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1709 W. FAIRBANE. Improved means or apparatus for cutter secured in the holder by acting on a bowl on the Tho patentee claims, frst, a now method of jointing or gonorating and reserving steam. Dated June 27, 1866. holder, and when the cam releases the catter holder, the clasping, differing

from all tho methods hitherto used, isThis invention consisti, arst, in the employment of a springs force it down on to the file blank secured on a

asmuch that it is not continuous-that is to say, that it sphorical vossal made of wrought or cast iron,

or other movable bed heneath, and

from the peculiar combination of does not exist on the same side in the entire boight of the suitable motal, and which tho inventor terms a generator. the light holder

and the double springs the cutter vibrates boz; thus it is interior

from the top of the box to within : A feed-pipe, having on its extremity a perforated hollow or shakes slightly in the sliding guides after it has entered short

distance of the bottom, and then becomes exterior to ball,

extends from the top of the generator to the centre of the blank, and thus tarps up," raises," or forms a tooth the bottom to permit the insertion of the bottom of the the same, and is placed in communioation with the feed on the top edge of the indentation which it has out. The box without any hindrance. Second, a new arrangement pamp of the engine. The usual and ordinary fittings

of progressive motion of the file blanks is effected by means given to the bottom of the boxes, forming what may be steam boilers are also applied

to the generator. Another of a face cam on the driving shaft, acting upon a lever in termed a sunken or re-entered bottom. When this bottom vessel of gylindrioal form, with egg ends made of cast or conneotion with a paul which turns a ratchet wheel, and is to be so far entered into the body of the box that the Wrought iron, or other suitable metal, and which he terms a 80 moves the bed in which the file blank is secured. Patent volume of this latter is greater than its real volume, a steam reservoir, is placed in conjunction with the gonerator, completed.

stamped or beaten.oat bottom is made exactly like s lid, a suitablo valve opening from the latter into the reservoir for 1716 H. W. Habt. Improved means of or apparatus for wards, it is passed into the body of tho box until the edges

and the concavity of this lid or cover being turned downthe admission of steam generated, The reservoir is fitted preventing the accumulation of mud or dirt on carriage of the bottom and those of the box are level: the bor is with the usual appurtenances of steam boilers, and both wheels. Dated June 27, 1866. vessels are set in briokwork. Hear may be applied to the under surfaco of the genorator by means of an ordinary coal carriages of a brush or scraper which is held in contact This io vention consists in the adaptation to the wheels of then passed to the soldering table. Patont completed.

1723 D. and D. Dawson and T. BROADBENT. Improved tarnace, or, it preferred, by oil lights or other combustible with the tyro or felloe of the wheel, so that, as it rotates means of extinguishing fire in steam ships, mills, manufacsubstances. The flues are so constructed that after the and picks up mud or dirt from the road, such mud or dirt tories, and other buildings. Dated June 28, 1866. notion of the heat upon the generator the surplus passes will be scraped or rubbed off by the brush or scraper. This invention consists in the application of the gasm, along the sides of the reservoir and into the ohimney.. The Patent abandoned.

or the gascous products of combustion, proceeding from method of using the apparatus is as follows :-Heat is applied to the under surface of tho generator until the tempe

1717 W. E. NEWTON. Improvements in apparatus for the furnaces of steam boilers, and other furnaces, for the

purpose of extinguishing fires. Patent completed. rature of the air within (no water being as yet admitted) raising and forcing water and other liquide applicable to Water is then in the ejection of bilge water from vessels, the Alling of the

. or troduced down the feed-pipe, and emerges

in the form of tanks of loc motive tenders, and other purposes. (A com apparatus for cleaning and decorticating pulso, grain, and Ano spray through the perforated glo o before named on the munication.) Dated June 27, 1866.

seedı. (A communication.) Dated June 28, 1866. end of the foed-pipe; coming in contact with the heated at

This invention relates to apparatus for raising and forcing

This invention has reference to a previous patent granted mosphere within the generator, it is at once converted into

water and other liquids og the injection of a jet of steam
or other aeriform duid at a suitable pressure into a liquid (No. 3214), and the specification comprises much detail


to the present patentee on the 24th December, 1861 steam, and that of a high pressure, so that the inventor torms it superbeated steam. The valve connecting the two receiving chamber which forms a connection between suc

which we cannot give space to here. Patent completed. vossols is now opened by the pressure of steam, and the re

tion and delivery pipes or passages. The first of the inven. worroir becomes Alled with steam ready for use when retion consists in constructing the receiving chamber of such

1725 F.T. HUBERT and H. D. G. TRUSCOTT. Improvequired, and prevented from condensation by the conneotion

an apparatus with two or more suction inlets, 80 arranged ments in the construction of general electric telegraphie with the generator and the beat of the flues, Patont aban

that the water or other liquid will enter the chamber

by machines, and in the mode of working them. Dated Jane 28, doned.

suoh inlets in separate columns, without the columos ob- 1866.

structing each other or being obstructed by the jet pipe, This invention has referonce to the general eleotric tele1710 W. R. LAXE, Improvements in the mode of distil- and will then be delivered in one solid columa. The second graphic machines, termed by the inventors the “Typoling or separating volatile products from orls and other

part of this invention consists in furnishing the jet pipe of Omnitelegraphic," divided as they are hereinafter de. Juids. (A communication.)' Dated June 27, 1866,

such an apparatus in its lowest part with an escape valve scribed ; and relates, first, to a novel arrangement of This invention relates to the process of removing pro- which is opened inwardly by a spring or other means (when mechanism for conducting and transmitting whatever may ducts which are volatigable at any given toinperature from

the pressure in the pipe is no greater than that outside) for be by currents of eleotricity which mechanism depends on its the substances with which they may be combined. This the purpose of allowing the escape from such pipe of any accurate operation, by there being a perfect accordance process consists in forcing or drawing through soch substances a continuous stroam of air, which, by preference, is

water resulting from the steam that may condense. By between the two connected principal instruments, although

this arrangement the formation of ice in the pipe in cold placed at distant stations, the circuits between the stations hosted to the required temperature. Patent abandoned.

weather will be prevented. The third part of the invention being made, changed, and broken by the regulating action 1711 T. KENNEDY, jun., and J. BARR. Improvements in CODsists in attaching the whole of such an apparatus (48 of the horizontal metallic lever, screwed to the escapement pistons and cylinders. Dated June 27, 1866.

herein above mentioned) to a revolving head on the top of of the electric mechanical power. This desired accordance Tbis invention has for its object to prevent the bending of a hollow supporting pillar or column, so that, by turning in the actiou of the horizontal metallic lover is volained the piston-rod, which is liable to occur with some construc- suoh head, the whole apparatus may be turned in any by the action of another lever, which is directing the tions of pistons and cylinders from the oanting of the pis- direction required. The object of this arrangement is to currents. Second, the invention relates to the employ. ton; and the improvements are more particularly appli- adapt the apparatus more especially for filliog locomotive ment of one or any number of dials which require to be ouble to such water meters and hydraulic engines as com- tenders at the water stations of railways by the direct appositely screwed upon the ordinary dials of the blocks prise one or more cylinders, with their pistons, whilst they agency of steam taken from the locomotive boiler. This used at any of the stations, according to the difference of admit of a comparatively small piston-rod being used. feature of the invention, and that which constitutes the the longitudes, for the purpose of obtaining constantly and Such pistons are sometimes packed by means of a pair of second part, are applicable when the receiving chamber and instantaneousls, without any calculation, the difference of roversed cup leathers, which project somewhat from the inlets are constructed and arranged according to the first the solar time between the distant stations. Third, the body of the piston. The defects thus indicated are over part of the invention; or when they are constructed and invention relates to the employment of a special arrangecome by the present invention in one way by making the arranged in any other manner. The fourth part of the ment of electric batteries, which will be thereby kept in piston disc and the jupk ring both with Aanges of an en- invention consists in the employment of such an apparatus good order, and in a long-continued uniform action. larged diameter, very nearly fitting the sides of the cylinder. as is above mentioned composed of a liquid-receiving Fourth, the invention relates to an arrangement of me. These flanges of the disc and ring are recessed where the chamber inlet and delivery pipes or passage and jet pipe, chanism, with its indicator or dial specially applied to cup loathers are, and sufficient clearance is allowed to ensure with suitable connections, as a means of filling the tanks of the requisite alarm instrument, either for calling attenthe waters getting inside the cup leathers. Patent aban- locomotives with water by the direct agency of steam from tion, giving the proper time, or for any other purpose, and doned the boiler of the locomotive. Patent completed.

also for sending rapidly a few words without causing any 1712 W. H. FYE. Improvements in apparatus for 1718 J. BAKER. Improvements in thermo-electric mag

interference or disturbance in the working of the plates; making bricks. (A communication.) Dated June 27, netic batteries and engines. Dated June 27, 1866.

or when all the plates are completely covered with mei. 1868.

The patentee claims the application of thermo-electric sages. Patent completed, This invention is not described apart from the drawings, currents to magnetic engines for the production of motive 1728 O. E. BROOMAN. Improvements in obtaining alkaPatent completed. power, and also the application of the thermo-electric

line permanganales. (A communication.) Dated June 28, 1713 R. H. OLYDESDALE and J. E. Wilson, Improve- battery to the production of effects analogous to those of a

1866. ments in apparatus for Anishing tobacco. Dated June 27, galvanic battery. Patent completed.

The patentee olaims the employment, in substitution for 1866,

1719 W. Wrart. Improvements in screens for screening i water, of sulphates of lime, or of magnesia, of the chloIn constructing the finishing stove according to the per- grain and other substances. Dated June 27, 1866.

rates, carbonates, or fluo-silicates mentioned, for the pare vont invention, appliances are provided for confining the This invention relates to a peculiar construction, arrange- pose of producing permanganates of potaż and of soda, tobacoo in a compressed state whilst in the store. The ment, and combination of apparatus for soreening corn or either in the state of concentrated solutions, or of dry tobacco is arranged in layers, with metal plates between other substances, whereby the screen or apparatus may be paste, or palp. substantially in the manner described. the layers, and with a strong movable top or cover plate, readily adjusted so as to screen or lift the said substances Patent completed. which is acted on by one or more tapped sockets in a bar to any size which may be desirable, and the invention conof proper form and strength in the roof of the store cham- sists in the employment of short bars having, by preference, paring and carding and in treating silk wuste. Dated Juna

1727 8. O. LISTER. Improvements in machinery for preber, or in the cover plate itself. After the tobacco is in- a triangular section, and fastened at their ends by rivets or 28, 1806. troduoad it is compressed as much as may be necessary by otherwise to longer bars, the smaller bars having regular The patentee o'aims, first, the recessing of the ends of means of the cover plate and screws. The screws may be and parallel spaces between each other (through which the working rollers used in carding engines for carding notuated by means of ordinary spanners or ratchet levers, spaces the screened substances pass), and being so fastened

waste silk. Second, the arranging the drums of machine or by worm or bevel gearing. A platform or false bottom to the longer bars as to allow them to move on the rivets used for preparing waste silk to work with the points dowain, by preference, introduced for the tobacco to lie upon, or other fastenings at their ends, so that, by moving the wards, the silk waste being supported by concare surfaces, instead of lving upon the bottom of the store chamber. longer bars in a longitudinal direction, the parallel spaces

as described. Thirdly, the carding of the fibres, after pro Pateat abandoned.

between the shorter ones may be opened or closed to any paring a lap in a preparing machine or frame, as described. 1714 J. JORDAN. The application of certain spirituous desired width. Any number of parts, as above, may be Fourth, the manufacture of yarns of silk waste from compounds for the production of motive power. Dated June arranged so as to form a hollow árum or polygon, provided combed silk fibres, treated in the manner described. 17, 1866.

with a screw or any other suitable mechanical arrange: Fifth, the manufacture of caried silk yarns, by first cardThis intention consists in the use of certain spirituous ment, for giving motion to the said bars the required ing the silk fibres in the gum, and then carding the silk compounds for the production of steam or vapoor in stoam

direction. A rotary motion is given to the said combina fibres after the gum has been boiled off. Patent completed. boilers, as a substitute for water as now commonly used, tion by means of a shaft passing through the longitudinal

1728 D. K. OLARK. Improvements in locomotive traction and the ioventor prefers to use alcohol, ether, pyroxylic axis of the polygonal prism, which is to be set at such an spirit or paphtha, or methylate i spirit, 'having found by inclination tha: the corn or other substance being fed in at engines. Dated June 28, 1866. actual experience that the best results may be obtained

This invention will probably be noticed in a fatasa the higher end may pass through it, and in so doing be with these spirits, and that they may be used either simply, submitted to the screening or sitting action of the herein number of this journa'.' Patent completed. or in combination, as preferred. The spirit may be evapobefore described adjustable bars. Patent completed,

1729 S. Deacon. Improved machinery for drilling iron ratod in boilers, and used in engines of the ordinary con- 1720 B. F. WEATHERDON. Improvements in apparatus and other metals, also for boring wood for tapping nuts and struction furnished with surface condensers, but to fully for preventing inorustation in steam boilers. (A communi screwing bolts. Dated June 28, 1866. realise the economical results of this invention he prefers cation) Dated June 27, 1866.

This invention is carried out as follows:-Upon a suite to evaporate the spirit in a suitably constructed vaporiser, This invention consists in the employment of an upright able iron bed, mounted on standards, and carrying a head. hosted by aqueous vapour at a high temperature produced cylindrical vessel 18ft. higb by bit. in diameter, divided stook and adjustable brackets, the inventor adjusts and in a boiler having a continuous circulation of the water horizontally into two compartments, the upper 'one fur. fits the following parts :--Through the upper part or the contained therein, and the spirit vapour is conducted from nished with vertical copper tubes surrounded with water to

headstock he chases or forms a square thread or female the vaporiser to an aqueous steam-jacketed cylinder or the depth of 12ft., whilst the lower one supplied with steam

screw, into which is fitted a screw bosh, through which is cylinders through aqueous steam-jacketed pipes, and the from the waste pipe causes the said water to boil and pass formed a long, round hole, through which is passed the small spirit vapour on its exit from the engine cylinder is con- off in its heated state through the inedium of a tube into a part of a long mandrel. The other part of the said mandrel dacted into a suitably constructed surface condenser, where trough composed of intervening gutters, depositing on its

is formed cylindrical, and such part fits accurately in it is condensed into its liquid form, and thence recon- passage through the same the carbonates, sulphates, and

a corresponding-shaped hole formed in a bracket pioco fixed ducted to the vaporiser, and so on continuously. Patent other salts of lime, magnesia, mud, or other solids, incrus

to the bed-plato aforesaid. There is a hand wheel fixed to abandoned. tating sediments of firs, and finally passing direct to the

the outer end of the before mentioned screw busb, and 1716 J. HEXSHALL. Certain improvements in machinery is maintained through the medium of a pump from a well

boiler tank. The flow or supply
of water to the apparatus a winch handle is also fixed upon the outer end of the smail

part of the mandrel. The end of the enlarged part of the or apparatus for cutting Ales. Dated June 27, 1866. This invention is designed for the purpose of cuttiog files or other source, and is delivered by the above mentioned

said mandrel bas a square hole formed therein to receive by mechanical means, and for turning up or raising the prooers in a pure state to the boiler. Patent completed.

either a drill, or bit, or tap. Another bracket is adjusted testb thereof in imitation of the teeth of files which

1721 H. D. PLIMSOLL. The application of a new material the piece of metal or wood which it is desired to drill or

to the bed-plate of the machinery as an abutment to hold are cut by hand. The improvements consist in the use to the purpose of rendering gunpowder non-explosive. Dated bore, or to hold nuts for tapping or forming threads of of a light cutter holder sliding in grooves or channels, Jane 28, 1866. which is lifted by means of two spiral springs.

screws therein, or dies for securing bolts. The This new material the inventor states to be titaniferous of this machinery are as follow :-Upon imparting rotary eatter holder is mounted, and slides in two grooves, in

iron sand reduced to powder. This material is easily sepa- motion to the hand wheel the screw bush will force the which it has a slight clearance or “play," and from a rod rated by magnetic attraction. Patent abandoned.

mandrel forward, and hold it firmly there whilst the opera projecting from the top of the holder a cross head extends 1722 W, E, GEDGE. Improvements in the manufacture tor imparts a rotary motion to the winch bandle and drill, or storally, upon the ends of which the two springs press of metal bozus,

tinc, or cases. (A communication.) Dated or other

drill fized in the

mandrel, the operator from time The littlog cam is secured on a driving shaft, and lifts the June 28, 1866.

to time forcing the mandrel forward by the screw bush an

The operations

til the tool bas passed through the metal under operation, hand. One side of such wedge bears against the groove, 1751 H. A. BONNEVILLE. Improvements in the construc Patent abandoned.

and the other against the inclined face of the recess to which it tion and laying down of subterraneous telegraph wiros. (A 1780 T. SMITB. Improved machinery for facing or smooth- is atted, and to facilitate the upward and downward move- communication.) Dated July 2, 1866. ing the surface of stone. Dated Juno 29, 1866.

ments of thewedge small rollers may be interposed between The patentee claims the general construction and ar. This machinery consists of a vertical shaft, having se. theinclined faces. When the window is drawn up therubbing rangement of sabterranean with electrio condactors in three cured to its apper extremity a table of eccentric form. The of the wedges on the grooves bears them downwards, and isolating envelopes, substantially au described, Patent lower end of the shaft is geared for the purpose of receiving thus eases the friotion; but when the window is left to sink completed. motion. Holes of suitable size, and at convenient distances by its own weight the springs force the wedges upwards apart, are formed on tho sarface of and near to the edge of and so lighten the window in the grooves.

On depressing tion of furnaces and kilns.
1762 H. A. BONNEVILLE. Improvements in the construs.

(Å communication.) Dated the table for the purpose of receiving the pins, by means of the knobs or latches by hand the levers push down the

July 2, 1866. which the stone placed upon it is retained in position. On wedges and slack tbem, 80 that the window is free to

This invention consists in doing away with the ventilasither side of the tablo, at opposite points to each other, move. Patent completed.

tors now used, and replacing them by an aspirating conare placed two smaller vertical shafts (the apper bearings 1736 W. OLARK. Improvemonts in embroidering machi. trivance adapted to their apper parts, wbioh upper parto of which wort against slides formed on the inuer sides of nory. (A communication.) Dated June 29, 1866.

are provided with only one requisite opening to allow tho gaide standards) which are driven by gearing from the first- The patentee claims imparting a rotary movement to the said operation to take place; all other parts, thereforo, Damned shaft, and are furnished with a cam or crank on parts for feeding the material, as also to the sewing ma- are completely closed. The lower parts of thero furoncos each of their apper extremities. These cams or cranks are chines employed in combination with the embroidery appa- and kilns are provided (in order to allow of the freo passago coupled to an iron frame of rectangular form, and adapted ratus, with the object of making the stitches in any direc- of the air or steam) with openings proportioned to tbo to receivo slabs or blocks of stone placed over the table. tion independent of the motion of the machine, these im- force of the aspiration. Patent abandoned. Saitablo gearing is provided for raising the rectangular provements being applicable to all machines of this nature, frame as may be required, the "driven" gear on the small whether the material be disposed horizontally, vertically,

1753 H. A. BONNEVILLE. Improvements in apparatus side vertical sbafts working on feathered shafts, and per: or obliquely, while reserving the right of varying the mode for applying heat to certain parts of the human body. (A mitting the upper bearings (which support the shafts and of transmitting

the motion, the dimensions of the machines, communication.) Dated July 2, 1866. with them the cams or cranks and top frame) to ascend or

and the number of sewing machines employed. Patent com- This invention consists in applying beat to the feet and descand as required. The table and top frame being charged pleted.

legs by means of a cylinder adapted at the apper parts for with stono and placed in proper position for working or 1737 8. Holmes. Improvements in the manufacture of being suitably arranged for the reception of a vessel con

receiving the feet and legs, the lower part of the cylindor scoaring, a rotary motion is imparted to the main rertical

printing ink. Dated June 29, 1866. shaft, and the table describes the curve consequent upon its shape, whilst the top frame receives an eccentric motion

This invention consists in increasing the brilliant quali-aining bot water, on whick vessel the feet are to be placed,

the upper part of the cylinder being closed by a blanket, in the opposite direction from the cams or cranks to which

ties of printing ink by the employment of bone pitch
obtained from bone oil, Patont completed,

or other suitable covering, in order to prevent tho osoapo it is united, Patent abandoned.

of heat, Patent abandoned. 1738 R. HORNSBY. Improvements in mowing and roap1731 L. S. PILKINGTON. Improvements in washing ma- ing machines. Dated June 29, 1866.

1754 H. A. BONNEVILLE. Improvements in the making chines. Dated Jan, 29, 1836.

This invention is not described apart from the drawings. S bricks. (A communication.). Dated July 2, 1866. This invention is carried out as follows:- In a tab or Patent completed.

This invention refers to hollow bricks for the construcresnel the inventor places a curved grid or grate, resting on

1739 J. H. Johnson, Improvements in briok-making with a projection, which, when they are placed between

tion of ceilings. The bricks are provided at each extromity in there are bearings carrying a swing frame, formed at the machines , and in the machinery or apparatus for operating the beams that support the pooring, rest kupon, and are

, bottom with a number of rollers hollowed or grooved with

This invention has reference to a former patent dated

maintained by, juts, which run along the sides of tho right and left handed threads alternately, which rollers are July 8, 1863 (No. 1692), and the specification comprises

beams. The lower part of each brick is so disposed as to ranged in a curve strack from the centre of the swing frame, much detail which we cannot devote space to here.

cover about half the interior side of the beam, 80 that and corresponding with the carve of the grid, there being Patent completed.

when all the bricks are fixed and placed together, their a spring or springs for regulating the pressure of the swing

lower surface presents one uniformly plano superficios frame. The reasel is supplied with water, and the clothes 1740 H. GRIPPIN. Improvements in combining india which forms the ceiling. Patent completed. or materials to be washed are placed between the grid and rubber or compounds thereof with metallio substancos for the rollers, and tho swing frame is worked to and fro by the manufactnre of valves and other 4868. Dated June 29,

1755 G. FRERE. An improved apparatus for fishing, hand or motivo power, and thus the clothes or materials 1866.

culledautomatic fshor." Dated July 2, 1866. are affectually wasbed without injury. Patent abandoned. This invention consists in applying to each surface of This invention consists of an arrangement of aoparatus

metallic open work, say brass or iron wire cloth, a sheet or for catching fish by means of barbed hooks, in which the 1732 W. THOUSON. Improvements in apparatus for thin layer of india-rubber, or of a compound thereof, pre- line carrying the hook or hooks is connected to a spride seluating the points or switchos of railways. Dated June pared, as is well understood by persons in the habit of or equivalent elastic objeot in such a manner that, by 19, 1866,

treating these substances for the operation generally called such elastic connection the line is capable of yielding to For tho purposes of this invention one end of a rod, which valcanising, and he causes the adhesion of the surfaces of any required extent to the pull exerted by the fish caugbt is connected at its other end to the tongue rail of a switch, india-rubber or compounds thereof to the total by pressure on the book, therehy preventing the rupture of the lino, is attached by : pin joint to the end of one arm of a beli applied to such surfaces to cause the india-rubber or com- wbile, when the power of the fish is expended, such elastic crank lever. To the end of the other arm of the bell crank pound thereof to pass through

or between the interstices of connection will cause the line to be drawn in again, so as lover is suspended a weight which retains the tougue rail the metal surface. Patent completed.

to bring the fish close to the shore, or other locality where of the switch in a desired position. The weight is connected by links to one end of the lover handle, by which the rial for covering rollers used in the various processes of

1741 J. HUMBER and G. HAWORTH. An improved mate

the apparatus is situated. Patent abandoned. position of the tongue rail of the switoh is reversed. This making cotton, linen, and other yarns.

1756 S.A. HODD and W. Urton. Improvements in

Dated June 30, lever may be arranged to be moved in any direction. The

apparatus for roasting coffee. Dated July 2, 1866. 1866. lover handle bas on it a bigoal plate or disc which, when

This invention relates to a small apparatus mostly suitthe lever handle is upright, indicates the position of the.

Provisional protection has not been allowed for this in able for private houses, consisting of a small oglindor re

vežtion. tongue rail or switch, but when the lover handle is de

volving on an axis set in motion by a spring and train of pressed or placed in a horizontal position the state of the

1742 F. KAINT and J. BUNTING. Improvements in the wheels (or it may be a weight). The roasting cylinder is tongue rail of the switch will be known by the signal plate manufacturing

of cutlery han

lles and machinery employed within an outer stationary cylinder, and a gas jet is prou or disc not being presented to the driver of a train. The therein. Dated June 30, 1868.

vided below, which plays on and beats the roasting cylindor. lever bandle turns on an axis in lugs at the top of the box

The final specification of this invention cannot at pre- In connection with the train of wheels is an apparatus (or it may turn on a daiversal joint), and the weight is sent be seen, an extension of time for the filing thereof communicating with a tap regalating the supply of gas;

this is attached to the lever, so that, when at liberty, the lever and having been petitioned for.

according to the time required to roast tho the tongue rail of the switch will be brought to and re

coffee, and so that after the lapse of the time appointed tho

1743 M. L. J. LAVATER. Improvements in braoketa. tained in the desired position. Patent abandoned.

gas is turned off by the self-action of the machine, whereby Dated June 30, 1866.

the coffee is properly set without an attendant. Patont 1735 J. AAHTON. Improvements in the manufacture of

This invention relates to fring or applying brackets to abandoned. studs and buttons. Dated June 29, 1866.

glass, and consists in first smoothing the surface of tho In order to manufacture stude and hattons so that the bracket which is to be applied to the glass, to which sur. 1768 T. O. CRAVEN. An improvement in saws for cotton sbank plate or disc at the rear end of the shank may be face paper, gummed on both sides, is applied, and the paper, gins.. Dated July 2, 1866. readily passed through a button hole, in place of forming on being moistened, causes the bracket to adhere to the This invention consists in the construction of an improved them of an entire diso, the inventor forms a radial slot in glass. Patent completed.

“saw" for the cylinder of cotton gins, the said saw being the plate, or cuts away a segment from it, by preference 1744 J. Jackson. Improvements in lamps. Dated June tormed with hook-shaped teeth that are rounded upon their 80 removíag 1-8th or 1.10th of the disc. In order to insert 30, 1866.

edges, so as not to cut or injure tbecotton, and not to broak a shank plato so formed through a button hole, one of the This invention consists in forming the pistons of mode-the seeds. Patent completed. points formed at the circumference of the disc by cutting rator lamps suitable for barning petroleum oil, in such 1759 J. H. JOHNSON, Improvements in apparatus for away a segment from it is inserted through the hole, and manner that the ciroumference of each piston may be lubricating purposes. (b communication.) Dated July 2, thea, by once turning round the button or stud, the whole packed by cotton or other suitable yarn or material, in such

1866. of the shaok place is passed through. Patent abandoned, manner that the oil may not pass between the periphery This invention consists in applying to lubricating appa1734 H. HOBBox. Improvements in smelting iron ores, and the cylindrical oil vessel in which it works. Patent

ratus a helical spring combined with a diaphragu or pis. and in apparatus used with blast furnaces. Dated June 29, completed.

ton, the exit of the lubricating material being effected and 1866.

1745 T. MAONEILL. Improvements in the construction of regulated by the expansion and contraction of the spriog. This invention consists, first, in causing the blast to pass railway rolling stock, and in the permanent was applicable Patont abandoned. through and amongst such a balk or length of carbonaceous thereto. Dated June 30, 1866. matter that the oxygen in the blast shall be completely This invention consists in enabling carriages, waggons,

1760 F. FRIED. Improvements in the manufacture of converted, and pass into the blast furnace in the state of and trucks to travel upon a mixed or double gange of rails artificial

wood, Dated July 2, 1866. carbonic oxide in contradistinction to the blast consisting that is to say, upon a narrow or wide gaugo as required

by well drained and partially dried in the air, quicklime, and

The essential ingredients here employed are milk cards wholly of atmospheric air or partly of atmospheric air and means of two extra wheels upon each axle, 80 arranged partly of carbonic oxide. Second, the invention consists in and constructed as to suit the gauge of the rails upon

saw dust. Patent abandoned. 80 forming, arranging, and placing an auxiliary furnace or which they are intended to travel. Patent abandoned. 1762 T. Cook. Improved machinery for uniting together combustion chamber, which may either be built as a separate structure and supplied with the necessary connections, leather. Dated June 30, 1866.

1746 T. F. GILLOT. Improvements in the manufacture of materials employed in the manufacture of boots and shoes,

saddlery, driving bands, and such like articles as requiro to or be made in one with the blast furnace, that the last por- This invention consists in utilising the refuse inner skin bo strongly united together. Dated July 2, 1866. tion or portions of carbonaceous matter required to com. or parings of hides, by first tanning them, and finally The peculiar feature of this invention consists in om. plete tho formation of carbonio oxide shall be as near as cementing them together by a suitable cement and pressure. ploying a long piece of wire, and leading tho samo downpossible if not actually contiguous to the interior of the Patent abandoned.

wards and forcing it into and tbrough tbe entire thiok oss blast furnace. The object of this is to bring the auxiliary and blast furnace as close as possible in order to preven:

1747 C. D. KNAPTON. Improvements in spinning framos. of the materials to be joined. Patent abandoned. loss of beat by radiation in its passage from the one to the Dated June 30, 1866.

1763 G. R. SHERATON. A new or improved instrument Third, the invention consists in arrangements by Patent abandoned. This invention is not described apart from the drawings. to be used in oases of difficult parturition.

Dated July 3, which a convenient portion of such chamber may he at will

1866. severed from the rest by a valre, either of the slide, rotary

1748 W. J. BAKER. An improved method of and appa. This invention is not described apart from the drawings. well or binge kind, the opposite end

of such portion being ratus for facilitating the passage of a guard or other person Patent completed. also provided with such a valve or door or lid. Fourth, the along the outside of a railway passenger train in motion. invention consists in the heating of the blast furnace of at

Dated July 2, 1866. mospheric air previous to its being passed into the combus.

This invention consists in affixing along the sides of tion chamber or auxiliary furnace. To each blast furnace railway carriages rails or guides, upon which runs, on

PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. there may be either one or more auxiliary or combustion grooved wheels, a vehicle or receptacle intended to receive chambers. Patent abandoned.

the guard of a train. Patent completed. 1735 J. IMBAY and J. ELLIS. Improvements in carriage 1749 H. A. BONNEVILLE. Improvements in the construc

Dated November 24, 1866. windows and other sliding frames. Dated June 29, 1866. tion of submarine telegraph cables. (A communication.) 3089 E. Funnell, East-street, Brighton, watch and olook The object of this invention is to hold the window in Dated July 2, 1866.

maker. Improvements in electric signals for use on railany tension to which it is moved, so that it does not sink The patentee claims the general construction and ar

ways. down by its own weight or the shaking to which it is rangements of submarine telegraph cables with two interior

Dated December 3, 1866, subjected, and to have the power of slacking it so that it coverings running parallel

with the electric conductor and

3171 J. T A. Mallet, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris, civil can be easily moved by hand. To effect this the patentees with ao exterior covering or shielding of tempered or pon-engineer. A process and apparatus for producing jointly form inclined recesses in those parts of the trame which tempered steel, substantially

as described. Patent com. Slide in the grooves, and fit them with wedges which have pleted.

or separately oxygen and chlorine from the same chemical

substance and in the same apparatus. their thick ends downwards, and which are pressed upward 1750 H. A. BONNEVILLE. An improved safety lock. (A by springs. On the sliding frame they mouut levers, communication) Dated July 2, 1866. which bear on the small ends of the wedges, and which

Dated Decembor 13, 1866. This invention is not described apart from the drawingr. baro suitable knobs or labohes that can be depressed by 'Patent completed.

3272 P. Heyns, All Saints, Poplar. Improvements in steam boilers,


Dated December 20, 1866.

3414 E. F. Göransson, Gefle, near Sandviken, Sweden. 3341 W. Gilbey, Oxford-street, wine merchant. Improve- Improvements in casting rings suitable for making tyres of

Sealed January 22, 1867. ments in the mode of treating bottle corks, especially for railway wheels, and for other purposes.

1918 W. B. Woodbury 2298 J. Schneider the purpose of obtaining a more distinotive and less easily

1928 J. Strang

2764 J. Fisher offaceable mark or brand, and also for rendering the cork

Dated December 29, 1866.

1929 J. Boeddinghaus 2806 A. V. Newton less liable to decay and the action of insects. 3415 J. E. Brown, Glasgow, engineer. Improvements in

1935 J. Vavasseur

2900 G. Haseltine 3343 W. Chapman, Kennington Park-road. Improve the holding, distending, and otherwise treating or finishing 1948 W. Weldon

3009 A. V. Newton ments in means or apparatus employed in "bending the woven and other web fabrics, and in the means or apparatus 1950 A. V. Mathieu

3060 J, Howard and E.I. appers " of boots and shoes and other articles. employed therefor.

1965 T. and J. Bibby

Bonsfeld 3345 D. A. Graham, Perth, engineer. Improvements in 3418 A. V. Newton, Ohancery-lane, mechanical drafts.

2065 J. Clay

3065 G. Haseltine the construction of steam and water traps, and in the floats man. An improved safety attachment to carriages, (A and valves for the same, also to some extent applicable to communication.) other fluid regulating vessels for controlling the flow of the 3419 H. Ohamberlain, Wakefield, engineer, Improvefluids passing through them. ments in the manufacture of coke and charcoal, and in the

NOTICES OF INTENTION TO PROCEED WITH 3347 w. Baker, Downbam Market, Norfolk, dentist. ovens employed therein.

PATENTS. Improvements in meaus or apparatus for lighting fires, 3420 A. J. Adams, Devonport, naval outfitter. Improvewhich improvements are also applicable to warming apart- ments in locks and latches.

From the London Gazette, January 23, 1867. ments and for other heating purposes.

3421 W. Simons and A. Brown, Renfrew, engineers and 3351 J. Baker, Lieut.-Col., Army and Navy Club, Pall shipbuilders. Improvements in the arrangement and con

2326 E. Harlow. Breechloading firearms, Mall. Improvements in thermo-electric and magnetic struction of dredgers.

2343 J. P. Bright. Ornamenting articles of furniture. apparatus.

3423 W, B. Berrey, Liverpool, merchant. An improved

2345 8. Woodall and J. M. Van Winkle. Seouring the 3363 S. Hall, London Wall, City, hat manufacturer. composition for cleaning glass and other smooth and bright

ends of hoops. Improvements in the manufacture of "Gossamer" hat surfaces.

2350 E. Phillips and J. Howie, Cutting textile fabrics. bodies.

3424 C. Harrison, Manchester, machinist. Improve

2353 F. G. A. Horstmann, Motive power. 3355 A, V. Newton, Chancery-lana, mechanical drafts- ments in cocks or valves,

2359 O. H, Chesbire. Metal spring box. man. Ao improved compound for coating ships' bottoms 3425 F. J. Manceaux, Paris, gun manufacturer. Im. 2360 A. Cairns. Liquid compasses. and otber surfaces. (A communication.)

provements in breechloading firearms, and in cartridges for 2363 C. F. Varley. Obtaining latitude, 3357 0. Lungley, Greenwich, naral architect and ship the same.

2364 O. P. Stewart and H. Ohapman. Planing metals, builder. Improvements in war ships, forts, guns, and ar- 3427 E. B. Sampson, Thrupp Lodge, near Stroud, Glou. 2367 J. Boyd, J, M'Pherson, T. K. Kerr, and J. Taylor. mour, and in fitting and working them,

cestershire, manufacturer. Improvements in saucepans, Winding apparatus. 3359 O. Norriugton, Sussex House, Plymouth. Improve- kettles, and other vessels for culinary purposes.

2369 W. Tunstall. Braiding machines. ments in the treatment of substances containing phosphate 3428 F. Leonardt, Birmingham, manufacturer.


2370 T. Newey. Fastenings for bands. of lime, provements in the manufacture of metallic boxes.

2374 B. Bayliss, Iron. Dated December 21, 1866.

3431 B, W. A. Sleigb, Langham-place, Portland-place. 2376 W. Oreasy. Drying grain. 3362 R. and S. S. Hall, Hope Foundry, Bury, Lancashire, Improvements in hydrostatic rotary motive power engines. 2376 J, Twibill, Steam generators. macbine makers. Improvements in macbinery for winding 3432 G. Payne, Belmont Works, Battersea, chemist. 2378 J. Jackson, Ships' anchors. yarn and thread. Improvements in the manufacture of soap.

2380 P. Brash and W. Young. Oil from shale. 3363 J, Anderson, Newton, Ayrshire. Improvements in 3434 W. Clark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements 2390 G. Dyson, Smelting iron, arrangements and apparatus for obtaining motive power. in fixing rails to the sleepers or permanent way of railways. 2397 J. H. Sams. Tightening wire. 3365 W. Rowan, Belfast, engineer, Improvements in ma- (A communication.)

2408 T. Dizon. Steam boiler, chinery for cleaning and preparing flax, hemp, and other 3435 C. Sberidan, Strand. A new or improved process 2433 G. Dyson. Drying corn. tibrous material, and for reducing the same to tow. for the manufacture of oakum.

2462 J. Lawson and E. G. Fitton. Spinning flar. 3366 G. Allir, St. Heliers, Jersey, shipwright. Improve

2466 A. V, Newton. Dated December 31, 1966.

Steam engines. (A communicaments in apparatus for raising and lowering window blinds, windows, maps, and other articles, and retaining them in improved apparatus for heating apartments, conservatories,

3438 G. Shrewsbury, Lower Norwood, ironmonger. An


2496 A. V. Newton. Distilling petroleum. (A commuany required position,

and baths, 3369 S. Jacobs, High Ousegate, York. An improved

nication.) process for preparing wood and other materials

3444 O. D. Abel, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane. preparatory

2562 J. Ferrabee. Preparing wool. to ornamenting or graining the same, and also for finish. Improvements in machinery or apparatus for rippling or

2622 J. Syme. Breechloading firearms. jog materials so prepared when ornamented or grained, and seeding flax. (A communication.).

2719 F. Petitdider. Applying designs to fabrics. for finishing wood and other materials when painted or

3446 J. T. Griffin, Fleet-street. Improvements in calen- 2772 A. Turner, Elastio fabrics. grained but not prepared by the said process, dar morements for clocks. (A communication.)

8004 E. Drucker. Eyelet machine. (A communication.) 3448 W. Olark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements 3106 W. E, Newton. Extracting oil from bitaminous Dated December 22, 1866.

in the manufacture of hydrogen gas and in apparatus for substances. (A communication.) 3373 J. Sloper, Walbrook House, Walbrook, City, civil the same, also in the application of the said gas for lighting

3288 H. Brinsmead, Pianofortes. engineer. Improved means of and apparatus for obtaining and heating and as a motive power. (A communication.)

3295 O. Randolph. Propelling vessels. motive power, applicable for driving machinery and for 3450 L G. Speyser, Haydon-square, Minories. Improve

3355 A. V. Newton. Coating ships' bottoms. (A comventilating mines, buildings, ships, and other spaces. ments in mixing apparatus for mixing mortar and similar

munication.) 3374 A. Shanks, engineer, Robert-street, Adelphi,Strand. materials.

3363 J. Anderson, Motive power. Certain improvements in making metallic hoops.

Dated January 1, 1867, 3375 F. Northall, Rowley Regis, Staffordshire, and R. 2 W. Muir, John-street, Adelphi, Strand, engineer.

The full titles of the patents in the above list can be Turnley, Withymoor, near Dudley, Worcestershire, furnace Improvements in planing machines, which improvements managers. Improvements in water tuyeres.

are also applicable to other machines and engines in which ascertained by referring back to their numbers in the list of 3377 A. S. and H. H. Ayre, High-street, Kingston-upon- sliding surfaces are employed.

provisional protections previousiy published. Hull. Improvements in means or apparatus for drying

4 G. Stuart, Aberdeen. Improvements in the manufacwheat, barley, rice, and other grain, which improvements ture of combs and in the machinery or apparatus employed Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to are also applicable to the drying of seeds, coffee, and other therefor.

any of the parties in the above list who have given notice matters.

6 H. A, James, Cheltenham. An improved portable of their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from 3379 S. and J. Mitchell, Cranbourn-street, Leicester-folding obair. square. Improvements in the construction of Venetian 8 G. B. Woodruff and G. Browning, Cheapside, engineers. the date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by blinds, and in mecbanism to be used in connection there- Improvements in the construction of button hole sewing leaving at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing with. machines.

of the objection to the application. 3381 W. Clark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements

Dated January 2, 1867. in boots and shoes. (A communication.)

12 J. O, Ellison, Shelf Dye Works, near Halifax. ImDated December 24, 1866.

provements in macbinery or apparatus for folding fabrics, 3387 F. A. Calvert, Manchester, engineer. Improve

and also for holding and inserting cardboards, metallic PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £59 ments in machinery for carding and cleaning fibrous sub plates, or other substances between the folds of fabrics to

HAS BEEN PAID. be pressed. stances.

Dated January 3, 1867. 3389 J. Rodgers, Hunslet, near Leeds. Improvements in

64 J. Coppard

165 J. Buroh and S. Feart. drums, pulleys, " glaziers," and cones. 16 G. B. Smith, Birmingham, manufacturer, Improve- 111 W. Tongue

ley ments in supports for the insulators of electrio telegraphs, 127 E. Lord

195 R. A. and E. Wright 3393 R. H. Ashton, Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire. Im

134 W, H. Marks

199 J. E. Die provements in producing printing surfaces and carvings and in affixing the said supports to the posts of the said

telegrapbs. from moulds obtained by the aid of photography.

148 J. D. Jobin

211 T. Bradford 3394 O. Varley, Kentish Towo-road, aud S. A. Varley, ments in apparatus employed in coupling railway carriages 18 W. Chippendale, Harrogate, Yorkshire. Improve. 151 J. Hamer

216 J. Stuttaford 156 J. Wilson

222 W. Norton Roman-road, Holloway, telegraph engineers and conto each other.

158 G. E. Donisthorpe 245 S. Dixon and J. Cal. tractors. Improvements in the means and apparatus for generating electricity. 22 W, Knaggs, Euston Grove, Euston-square. Improve- 194 T. Bright

vert, jun. Dated December 26, 1866.

ments in apparatus for evaporating and boiling saccharine 3395 T. B. Jordan, South Lambeth, mechanical engineer,

liquors. and J. Darlington, Moorgate-street Chambers, mining.engi

Dated January 4, 1867.
Deer. Improvements in machinery for applying bydraulic consulting engineer. Improvements in cartridges.

24 G. Haseltine, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, PATENTS ON WHIOH THE STAMP DUTY OF 1100


HAS BEEN PAID. power to miping and other purposes. 3397 J. Fletcher and J. Carr, Blackburn, machiniste. communication.)

147 G. H. and H. R, Cote 28 P. Dagnall, Aldershot, Corp. Royal Engineers, Im.

155 J. F. Belleville Improvements in or applicable to machines for sizing yaros

tam or threads preparatory to weaving, parts of which improve prorements in breechloading firearms. menis are applicable to other purposes.

30 E. N. Gregory, Camberwell, paper machine wire cloth

manufacturer. Improvements in paper-making machinery. Dated December 28, 1866. 3401 W. Bradburn, Wednesfield, Wolverhampton, arti

LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS PUBLISHED ficial manure manufacturer. Improvements in treating PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH OOMPLETE SPECI. excrementitious matters and other refuse matters for the


For the Week onding January 19, 1867. purpose of obtaining valuable products therefrom, and in

Dated January 14, 1867. apparatus to be employed for that purpose.

97 G. Haseltine, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, No. Pr. No., Pr. No. Pr. , No. Pr. No., Pr. No. Pro 3405 W. Clark, Chancery-lane, engineer. Improvements civil engineer. Improvements in machinery for felting in valves. (A communication.)

ha: bodies. (A communication.) 3407 E. Storey, Lancaster, manufacturer. Improve.

Dated January 15, 1867. ments in or applicable to marine, locomotive, stationary,

s. d.
s. d.

g. d. s. d. s. d. 102 H. A. Bonneville, Porchester-terrace, Bayswater. and other steam boilers.

13930 415010 6 15110

4/1521 1 61531/0 6/1540 0 10 3408 A. V. Newton, Chancery-lane, mechanical drafts- Improvements in small arms. (A communication.)

1492 0 6 15020 4 15120 4 15220 103 H. A. Bonneville, Porchester-terrace, Bayswater. An improved drying apparatus. (A communica

14933 015030 4/15131 4/152310 Im tion.)

ements in sewing machines. (A cominunication.)

14940 8 15040 415141 0162410 10/16310 3409 W. H. Cutler, Eton, Buckinghamshire, and T.

14950 415050 8151610 4 1525 1 Brown, Grove Villas, Victoria Park, civil engineers. Im

1496 3 015061 415161

2 1526 1 10/15360 10 18451 provements in cocks for stopping and regulating the flow


1497 1 2 15071 015170 4/15270 6/15370 of steam, water, and other fluids.

1498 0 815080 416180 415280 6/15380 3410 F. Watkins, London Works, Birmingham, Im

Sealed January 18, 1867.

1499 0 4 15090 10 15190 415290 8 1639 0 & 15480 8 provements in machinery for cutting, punching, and shaping 1882 S. Longbottom and 1915 G. Mountford and G. 15000 4 15100 4115200 6 15300 10 metals for screw nuts and like articles.

T. Shaw

L. Loversidge 3411 H. B. Condy, Battersea, manufacturing chemist. 1884 F. Neidlinger

1927 H. Prince Improvements in the manufacture of chlorine, and in pre- 1885 R. Irvine and P. 1930 J. and J. Hinks NOTE.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the parations for evolving chlorine for disinfecting and other


2012 W. Hartcliffe, jun., Great Seal Patent Ofice (publishing department) on to purposes.

1891 H. Smith

and T. H. Lee 3412 F. Watkins, London Works, Birmingham. Im

ceipt of the amount of price and postage, Sums exceeding 1895 W. Bellamy

2026 W, E, Newton provements in machinery for shaping and forging metals 1906 E. Leigh, H.

T. 2119 W. Olark

5s, must be remitted by Post Office Order, made payable at into rivets, bolts, screw blanks, and like articles.

Palmer, and W. E. 2123 W. E. Newton

the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr.Bennett Woodero to 3413 W. Thomson, Railway Foundry and Ironworks,


2491 W. Clark Normanton, Yorkshire. Improvements in apparatus for

Great Seal Patent Office, 25, Southampton-buildings, 1908 A, Kimball

2653 E.M. Boxer actuating the points or switches of railways.

1916 J. H. Johnson


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for a certain time on a body when the motion from the greater surface of chest affected when of that body is not prevented by an opposing the anvil is interposed. But the anvil might

force. And we see further that dynamical be replaced by a long bar of equal weight, MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. force in its effects is statical, that is to say, and that end of it supported by the chest

it is resolved into a statical form during its made of equal diameter to the face of the

action. For a body in motion is brought to a hammer, and yet the effeot produced on the LONDON: PRIDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1867. state of rest by a certain resistance or pressure chest of the man by striking the other end

opposing its motion for a certain length of with the hammer would still be insignificant.

time, the intensity of such resistance and the Now the explanation given of this fact is that THE INFLUENCE OF THE ELEMENT time for which it must act being determined the momentum of the hammer, 40, is but

TIME ON THE EFFECTS OF PROJEC- by the formula we have before referred to. just sufficient to overcome the vis inertia of TILE FORCE

There are people, however, who appear to be the anvil, which is proportionate to the weights,

under the impression that bodies moving with and that consequently the effect is too small MHE word force is popularly used, both in a high velocity possess mysterious and occult to be appreciated. But we cannot see that TH

an abstract and material sense, to ex- powers of overcoming resistance extra and this explanation is any at all. The momentum press the agent by which resistance is over- additional to that expressed by these formulæ. given to the anvil, and with which it strikes come. In physical science it is used in that the effects produced by high velocities the chest, is the same as that before possessed the material sense only, and it may be are sometimes remarkable and apparently un- by the hammer. The only difference lies in generally defined as expressing the tendency accountable for by the simple laws at present the fact that in one case the chest is struck by which matter has to move in a certain direction, received, we admit, and to the causes and a heavy weight with a low velocity, and in This direction may be either towards the nature of those effects we shall presently refer. the other by a light weight with a high veloearth under the influence of gravity or towards But the supposition that a projectile body is city. But, although the momentum in the one other matter under the influence of the various capable of overcoming more resistance, or, as case is equal to the momentum in the other, forms of attraction, such as molecular attrac- it is termed, doing more “work” than that as the vis viva in the two cases is widely diftion, magnetical or electrical attraction, &c. expressed by these formule, is contrary to the ferent. The destructive effects, therefore, as Now as long as the tendency that matter has first and simple laws of motion as laid down measured by the depth penetrated on the to move under the influence of these various by Newton, and, until proved by logical space through which the resistance is overforms of attraction is resisted, the body remains inferences, is not likely to meet with come, must be just as widely different. For in passive and no effectis produced. If, however, support.

the case where the anvil is used, the vis viva the opposing resistance is taken away, the The pressure which after acting a certain or the value of w va = 40 x 1* = 40; in the body will move in the direction of the force, time on a body will give it a certain velocity case where the hammer only is used, the value and, being continually acted upon by it, will of motion, must necessarily act on the body of w v2=8 X 20%= 3200; that is to say, it is attain considerable velocity, and will then after it has commenced to move, and must twenty times as much in the one case as in strike any opposing body with violence. The therefore act through a certain space. Simi- the other. To take a more extreme case, let force, in fact, which was before expended larly the resistance which destroys the velocity a bullet weighing foz. or 1-321b., travelling against the opposing resistance accumulates thus imparted must act through a certain with a velocity of 1,280ft. per sec., take the during the absence of that resistance and be- space likewise in order to do so, and the latter place of the hammer and anvil. The momencomes stored up in the moving body. While element (space) may be substituted for the tum would still be the same, but the vis viva the body was passive the form of the force in element time in the preceding formula, and its would be 1-32 x 12802 = 51 00-or 1,280 fluencing it was that of pressure. The same relation to the velocity produced is then ex- times greater than in the case of the hammer force acting on it when its motion is unop- pressed by the formula 2 pgs=w v? The and anvil. It is on this principle that we usually posed becomes momentum. In the one case first formula we know is used when comparing say that the value of velocity for effecting the force can act only with a certain moderate force and resistance in the abstract. The penetration increases in the ratio of its square. intensity, but for any length of time. In the latter expresses a relation between the weight It can be shown, however, that its value for other it may act with infinite intensity, but and velocity of a moving body and the extent this purpose increases in a far higher ratio. the duration of its action will then be pro- of the effect produced by it: as for instance,

Certain circumstances attendant on portionately short. We say it may act, for it the depth to which a shot will penetrate a action of projectile force cause it to produco will depend on the nature of the resistance by bank of earth, or the thickness of iron which effects widely different, although its amount, which its motion is opposed, and by which it it will pierce. It would thus appear that as measured by its vis viva, may be the same. is again brought into a state of rest, whether the there exists in matter a certain latent force It is well known that the effects of a man duration of its action is long or short and whether which is called forth when its particles are pushing a hard and heavy body, and striking the intensity of its action is small or great. separated or torn apart. This latent force or the same a sharp blow with his fist, are very If its motion is gradually checked by the re- resistance we speak of as “the work required different. In the one case the body is moved, sistance opposed to its passage through a to be done” in order to separate its particles, if its vis inertia is not too great; in the other, medium like the atmosphere, the intensity of and it varies as the resistance opposed, multi- either it or the striker's fist is bruised, while the action is small and its duration consider- plied by the space through which that resist- little or no motion is imparted to it. Simi. able. If, on the other hand, it is suddenly ance acts; while the power of matter in larly, also, would the effect of a cannon shot brought to rest by striking against a granite motion to overcome that resistance varies as striking the buffer of a railway carriage with rock or a mass of iron, its action is almost its weight multiplied by the square of its velo- a high velocity differ from the effect produced instantaneous and its intensity very great. city. The high value of velocity as compared by the buffer of a railway engine coming in The relation of these different forms which the with weight for effecting penetration partly ex- contact with it at a low velocity. Penetrasame force may take are expressed in mathe- plains the reason why the hand guns of the four- tion and the destruction of the buffer would matical science as follows:

À force p may act teenth and fifteenth centuries, in spite of their be the result in the one case ; the motion of the on a body whose weight is w for a certain cumbrous form, inaccuracy, and short range, carriage in the other. Yet the amount of time t, and the amount of force expended during were quickly and permanently substituted for vis viva of the different kinds of force in each that time is expressed as p gt, as long as the bows and crossbows. The initial velocity of case might be identical. What, then, causes motion of the body is resisted. If the motion the missiles of the former was greatly superior the difference in the effect? Evidently the is unopposed during that time, the force ac- to those of the latter, and hence the superiority relative velocity. With a high velocity, the cumulates and becomes momentum, and at the of their penetrating power, while the greater effect is more or less about the part struck, end of the time t a certain velocity v is gene- range of the latter was attributable to the producing bruising or penetration. With a rated in the body, and the relation of the two small surface they opposed to the resistance of low velocity, the effect is more or less sensibly forms of force is expressed by the formula the air. The bearing of this law is hardly felt over the whole body, thus producing pat=w v. If the body in its motion meets sufficiently understood, even by those who motion. In the one case it is confined to the with a resistance P, it is brought to rest again might be expected to be thoroughly acquainted immediate point of impact; in the uther, in a time T, during which its form is again with its existence. Thus, in works with con- it is distributed throughout the whole mass. changed to one similar to its first, and the re-siderable pretensions to science, crude and Let us, therefore, consider the value of this lation of the three forms is expressed by the erroneous explanations of familiar physical velocity in producing one or the other of these formala pot=wv=Pg T.

phenomena often appear, and such errors have different effects. It will readily be admitted Now in speaking of these different forms of generally arisen from a want of perception of that no effect whatever can take place without force, we should term the first and last statical the bearing of this law. For instance, most some expense of time, and it is evident that force and the other dynamical force. But in people are well acquainted with the fact that time is consumol, even during the comparamaking use of these terms we must not forget If a person with a hammer, weighing (say) tively momentary resistance offered by a that the force itself is the same, and that the 216., were to strike another on the chest, material like iron, to compression, or penetradifferent effects produced depend on the differ- giving the hammer a velocity of 20ft. per tion by a shot. Now we know that two perent nature of the resistance opposed to it. It second, the effect produced would probably fectly elastic balls of different weights, but would, indeed, be more truly correct if we used be to crush the chest of the person. But if an with the same vis viva, and therefore different, the above terms to distinguish the different anvil weighing 40lb. were first placed on his veiocities, upon striking a wall

, will likewise effects produced by the force and not the differ- chest

, and the force transmitted through the rebound with different velocities, the one with ent forms of the force itself. We thus see that anvil by striking it and not the chest with the the higher velocity rebounding also with a force takes the dynamic form when unopposed hammen, not the slightest injury would follow. higher velocity than the other. We may, by other force, or that the dynamic form is Doubtless one cause of the small comparative therefore, reasonably assign to the time during produced by statical force or pressure acting effect is due to the greater resistance opposed impact, or that between the stroke and recoil

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a shorter duration in the former case than in penetrating a body whose resistance is uni- pulled upon pull again upon those surroundthe latter. Or, take the case of two shot form, and that this resistance only destroys ing them, and so on. In this manner will the penetrating an iron plate under similar cir. 1

strain be transmitted throughout the body, cumstances. The one with the higher velocity -th of the projectile's vis viva.

tending to separate the contiguous particles will pass through and continue its flight with

from each other. But this tendency will not

Then if w v8 = vis viva of the projectile, greater velocity than the other. The resist

be felt by the particles at one part of the plate ance of the plate will therefore act against it

p= resistance of body,

so long as at another, for time is required for a shorter period than against the other,

8= space through which the for the force to travel, and a state of tension, and the duration of such period will be in

resistance acts,

will not be produced between the particles versely proportionate to the velocity. This

more remote as soon as between those that may be shown to be the case as follows:-Let

Pgs =

are nearer the point of impact. Since, then, all us suppose that the resistance of the plate just

strain ceases directly the shot has expended its destroys the momentum of each of the shot,

=w V?, where V=the velo- will

not be so long in a state of tension as those

force, it follows that the particles more remoto and that the vis viva of one equals that of the other.

city of the projectile after penetration. that are nearer the point of impact. Now, Let w = weight of one shot, v its velo

force will travel at an uniform rate in a homocity,


geneous material. Therefore, the length of w;= weight of other shot, v, its velo

time that the tension will exist between any city,

particular particles will be inversely proporThen pgt= retarding effect of the plate on

tionate to their distance from the point one shot,

ofimpact. The resistance of the body being considered pgt;=retarding effect of the plate on uniform, we may conceive the space through particles on the surface of a plate struck by a

Let A, B, C, be any three infinitely small other shot,

which that resistance acts to be divided into and pgt=wv,

a number of indefinitely small spaces, each of pgt;= WINGS

which will destroy an equal degree of the protit,::wv: 10,0,.

jectile's velocity, so that the velocity will If we divide w v by w o2 and w, o, by w, 0,2 this decrease regularly from the first to the last proportion will not be altered, because w v2 instant of penetration, and the mean of the 100?

striking and remaining velocities will thus be

the average velocity of penetration ; also the
w v2 ' W.0?

time of its passage being inversely propor

tionate to the average velocity, and directly
1 1

as the square root of the space.

1 vt v Again, supposing that the resistance of the

shot, contiguous to each other, but at different

t plate considered uniform acted against one


distances from the point of impact D. shot through a greater space than against the

The effect of the force of the shot as we other. For instance, two perfectly similar

V 2

have explained will be to produce a state of shot travelling with equal velocity might t =

1 tension between B and C and between A and

V strike different plates both of the same thick


B. It will be evident, however, that the force ness and tenacity but with different degrees of

tending to separate B from A is dependent on ductility, so that the fibres of the piece torn

putting 1 + 1.

the degree of tension between B and C. Now out by one shot would extend and draw out

from this strain between the particles, exten. more before it was separated from the parts of

sion is produced, and as this extension inthe plate surrounding it than that torn out by


creases so also does the resistance to further the other. The time in that case will be found


extension. The tension, therefore, between A to vary as the square roots of the spaces.

and B and between B and C during the = uniform resistance opposed by Now if x=1, then A= 1 and t

action of the shot is increasing. It is, howeither plate,

ever, always greater between B and C than t = the time of its action against one

If w is indefinitely small, A = 2 and t= between A and B in an infinitely small degree, shot, 80 that when the vis viva is much has acted on B and C than upon A and B.

dependent on the longer time that the strain s = the space through which it acts against the same shot, and t, and the time and space respectively through which the greater than the resistance of the body, the Now the tension between B and C is the force

time approaches to one half what it would be acting on A and B, and the tension between resistance of the other plate acts against the when the vis viva exactly equalled the resist- A and B is the resistance. Let, then, P = the other shot. We see also that when 2 is a proper force and W the resistance.

P Let 20 =

Then the weight of each of the shot,

fraction, i.e., when the vis viva is insufficient the velocity destroyed by the first to effect the penetration, the expression the accelerating force by which B is moved plate, 2 1

from A. ♡= the velocity destroyed by the becomes impossible, . А

1 P second plate. Then If we agitate one end of a long wire fence,

The difference between the value of P and
we may watch the motion travel to the other
extremity, and we can count the number of

P 9 8, = wv,?

seconds which it took to reach that end. W being indefinitely small,

Again, we can distinctly mark the gradual ex- sidered equal to unity; therefore, gizo gt, V tension of the circling ripples produced by and } g being constant, we see that the space

dropping a stone into still water. In both (s) varies as the square of the time (t), i.e., the P

these cases, therefore, motion, the effect of degree of extension between A and B is pro98

9 $i = ♡

force, requires time for its distribution; sound, portionate to the square of the time that the

also, is nothing else but vibratory motion im- strain lasts.
9 $

parted to the atmosphere or other medium, If we take the resistance to the extension to

and it is well known thatits velocity can easily vary with the extension, which it approxi, р.

be measured. Thus in all bodies, solid, liquid, mately does in most bodies, then it also will gs,

and aëriform, time is required for the trans- vary as the square of the time. Hence the

mission of force. This being so, we may con- work done on any particular particle, being V

ceive the case of a force acting against a body proportionate to the resistance overcome, for so short a period that the whole of its multiplied by the space through which it is

effect has not time to be distributed throughout overcome, it will vary as txt, or as the t:t:: Vs: V that body.

fourth power of the time. But the time that Therefore, the time taken by similar projec

Thus, take the case of a shot striking an iron the strain acts on any particular particle is intiles moving with different velocities to pene- plate. It tends to tear away a piece of iron versely proportionate to its distance from the trate different plates or other bodies whose of about the same diameter as itself from the point of impact. Therefore the work done on resistance is constant but acting through

remainder of the plate. This piece may, or any particular point on the surface of the plate different spaces, will be proportionate to the may not be torn away as the case may be, but will be inversely proportionate to the fourth square roots of those spaces and inversely pro- the action of the shot continues, the particles pact.

the tendency is just the same, and as long as power of its distance from the point of importionate to the velocities, i.e., it will vary as

on the circumference of the piece of plate and Now, if we conceive cones to be placed on Vo

those immediately_surrounding it are in a the surface of a plate struck by a shot, their

state of tension. The latter also pull upon apices directly over the point of impact, their Lastly, let us suppose the case of a projectile those surrounding them, and the particles thus depth at any point being inversely propor

Let P

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