Nearly everything is forged in dies, and with the necessary out-houses. This judicious for heavy cuts. The second is used for the the work is rapidly, exactly, and cheaply done. arrangement will not only prove a great conturning of crank axles, and the remaining The hammers are fitted with boilers over flues venience to the tenants, but it will amply three are occupied by smaller tools for light so arranged that the heat from the furnace repay the liberal proprieters, by indirectly work, which is classed in divisions or sections. passes through them before entering the stack. promoting goodwill and harmony among the It is noticeable with how little noise the ma- Each hammer is provided with a powerful workmen, since it will preclude the possibility chines work, owing to the very exact manner crane and chain accessories for swinging the of bickerings which spring up almost invariin which they are geared. The motive power metal forgings to and from the tups. In the ably among families where their dwellings is furnished by two horizontal engines coupled, same building are a scrap cleaner, made of open upon an enclosure common to several each having a cylinder of 18in. diameter, and a wrought iron, and a scrap cutter, the latter tenants. stroke of 24in. The fly-wheel is 13ft. in dia- worked in eccentrics for cutting the scrap into When the extensions contemplated are carmeter, the boilers are worked at a pressure of equal pieces, each 4in. thick and bin. long. ried out, it is calculated that in addition to fifty pounds, and the combined power is eighty The tyres are heated in furnaces specially pre- marine and other engines this company will horses. In one corner of this shop is a tem pared for the purpose, and a machine is pro- be able to turn out at least two hundred locoplate shop. Fresh templates are made for vided for stretching the tyres in the event of motives per annum. At present about 600 each design, so as to secure exactitude in the the expansion not being sufficient or equal. workmen are employed; but ultimately when formation of the various parts of a locomotive. This is done by means of a cone, worked by a the works are in full operation from one to three Conveniently arranged also in one of the bays screw, and securely fitted with wedges of cast thousand will be required. It is only right to the operations of grinding, polishing, and iron of strong section, well-ribbed, placed at speak in the highest terms of the substantial buffing are carried on.

equal distances. The tyres are conveyed from character, excellent working, and high finish The erecting shop covers an area 160ft. in the furnace to the stretching.block by a steam of the various and complicated machinery in length by 130ft. in breadth, and is divided crane, which then removes the wheel from the operation. The latest improvements have in into four bays, each bay having a span of 401t., permanent way, inserts it into the heated tyre, every case been adopted, and they have been and being laid with a line of rails. It is where, being properly fitted, lifts the constructed chiefly by Messrs. Fairbairn, being fitted with one of Ramsbottoin's rope entire wheel ani deposits it in the contracting Kennedy, and Naylor, Messrs. M‘Lea and traversers, the counterpart of the one in the tank.

March, Messrs. Whitworth and Co., Messrs. Locomotive Works at Crewe. Taking into In order to give a good wearing surface, Dunn and Co., Messrs. Sharpe, Stewart, and account the variations of the space required by and consequently greater durability to the Co., Mr. J. Hulse, and Mr. De Bergue, all of a locomotive in the different stages of erection, journals of the axles, case-hardening is resorted Manchester; and Messrs. Smith, Beacock, as many as forty may be in progress in this to. For this purpose two of Dodd's patent and Tannett, and Messrs. Tannett and Walker, shop at one time. The manufacture of tenders, furnaces have been erected. The journals are of Leeds, We cannot conclude this article being work of a lighter character, will ulti- here subjected to the action of a graduatəd without bearing our testimony to the urbanity mately be carried on in a shop specially con- temperature for nine hours, which suffices to of M. Alfred Sacré, the managing director, structed for the purpose. It will consist of a give them the desired superfacial hardness. and Mr. W. C. Stephens, the secretary of the single bay having a span of 50ft., and will be other portions of engines requiring this quality company; and to the readiness with which fitted with drills and all other necessary ma- are similarly treated. It is held that by this these gentlemen furnished every facility for chinery. On the outside of the block, and means double the ordinary durability is secured. enabling us thoroughly to examine these imnear to the centre, a boiler-house is attached, One most important object in the construc- portant works in their minutest details. in which are two very large egg-ended boilers tion of a locomotive is to see that the even for supplying the coupled engines referred to. balancing of the weight and its equal distribuHere is also a small engine for pumping water tion on each separate wheel are secured, as

STRAINS IN GIRDERS. from the stream already mentioned into tanks unless these are regulated with the most

By W. J. MILLAR. for the supply of the boilers, and the general scrupulous exactitude, the engine is never safe,

beam side of the suite of shops there is a railway railway travellers is due to the simple fact of siding, with a turn-table in front of each bay. the engine not being properly balanced. The uniformly distributed or otherwise, the action There-tables are sixteen in number; ten have greatest possible attention is paid to this at upon all the parts of the beam due to this load

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