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tionate to the fourth power of its distance from recently come under our notice. It suffices the tubes. Mr. Chalmers enters carefully into the point of impact-then, the manner in which for our present purpose to name one, and this, the details of the scheme, his pamphlet being the work done on the plate is distributed may not for the purpose of holding it up to ridi- illustrated by plans, elevations, and sections of be quickly and easily seen, for the height of cule--for we have faith in it—but with the the work, as well as by a chart of soundings. such cones above the surface of the plate at view of showing that it is no new project, al. The operations of practical construction are any particular point will represent the amount though proposed in new quarters. Mr. Hawk- also carefully discussed, and the perfect feasi

shaw wants to immortalise his name in ability of the project most clearly demontunnel under the English Channel, as Brunel strated. We have already said that there were did his in one under the Thames. Mr. Hawk- several propositions for the purpose of effecting shaw's well-known engineering skill and direct and unbroken communication between scientisic knowledge are well equal to the England and the continent. Each of these of task, and he is already feeling his way by a course possesses some distinctive feature of its geological investigation of the soil on either owu, although they may be divided into three shore of the Channel. Of course every credit general classes, viz., tunnels beneath the bed of is due to Mr. Hawkshaw for the conception the Channel, subwaysthrough the Channel along of so vast a project as the placing of the two the bottom, and bridges over the Channel. countries in direct communication by a sub- Now of these three the second appears most marine road, but at the same time it is as well reasonable, and this, with a properly arranged for the public to know that it is no new system of submerged tubes, certainly possesses scheme. On the contrary, it is one upon many advantages over the other. The Waterloo

which much time, labour, and patent thought and Whitehall Railway affords a practical exof work done at that point relatively to that have been expended by several individuals, ample of the system, and will doubtless be redone at other points. Again, if the diameters and among others by Mr. James Chalmers, peated elsewhere. Its success of which we of the bases of these cones are made inversely with whose name and admirable improve. cannot doubt—will afford a strong reason for proportionate to the time of the shot's action ments in armour-plating our readers are all adopting a similar means of tubular commuwhile their cubic contents remain the same, familiar, although that gentleman's scheme nication through the Channel, and we trust then the relative manner in which the work differs considerably from Mr. Hawkshaw's in that it may aid in promoting Mr. Chalmers's done on the plate is distributed when struck its details. The “Channel Railway" is the interests in the Channel Railway, in which by shot of equal vis viva, but whose times title of a small work embodying Mr. Chal- cause he has laboured so long and so well. of action are different, will be correctly mérs's views upon and propositions for such We last year recorded the unprecedented shown.

an undertaking, and which appeared some feat of a 1,000 miles voyage, performed in a Let A B C and E F G be sections of two few years since. A second edition* has just light canoe—the “Rob Roy,” manned by Mr. such cones equal in cubic content, and let A B reached us, and we gladly take the opportu. J. Macgreggor. Later on, we described and and E F, the diameters op their bases, be to nity of placing Mr. Chalmers's plan before our engraved the new "Rob Roy," which was to one another as t:t, respectively,

Now it readers, especially at a time like the present, take her gallant captain over new fields-or would not be difficult to prove that these cones when projects for similar purposes are afloat. rather waters—of delight. The cruise has obey a similar law to that which governs cones Mr. Chalmers provides in his plan for an un- been accomplished, and we once more welcome whose sections are bounded by straight lines- broken double line connecting the railways of the hardy adventurer home to tell his tales of viz., that their volumes vary as their height England and France by easy gradients, perils by land and sea in the interesting narraand as the area of the bases. The area of capable of carrying all ordinary trains at the tive* now before us.

The present cruise was their bases also we know varies as the squares usual speed on the best roads, and of ensuring taken through Norway, Sweden, Denmark, of their diameters.

perfect safety and comfort. By its means the Schleswig Holstein, the North Sea and the BalHence

railway companies of England and France tic. Those who have read the history of the pre

would be able to A B' XOD=EF XGD

through trains, vious voyage need not fear to find anything OD : GD::EF : A B2

thus obviating any change of either carriage approaching to repetition in this one. New and EF:AB::t:t

or locomotive. It offers no obstruction to the scenes, new peoples, new manners and customs, CD :GD::12: t2

navigation of the Channel, and Mr. Chalmers and of course new adventures, meet us at

computes the work might be completed in every step, and render the book equally as Therefore the height of these cones varies in three years at a cost of twelve millions of interesting as its predecessor.

Instead of versely as the squares of the times of the shot's money.

shooting rapids, wading ahallows, discussing action. But these heights are measures of the Since the project was first placed before the Swiss glaciers, German castles, and French relative amounts of work done at the point of public the inventor has made some judicious omelettes, the author now deals with salt impact. Hence, the work done at the point of alterations, modifying here and there in ac- water, voyages over inland seas, gropes amid impact by shot of equal vis viva, but different cordance with the most recent engineering foggy islands, and fishes and cooks under times of action, varies inversely as the squares practice. The principal feature of the work is lonely rocks. The scenes and circunstances of those tim98. Now the work done at the now two strong iron tubes, cased with timber are all changed, new ideas are developed, and point of impact is the measure of the resist- and lined with brick, each containing a single new pleasures awakened. The author has ance that the projectile can overcome at that line of railway and reaching from shore to had a delightful trip and imparts much of his point, that is to say, of its penetrating power. shore on the bottom of the Channel. We pleasure to the reader, for one cannot follow We thus perceive that the vis viva of a pro- know that the displacement and weight of him through his adventures without catching jectile is not a correct measure by itself of its these tubes can be so nearly balanced that the enthusiasm of the narrator and heartily penetrating power; for that a certain propor. both in submerging and when in position they wishing to paddle one's own canoe under such tion of it will be distributed throughout the will not be subjected to any injurious lateral exclusively jolly circumstances. Practically body, thus producing no effect at the point of strains. impact. The proportion that does take effect when the rise and fall of the tide have silted will probably lie in the fact that after long

The tubes will be banked over, and the value of the voyage to most of our readers at the point of impact, we have shown to vary up the embankment it will have the appeare study, added to the experience of the previous inversely as the square of the time. Hence, ance of a ridge extending from shore to shore, voyage, Mr. Macgreggor has succeeded in in comparing the penetrating power of dif- about 150ft. wide at the base, 40ft. high, and designing a canoe which has survived num eferent projectiles, the time of their action must from 40ft. to 120ft. below the level of low rous accidents both by flood and field, and is be taken into consideration, and the formula tide. The tubes would be circular in form, now as sound as before the cruise was comexpressing their relative penetrative power and made of iron plates, double riveted and menced-fair wear and tear alone excepted, 1

V. caulked as in high-pressure steam boilers, and and notwithstanding some strange incidents will be w vi i and since t varies as of the same thickness as the skin-plates of by no means conducive to the safety of either

the "Warrior.” The tubes would be vessel or crew. We congratulate Mr. Macthe forinula will be

strengthened by outer iron girder frames, greggor as well on his practical skill as a ship

by which it appears to the outer flanges of which the timber builder as on his success as a navigator. May that the penetrating power of projectiles casing would be attached by bolts, the spaces the “Rob Roy' and her adventurous captain varies according to the fourth power of their between the timber casing and the tube proper make many a cruise together yet! velocities and not according to the squares of being filled in with concrete. Three venti- The setting-out of wheel gearing on paper those velocities as heretofore supposed.

lators would be built up, one mid-channel, has puzzled many a young head which has A. C. R. E.

and one about a mile from either shore. The had to solve the problem of the transmission ventilator in mid-channel will be a circular of motive power by this means. The want of

mass of iron and stone 100ft. in diameter, and a simple treatise upon this important subject NOTICES OF BOOKS.

210ft. in height, 168ft. of which will be below has often been felt by those preparing for the

the water-line. The other ventilators would workshop. This want is now supplied in a A T a time like the present, when there is be ordinary air-shafts near the ends of the little work by Mr.J. E. Phillips, of Spittlegate,

nothing stirring but stagnation in en shore embankments, which would be run out, Grantham, on “ The Art of Wheel Gearing.' gineering circles, there are sure to be proposi- breakwater fashion, about a mile irom either It will be found to be a complete guide for the tions cropping up on every side for effecting shore, to a depth sufficient for navigation over all sorts of objects possible and impossible. It

* “ TbeRob Roy' on the Baltic. A Canoe Cruise." would be idle to stay now to catalogue all the

* “ Tbe Channel Railway connecting England and By J. MACGREGGOR, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge.

By JAMES CHALMERS. Second Edition. Lo London: Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, Ludgate-hill. projects, reasonable or fanciful, which have don : E. and F. N. Spon, 16, Backlersbury. 1887.

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construction of wheels and the correct forma- that they cannot be distinguished, except with gave on authority the composition of the Ber tion of their teeth. It cannot fail to prove of a well-constructed instrument and high powers lin ware 80 celebrated among chemista, considerable use to the millwright and ma- | (a fin. objective will do for most), and this has apothecaries, and cooks for its power of chinist as well as to the student, as, besides the led to the employment of some of these as test- withstanding the action of heat, acids, and clear and intelligible directions given in the objects—that is to say, that if one glass will alkalies. The paste, it seems, is composed of letter press, there is added a lithographed sheet define the markings better than another it is 45 parts kaolin, 37.5 parts alumina, and of drawings, showing the manner of construct- considered more fit for scientific purposes ; 16.5 parts feldspar. The glaze is composed ing toothed wheels and of finding the pitch and so great is the difference between the size of 42 parts sand, 33 parts kaolin, 13 parts line of a wheel of any number of teeth. “The and distance apart of the markings, that some unburnt gypsum, and 12 parts of broken Engineer's, Architect's, and Contractor's Poc- may be used as tests for the low powers, while unglazed fired paste as above. ket Book for 1867" (Lockwood and Co.)—for- others can only be used for the highest. The very cold weather recently experienced merly well known as Weales'-comes out Many of these beautiful forms can be found may have indced some readers to speculate with additional strength this year. Besides living in the Thames and other rivers on our what would happen to beer if it became frozen. the usual amount of useful information we own coasts. In the months of April, May, The experiments of C. Lermer show that have articles on the successfnl laying of the September, October, and November, they freezing it so far as to obtain a crust of ice Atlantic cable, and on the detection of faults will be found in the greatest abundance and on the surface is a ready way of converting in submarine cables, the general information variety; the salt marshes on the banks of small beer into strong ale. Lermer exposed being brought down to the present date. The most of the rivers will also well repay the beer so as to get a thick crust of ice, through high and useful character of this book recom- trouble of searching for them.”

which he bored holes and withdrev the fluid mends it to the pocket of everyone in any Almanacs representing various class in- remaining beneath. The following shows the way, engaged in engineering pursuits. “The terests have been finding their way to us of composition of the unfrozen beer, and the fluid Builder's and Contractor's Price-book for late. The “ Post Magazine Almanac and under the crust of ice :1867" (Lockwood) contains the latest prices Insurance Directory,” which is in the twenty

Before for work in all branches of the building trade, seventh year of its publication, is one of these,

Freezing. Freezing, the items being numbered for easy reference. and which, besides the ordinary run of Specific gravity

1.0243 1.0489 In addition to this there is an appendix con- almanac information, has a great deal of Extractive matter per. cent. 5.68 15.21 taining tables, notes, and memoranda, ar- matter of interest to those connected with



3.5 9.43 ranged to afford detailed information commonly insurance companies. The “ Inventor's These results are just what would be exrequired in preparing estimates. The recent Almanac" is one of special interest to most of pected. It may be worth mentioning that the changes which have taken place in the rate of our readers, being replete with information, extractive matter when burnt gave 3.27 per wages and in the value of materials are noted, collected and compressed within the smallest cent. of ash, which was almost entirely comand the lists of prices have been revised and possible compass. 'It gives us particulars of posed of phosphoric acid and potash. brougbt into concordance with the circum- the Patent Office, and of the principal institu- For the manufacture of pure acetic acid and stances of the present time. The revision of tions connected with science and invention. acetates from pyroligneous acid, Fichter, of the work has been most efficiently performed From the statistics of invention there given, Berlin, recommends the combination of the by Mr. G. R. Burnell, who has omitted no- it appears that during the past year no less crude acid with baryta instead of lime or thing from the work that could tend to render than 223 patents have been taken out for soda. Readers acquainted with the manufacit valuable to the builder or the contractor. matters relating to steam engines and boilers, fure know that the cheapest and simplest way Dr. Colenso has a name for mathematics as &c.; 202 relating to metals and mining; and of getting rid of the empyreumatic matters well as for theology, but, however much the 105' relating to pumps and similar contriv- formed in the distillation of wood is the carright reverend prelate may be taken to task ances; 447 relating to fibrous materials, bonisation of them; and the great object is to upon doctrinal points, there can be no doubt besides of course an immense number relating effect this without destroying acetic acid

. of his soundness in matters mathematical. to general matters. The “ Railway, Banking, When the crude acid is combined with lime We therefore gladly welcome the addition to Mining, Insurance, and Commercial Alma- or soda a considerable loss of acetic acid is our school literature of Colenso's Arithmetic nac," edited by Mr. W. Page Smith, and pub-experienced in the roasting; but this, our (Longmans), which the Bishop has designed lished at the Railway Record office, touches author states, is not the case when baryta is and arranged for the use of elementary schools. upon the subjects named in its title. It con- employed. He accordingly adds finely ground The late master of Trinity observed that, " as tains reviews of the material interests of the native carbonate of baryta (Witherite) to the the basis of all real progress in mathematics, United Kingdon, and includes some capital acid until but little effervescence is produced, boys ought to acquire a good knowledge of notices of coal, iron, and other metals, cotton, and the liquid is but slightly acid, and then arithmetic, and a habit of performing the com- &c. It is of wide public interest, touching completely saturates with sulphide of barium mon operations of arithmetic, and of applying various classes of the community and should or caustic' baryta. He now allows the soluthe rules in a correct and intelligent manner.' be in the hands of all who seek for authentic tion to deposit, then runs off the clear liquor Dr. Colenso's Arithmetic offers the greatest information upon a variety of important sub- and evaporates. The drained crystals are facilities for the attainment of this desirable jects affecting the welfare of our country. We roasted in cast-iron dishes 4in. deep, and end; it begins from the very simplest steps of reserve for an extended notice the record of 3ft. or 4ft. square. In the roasting the crystals the science, and progresses in the order of the Dublin International Exhibition of 1865. fall to a fine powder, which is removed to anodifficulty, the familiar style of examples being

ther dish, where it is well stirred until well calculated to impress the rules upon the

cold. To prevent any loss of this fine learner's mind. Mr. Watts's “Dictionary of Chemistry" NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DIS- dust, about 2 percent. of acetate of

the mass before (Longmans) progresses steadily towards com


roasting. pletion. We have now before us Part 37,

Lastly, the roasted mass is

tion yields pure white acetate of baryta, from which includes articles from “Silica” to Volatility of some Substances at High Tem- which pure acetic acid and acetates may be “ Sodium.” The silicates form the subject of

peratures Berlin Porcelain Results of easily obtained. This process we have no a series of articles possessing much interest,

Freezing Beer Manufacture of Acetic doubt would be a very useful one if native carwhilst the metal silver is exhaustively treated.

Acid -- Relative Bleaching Power of the bonate of baryta could be had sufficiently The article on the assay of silver is full of Chlorides of Lime and MagnesiaMethods cheap: information, engravings being given of the of Whitening Linen.

Bolley, one of the best technological chemists various apparatus required or used both in the R. ELSNER has published an interesting of the day, has made an examination of the wet and in the dry processes. Soap forms the paper on the volatility of some sub- relative bleaching powers of the hypochlorites subject of another article, which will be found stances at an intense white heat. The author's of lime and magnesia. The latter he finds to interesting not only to the chemist but to many experiments were made in the enamelling fur- bleach much quicker than the former. Hypoothers engaged in our manufactures.

." The nace at some porcelain works, and at a tem- chlorite of magnesia has another special adPopular Science Review" (Hardwicke) for this perature obtainable in such a furnace he found vantage in the case of straw. Chloride (hypomonth contains a particularly interesting that carbon was sensibly volatilised. Test chlorite) of lime, the author states, first colours article on the "Geology of Sinai,” by the Rev. specimens of pure silver and gold were com- the straw brown, and then bleaches it

, but E. W. Holland, besides a description of the pletely volatilised. Platinum appears to have slowly. The magnesia compound, on tho process of photomicrography, and of the ap- resisted the temperature, but platinum black contrary, does not give the brown colour, and paratus used in photographing microscopio ob- was melted into small buttons. Some metallic bleaches straw very quickly. He explains the jects. This article is by Mr. E. T. Wilson, oxides, which have been supposed to resist the difference in the action by showing that masa tion to his directions, anyone might

succeed in of cobalt and copper, green oxide of chro- consequently parts with the chlorine much the art of photomicrography, * Hardwicke's mium, red oxide of 'iron, and the oxide of quicker. He proved this by exposing soluScience Gossip" gives naturalists many a good iridium-Elsner found to volatilise. The tions of the two to the air, by which he found hint, and affords information to the general author experimented in the same furnace on that in a given time the magnesia lost much public upon abstruse points of science, in a many of the difficultly fusible earthy minerals, more chlorine than the lime. light and taking way. In an article upon and succeeded in running most of them into a From bleaching, we may naturally pass to Diatoms the author says:-“A diatom is slag or glass. We may return to these reo washing. We read'in

“ Cosmos” that the Dutch characterised by having a flinty case or shell, sults on a future occasion.

laundresses, so celebrated for the whiteness of beautifully marked with lines or rows of dots; Writing of porcelain reminds us that a theit linen, soften the water they use with but these are often so fine and close together' recent number of Dingler's Polytechnic Journal borax instead of soda, They employ, it is said


a good-sized pinch, perhaps a tea-spoonful, to tended to fill these with blinds of a decorative

ANCHORS AND PIGS. six gallons of boiling water, and by this quan- character, and we hear that a window has been

N Thursday week laat Mr. Seely, M.P., tity save half their soap. The writer goes on to offered to each of the most important corpora.

bhi at say that borax and water makes a very good civic companies, and railway companies, to mentioned some matters of interest to the iron drink for hot weather, and that it may be em: enable blinds illustrating

the manufactures, '&o., trade. He said, "I pointed opt that for some ployed to soften the water used in making tea; peculiar to the town, or decorated with designa cause or other I cannot tell what

a particular but we emphatically recommend our readers heraldic or otherwise, to be erected.

The firm, Brown, Lennox, and Co., had since the not to try the experiment.

British Executive will fill several windows with year 1842 sapplied the Government with anobors, A stranger way of whitening linen is given blinds illustrating the early history of inventions, and that the cost of those anchors during that us by the Hamburg Gewerbeblatt. Ozone is a which will form an interesting series. Stephen period had been about £170,000 more than the powerful bleaching

agent, and is rapidly formed son's “Rocket," Braithwaite's “ Novelty,” market price. I charged this upon the Govern. when turpentine is exposed to the air. The Hackworth's “ Sanspareil,” Symington's steam ment in the session before last, and, as a matter writer accordingly, and apparently as the re- paddle engine, Watt's San and Planet engine, of course, one of the officials—I think it was

Lord Clarenco Pagot, now gone to the Mediter. sult of experiment, recommends that a little and Arkwright's loom furnish subjects. turpentine should be added to the last rinsing Among the many samples of ingenuity turned ranean as admiral of the floet-with his usual water which, when the clothes are dried, effects out by the War Department for the Exhibition audacity, said, 'Yen, but we must take care of a tolerably energetic bleaching. To get the is a device in iron cat by the circular or riband the lives of our seamen; we cannot have bad

We want them to have the very turpentine to mix with the water, he mixes one of iron one inch thick, are all correotly formed, best anchors possible. But it so happened that part of the oil of turpentine with three parts of and are of perfect uniformity throughout. The the anchors which were supplied to the nary strong spirit, and adds a tablespoonful of this saw, it appears, is the invention of M. Perrin, by Brown, Lennox, and Co., are ancbors of a mixture to a pail of water. No trace of smell and was exposed at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, particular pattern, which was condemned by a of the turpentine is left, it is said, when the where it was purchased by Colonel Talloh, then committee appointed by the Admiralty, I think clothes are dried in the open air, if recently Superintendent of the Royal Carriage Depart in the year. 1862, as being the worst of seven rectified oil is employed. Turpentine, how- ment at Woolwich. Until very recently it has anchors

which were submitted to the committee. ever, will not dissolve in spirit on simple ad- been used solely for the purposes for which it That committee, as far as I remember, was com. mixture : the two require to be distilled to was designed—outting and carving diffioult and posed of three admirals, Mr. Lindsay, the great gether, when perhaps they may be used as irregular curves in wood, &o. The tedious and shipowner, M.P. for Sunderland, and the chair. stated above. If this method of bleaching and chisel, being the only method hitherto used three members of Lloyd's committee. Ifurther

laborious hand process, by means of the punch man of some large shipowning company, and of linen is really successful, the many disadvan- in carving the angle-plates necessary in the con. pointed ont that there was some iron ballast, tages which result from the frequent appli-struction of the wrought-iron gan carriages, led familiarly called pigs. I think it is probable cation of the chlorides of lime and soda to linen to the attempt by Colonel Clerk to test the ap ment meets again. I ventured to say that I would be avoided.

plication of the circular saw for that purpose,
and the result has proved highly successful. The believed those pigs were worth £150,000 or

device above-named consists of the words, £160,000, and that they were employed for par. BRITISH MACHINERY AT THE PARIS “Royal Carriage Department, 1867," which are poses in many cases useless. I am speaking to EXHIBITION.

surmounted with a crown and the letters men who have some practical knowledge of

" W. D.” We may add that the whole of the the matter, and who will know whether I was AT

T the present moment there is an enormous models of vessels of war belonging to the British right. I instanoed the case of the smithies be sent

on its way, to the Paris Exhibition. This yard for the Exřibition, have been completed and I said I was told that it was a blander to metal has assumed the fair proportions and and forwarded to their destination.

put down iron for the floors of smithion ; that it finished condition of machinery. Amongst that

was too hot in summer and too cold in winterportion about to take its way across the Chan.

and that if the Admiralty offered to put down nel, are some excellent examples of machines

their pigs in the Stamford smithies for nothing for working in wood, which we inspected yester


We would not have them. At a most moderate ПМНЕ Co., King's-road, Chelsea. The firm have already siphons would answer their intended par. in this atrocious manner.

de the owner and the end

If they know its 8 high name for this class of machines, and pose was on Thursday fally solved. Since their value really it is criminal; if they did not know those we then saw must add still further to first being used in 1862, says the Times, there it-why, they are tools. Í am told that besides their renown, for more perfect specimens of has existed no doubt in the minds of those in the 35,000 tons stated in the return they gave work of their kind could not be met with. The terested in the engineering profession, and also me, there is a great quantity of these pigs to "General Joiner" is a most useful machine in those in the drainage of the greater part of East be found in the Bermudas, and other parts of a joiner's shop, doing almost all the different Anglia, that the scheme had been most success the world, in ships' bottoms in ordinary, and kinds of work usually done there by hand. It fal, with one exception, and this was that since the United Service Gazette

, some three or four does sawing, planing, and thicknessing, mortis- the above date they had never before been tested weeks ago, stated that they believed the quan: ing, single

or double tenoning, cross-cutting, after the effects of a severe long frost, followed tity would be nearly double. If so, there would and squaring up, grooving, tongueing, rab- by a rapid thaw, such as happened on Toursday. be about 60,000 or 70,000 tons, the value of betting, moalding, and beading, chamtering, It was exactly 3 o'clock p.m. before the tide on which would be something like £300,000, onwedgo-cutting, boring, and sundry other opera- the sea-side had fallen sufficiently to allow of tailing a loss of £9,000 a year, at only 8 per tions. By it a man and a boy are said to do their being worked, and consequently before that cent. interest, the rate at which the Govern, the work of fifteen men. It is self-contained, time a most rapid thaw had taken place, which, ment can borrow money. If you add to that and the most compact and finished machine of with the rain that fell in the neighbourhood on the £6,000 a year they have given to Brown, its kind we have seen.

Another machine in the previous evening, had loosened large masses Lennox, and Co., you have £15,000 a year tended for the Exhibition is Messrs. Worssam's of ice. At the time mentioned the height of the absolutely wasted in two items; and worso universal moulding, shaping, and recessing ma. water or the sea-side was 3ft. 3in., that on the than wasted, because it is a premium to negli chine, which is capable of application to a variety Fen-side being 3ft. 2in. This small difference in gence and extravagance. Well, towards the of purposes. It is certainly one of the most the two levels did not at first give the 16 siphons close of the session, I brought these matters valuable labour-saving machines ever invented much room for play, but after a short time the under the consideration of the House, and, of for joiner's work. Amongst the many parposes difference was increased to about a foot, when course, some of my statements have been disfor which it is adapted

we may mention, catting they soon showed their power. Mr. George Car. pated. The matter cannot rest here. circular or twisted mouldings of any form; michael

, the resident superintendent of the sisticking circular and straight sash bars; moula? phong, had taken extra precautions in case of ing, rebating and grooving straight or circular any accident from the ice, as might be seen Bash frames

, sinking
recesses of any form to a by lighters being placed at St. Mary's Bridge

ABSORPTION OF GAS BY COPPER. pattern, &o., &c. The advantage of this tool and other places, and about half a dozen men over any other upright cutter machine is, that were employed in breaking the ice into small


CARON recently sent in a paper to the the work can pass under the tool, and thus it pieces as it approached the iron grating pro- gas during the operation of fining oopper. His can work in the centre of a board, whilst other tecting the entrance to the siphons, but these first experiments were effected on the reducing machines can only work on the edges. In ad. were only similar to those adopted near other gases, amongst which hydrogen stands foremost. dition to the foregoing we also observed a capi- ordinary sluices in the neighbourhood, and were A bar of good copper, weighing from 150 grammos tal planing and trying-up machine. In this, how. hardly necessary when it is considered that to 200 grammes, and put into a porcelain cru. over warped or twisted, a piece of wood may whatever passes through the iron grating, or cible introduced into a tube of the same ma. be when it enters, it leaves the machine per rather railing, could go through the siphons terial, was raised to a somewhat higher tem. fectly true, and with a good planed face, ready themselves. The ice in passing through be. perature than that of the fusion of copper, while for glueing up. There is an arrangement by came as it were minced into smaller pieces, a current of pure hydrogen was driven through. means of which the rate of advance of the being carried through at the rate of about 50ft. At the end of the tube by which the gas made travelling bed can be varied at pleasure, whilst per second, the diameter of the siphons being its exit, a glass balloon with two wide tubulatures the machine is actually cutting. We further had 2ft

. bin., and the working gange showing 15fin. was placed, to enable the observer to judge of the opportunity of examining samples of work of meroury. It should be stated that the wind what was going on within the apparatas. So from each of these machines, which afforded a at the time was southerly, thus blowing and long as the metal remained in its solid state true index whereby to judge of their merits, forcing the masses of ice upon the works. Bat nothing occurred; but the moment it began to which are of a high standard, and which, we notwithstanding this everything passed over satis. melt, numerous bubbles rose on its surface, and hope will be recognised as they deserve in the factorily as usual, the ice causing not the slightest a considerable quantity of steam was condensed forthcoming Paris Exhibition.

derangement in the working of the siphons, in the balloon. This M. Caron explains by supThe portion of the machinery gallery which and there can be no longer any doubt that these posing that even the

best oopper of the shops has been assigned to Great Britain contains siphons will, for many ages to come, remain contains

a little oxide, and that during its fusion eighty large clerostory windows. It is in monuments of John Hawksbaw's skill.

oxygen is expelled, and, finding the bydrogen at


keys. For this reason, the double-beaded rail, copied from English precedent, has enjoyed little favour in Germany, and where adopted, is gra. dually superseded by the more general practice of flat-bottomed rails, with or without bed plates on the sleepers.

The failure of Barlow's permanent way (perhaps a great deal owing to the use of inferior material) unfortunately discouraged railway directors from pursuing or sanctionin ; experiments in the right direction, and jeopardising dividends. While, therefore, different scientific papers published a number of schemes for the construction of iron permanent was, some patented, others given away pro bono publico, and all of them eagerly discussed at the meet. ings of practical engineers, the first step to realise a project was only made, at the end of the year 1863, by putting in hand the different systeins herewith illustrated, some of which came into actual use in the beginning of 1864, others in 1865.

The theory which guided these constructions may be summed up as follows:- The nearest approach to perfection in a permanent way is to present to a moving load a sufficient, and upmovable, continuous, and even resistance, as the only means of obviating the oscillation and thumping of fast trains. Although the weight and height of the rails have been steadily in. creased in order to spread the rigidity of the line over a large number of cross sleepers, there remains in practice an unavoidable deflection of rail between the points of support. The bending down of the sleeper-end, taking place during the passage of the engine and the oscillation of the carriages or trucks, especially with old or soft wooden sleepers, sufficiently shows that the pressing load is not spread equally over the whole length of the sleeper, and is not evenly supported for the entire length of the wheel base, but that the chair, or point of support, receives a succession of blows, with the whole weight of the load resting on the axle. If, therefore, we could devise a longitudinal way, possessing sufficient rigidity to transmit the pressure of the load over a large bearing surface, we should avoid the wave-like motion occasioned by the

cross sleepers. This resistance to pressure can hand, combines with it to form water. After the tical fact, and has been made so by having been be obtained in a simple ratio, by increasing the operation, the apparatus having cooled down to well tested in various parts by ordinary work. flat base resting on the ballast, or more econo. the common temperature, the ingot of copper ing. The success which has attended it justifies mically, by increasing the height of the rail, was examined and found to contain numerous us in stating it to be the most perfect screen yet since the power to support grows in the square cavities in which hydrogen was imprisoned; introduced. Although a fixed screen it fulfils all ratio of the height. whence it may be concluded that copper in a the requirements of a screen shaken by ma- The boldest and simplest plan of iron permastate of fusion absorbs hydrogen.

chinery. The bars being serpentine the coals nent way under cousideration was that advised must of necessity pass over a repetition of aper- by Mr. Hartwich, engineer of the Rhenish tares, whereby the small or dust cannot possibly Railway, and laid down on the right bank of the

pass down with the coal, but is effectually Rhine, between Coblentz and Oberlahnstein, on W. POUPARD'S SERPENTINE COAL

screened therefrom.

Although exceedingly a perfect level, and also between Mechernich SCREEN.

simple, this screen is constructed on purely and Enskirchen, the latter an incline of 1 in 70, COALS OALS are now ordinarily screened by causing scientific principles, and we can well recommend and on a curve of 800 yards radius. The ballast

, them to slide down an inclined shoot comit to the public.

always an object of especial solicitude with posed of straight, longitndinal, or diagonal bars

Prussian engineers, is of broken flint, and laid or plates, placed side by side, with a space of

in a channel three feet broad at the top, shelving about 5-16in, between them,

But it has THE IRON PERMANENT WAY IN USE ON down to Zft., and 18ic. deep. The rails shown been found necessary to adopt supplementary


in section A (see fig. 1) ilin. high, weighing appliances or means to cause the smaller coals

115lb. per yard, with a flat bottom of 4in., are and dust to pass through between the bars, as By T. A. ROCHUSSEN, Esq., C.E.

placed immediately in contact with the ballast, the coals otherwise reach the bottom of the

THE system of making railways by levelling and sleepersor bed-plates are dispensed with. The shoot insufficiently_screened. point Mr. William Poupard, of Blackfriars-road, structure of wooden sleepers, cast-iron chairs, head, and also the clear way up outside the has just taken out letters patent for an invention topped with a wrought-iron rail, and held to- rails, are filled with fine gravel, tightly rammed wbich consists in the employment, instead of the gether by a wooden key, has, for a great num. in. ordinary straight bars, of bars which, while being ber of years appeared to German engineers to The rails are fished vertically and horizontally, fitted lengthwise of the screen or shoot, and be unworthy of an age in which the manufacture of as the rail of section B, 9in. high, which has forming continous openings in that section of good iron, and its composition into an efficient since been ordered to the extent of fifteen miles

, the screen of which they constitute a part, are so bearing system, are far better understood than on the line between Kempen and Kaltenkirchen, formed or sbaped that the whole of the coal, thirty years ago, when the importance of rail. and its adoption is likely to extend with the while sliding down the shoot, must necessarily ways as the principal arteries of our social and growth of Rhenish railways, to the exclusion of pass alternately over a part of such bars and commercial intercourse was only just fore the llin. rails, which were found unnecessarily over the space or opening between them, where- shadowed. While locomotives and rolling heavy and expensive. These rails are 9in. high, by the coal is sufficiently screened without the stock had in their construction and performance with flat bottom 5in. wide, weigbing aid of supplementary appliances or means. Mr. progressively represented the advance of prac. 351b. per yard; the head, down to lin. of the Poupard employs for the purpose of his in. tical science, and embodied the genius of the web, is formed of steel, the web of fine grain vention bars of serpentine, or zig-zag, or similar designer, the care of the builder, and the aptitude and the bottom of fibrous iron. The vertical form, which will produce the effect above de- of the worker in metal, to provide for all the fish-plates, 18in. long, have two rows of fishscribed. The accompanying engraving repre- requirements of traffic, it was felt in Germany, bolts for each rail-end, and to increase their sents a coal screen constructed with the ser. as well as elsewhere, that the time had arrived stiffness have a longitudinal rib, resting against pentine bars. cc is one section or portion of to apply the same intelligence to permanent the web of the

rail. The horizontal fish-plates

, the screen, composed of the bars a a, which rest way; and that it had become necessary, as much also 18in. long, are sin. wide, and their como at their ends (which are straight ) upon the ordi- as possible, to reduce the variety o%' material

, nection with the rail is established by means of nary supports g. The invention also applies and to avoid that most liable to perish, like a crump-plate, held between the nuts of the to screening o her materials ; for instance, wire- wooden sleepers, or cast-iron chairs,alike fish-bolt, and bearing upon the base of the rail

. work screens used for various substances may be destructive to the wood below and the wrought The use of this cramp is principally to allow # constructed with the wires fitted in the manner iron above ; and finally, to get rid of the crude greater width of fish-plate, and to protect it before explained in reference to the bars. Mr. contrivance of fixing rails by means of wooden against buckling up by the Poupard's serpentine coal screen is something

The rails are held to gange by lin. round bars more than a mere patented idea-it is a prac. * Read before the Society of Arts, 23rd Jan., 1867. placed 3ft. apart, the ends of which are pro.

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ressure of the rail.

vided with a screw.thread, nut, and washer at the head rail, head bolts, and their distance the maximum distance of the cross-bars, and each side of the web, so as to allow an easy apart being the same as in system No. 2, also whether a large number and their subadjustment of widening or narrowing the rail but the cross-bars, here placed only 3ft: apart, mersion in the ballast offer (as we have hitherto distance to the proper gauge. Alternately, the were made of flat bat 3in., X fin., ending in a found) a sufficient resistance to the supposed cross or gauge bars are put either 3in. from the top T section, which is riveted through the two arms tendency of the railway to move sideways, or of the head or 3in. from the bottom of the rail. of the rail-bearers. In order to prevent the whether it is advisable, for additional security, The whole weight of the system is 145 tons per squeezing together of the latter, a half-inch to adopt keel-fishes. The cost of the iron permile per single line of way; the contract price filet-plata is inserted between them. The fish, manent way, exclusive of ballast and laying all round being £13 158. per ton; or, exclusive ing of joints is effected as in system No. 2, and down, has been 36s. per yard, or, with laying of ballast and laying down, £1,985 per mile. the horizontal bearing surface is 274 square down, £3,200 per mile, as against 259. per yard, The engineer reports :-Since June, 1865, the inches per running foot of railway.

or £2,250 per mile for the ordinary construction double line from Coblenz to Oberlahnstein and On the wear of the railway, the engineer, Mr. with wooden sleepers. The weight of the three the Mechernich line have been worked with Scheffler, reports as follows :-"The two systems systems is–No. 2, per yard, 3541b.; No. 3, tender-engines weighing 374 tons; no alteration lie side by side in a straight line, half the dis. 2,2951b.; No. 4, 3001b. The Hoerder Works has taken place in the level of the way, and the tance being on a well-drained large gravel, supplied the material for systems Nos. 2 and 3 rails have nowhere worked into the ballast. the other half in fine gravel mixed with clay, at £13 5s. per ton, delivered at Brunswick ; bat The gauge has not in any instance been dig. very impermeable to the percolation of water. for system No. 4 stipulated an advance of 58. per turbed, the repairs of packing have been very Both lengths have been worked for more than ton, on account of the wider dimensions of the. trifling, and far less than on the line with cross two years, and are in excellent preservation, angle-bars, which necessitated the use of better sleepers. The whole length forms a continuous, continuing to bear a heavy express, passenger, iron. The building up and laying of the per. unmovable railway; and although there is a goods, and mineral traffic. The state of the rails manent way, after the labourers got used to the little bending at the fish-joints, this inconvenience has been uninterraptedly satisfactory, and they work, progressed rapidly; the cost of laying is imperceptible compared with the advantages have not required the same labour of keeping down was 10d. per yard, as against 7d. per yard of the whole system. The filling of the rail up which was necessary for the other portion for the old systəm. The ballast under the iron space with gravel provided a more efficient of the railway. This contrast was especially way is of the same depth as that under the security against sliding than the dogs and bolts remarkable in winter during a prolonged low, wooden sleepers, viz., 12in., and practice has in the wooden sleepers. The motion on the rail temperature. After the thaw in the spring of shown this to be sufficient. is perfectly free from oscillation and thumping ; 1865 only in the system No. 3, in those portions “The experience of two years has not yet the noise of the passing train has a deep rolling of the line where the ballast is unusually bad furnished conclusive data exactly to fix the cost sound, and, although some passengers, who are and clayey, a few instances of sinking occurred, of keeping up the line, but we have found 1. acquainted with the peculiarity of the con- but not to the same extent as on the line with That packing has been much less needed than struction, pretend that the line is hard, the cross wooden sleepers ; however, on the larger with the ordinary cross-sleepers, and the exdifference is not noticed by the majority of portion of system No. 3, and on the whole of penses under this head are merely nominal. 2. travellers. Whether the rigidity of these high system No. 2, no packing or adjusting of any The rails have not required any repairs; neither rails will be more detrimental to themselves kind has been necessary. This favourable result head-rail nor rail-bearers have been renewed or than the constant bending on cross sleepers, is, perhaps, to be ascribed to the great height altered ; and it is remarkable that the rail-ends time will have to show. If this disadvantage of the rail-bearers, wbich permit the bearing have suffered much less (owing to their uniform should manifest itself, it could be met by in- surface to lie deep in the ballast, and reduce the support) than on the cross-sleepers. The prin. creasing the elasticity of the springs; on the influence of frost on the base of the rail. The ciple of longitudinal construction is, in theory, the other hand, the rigid surface offers à saving of packing and lifting, when required, are an easy most correct, and is borne out by practice. The traction power and wear of wheels

, considering operatiou, and these constructions have shown even continuous bearing is of immense im. that with rails bending between sleepers every no instability—a gratifying fact, since eminent portance to the permanent way, as well as to wheel practically runs on an inclined plane. It engineering authorities, looking at the flat base the rolling stock, and gives a much easier motion may be urged that, if once the rail-heads should of the rail-bearers, predicted a shifting sideways to engines and carriages. The uniform rigidity be worn out, the whole system will require re- of the whole line. After two years' heavy traffic of this rail system, and the perfect support of newal, but as an extensive experience with steel no displacement has been perceptible; all the the head-rails, show a marked improvement in headed rails in Prussia, during fourteen years, has component parts of the iron permanent way are the wear of the heads. The use of rivets—in shown that the life of a good rail, even under in their original good condition; not a single places where frequent renewals are not likely to very onerous circumstances of traffic, is about rivet has worn loose, but the nuts of the head. occur, as in parts covere, with the ballast, and twenty-one years this objection falls to the ground, bolts require now and then to be tightened with therefore pot much shaken-is not objectionable. the more so since the rails of the present day, on a spanner, as in those of the fish-plates of the The number of component parts is not large, wooden sleepers, have already reached the ordinary construction. The; iron, including the their connection is easily established, and prao. same weight per yard as our whole system portion submerged in tho ballast, has been tice has proved the construction to be strong. without sleepers.”

oxidised to a trilling extent, and hitherto ex. The rigidity of the iron permanent way, both In the beginning of the year 1864 the Hoer- perience has not justified the preference of one vertically and horizontally, is much greater than der Works, in Westphalia, supplied the Bruns. system over the other. The motion on both that of the cross-sleepers. This is proved, not wick Railway with the two systems of iron per- systems is a little harder, but, at the same time, only by the analysis of form and dimensions of manent way represented by figs. 2 and 3, each much more steady and smooth, than on the most the section, but also by the steady motion of the of about 1,100 yards in length, and some time carefully constructed permanent way with rolling stock, and this advantage is conspicuous afterwards with another variety of the same wooden sleepers. Hitherto it has been impos- in express and heavy mineral trains.” system, represented by fig. 4. The two first sible to note any difference in the motion of the Thus far Mr. Scheffler. After the favourable are lying side by side on the distance between carriages during the various influences of extreme experience obtained on the Brunswick line, the Brunswick and Wolfenbuttel, that portion heat or cold—it is the same in winter as in sum. Hanover ian, Cologne-Minden, the Saxon and of the main line from the west to Berlin on mer. In the manufacture of the rail-bearers for Wartemburg State railways, have resolved to which the wear of oak sleepers and the general systems Nos. 2 and 3, the Hoerder Works found lay down experimental lengths of iron permarepairs of the permanent way had been the a difficulty in rolling the top of the vertical arm nent way, constructed on analogous principles. heaviest of the whole distance between Cologne to a sufficiently clear edge, and this inconve- The Hanoverian system, illustrated by fig. 5, and Berlin. The three systems embody thenience necessitated their being planed. In was made by the Hoerder Works, according to principle of supporting the head of the rail be- order to obviate this expensive operation, the the specifications of the engineer of the line, but tween the vertical arms of two angle bars Hoerder Works proposed to roll the top of it does not appear to offer any advantage in riveted together, and held to gauge by cross-bars, the vertical arm with a bulb rib, theory, while its cost is much higher than that the dimensions and distance of which, as well which allows a true edge to be produced with of the Brunswick system. The Hanoverian as of the angle-bars themselves, being varied out any further mechanical finishing. The permanent way has the same cast-steel head in order to ascertain the maximum limit of Brunswick Railway thereupon resolved to adopt as system No. 4; but the rail-bearers, fir. saving material which may be approached this bulb angle in their last system, No. 4 (fig. 4), thick, are formed of angle-bars of 115 degrees without jeopardising the efficiency of the con embodying the weight of the smaller sections 5$in. high, and 6ļin. base, giving a horizonta struction. In the system shown in fig. 2, the No. 3, which in practice had proved sufficiently bearing

of 12in, wide, equal to 288 square inches longitudinal rectangular angle-bearers measure strong, at the same time giving a conical form per running foot of railway. The rail bearers bin. x bin. X fin., and are placed half an inch to the head-bolt, in order, when tightening the are riveted together with a fillet plate, as in apart, to allow the web of the head rail to slip nut, to press the head rail down on the rail system No. 3, the head bolts conical, as in in. The gauge or cross-bars of T iron, 4in. X bearers. This head is made of cast steel. system No. 4, placed 18in, a part, have a collar 3in. X fin. are placed 5tt. apart, and are riveted While keeping to the weight of the former under the nut, which, pressing the rib of the below to both the horizontal arms of the angle- section they increased the height of the vertical angle

, counteract the supposed tendency of the bars. The head-bolts, connecting the head-rail arm to 6fin., the horizontal arm to 5ļin., the head-rail to incline outwards. The bars, 3ft. with the rail-bearers, are 16in. apart, and the bolt thickness of both being fin. full. Another apart, of 3in. X fin. flat bar, are, as in system, holes are elliptical, to allow contraction and ex. deviation from systems Nos. 2 and 3 is the form No. 3, riveted with T angles to the angle-bearers pansion. The ends of the angle-bars are joined of the cross-bars, which are of channel or C The keel fish-plates are formed of T iron, 5in. horizontally by fish-plates, 12in. X 12in. X in. iron, 4in. X 1 in. x fin., placed 5ft. apart, a8 X 2ļin. x fin. About five miles of this iron X kin., fixed with eight screw bolts, say two in system No. 2, and are fastened with bolts and permanent way were laid down in 1866, which bolts to each end. The head-rail and rail- nuts through the two vertical rail-bearers. The gave a very satisfactory result; they wilí, howbearers break joint-the ends of the former horizontal supporting surface of this system is ever, only be thoroughly reported on after next being thus supported by a continuous bearing of 306 square inches per running foot of railway. spring. A variation of the iron permanent way the latter.

This system of construction gives It does not appear advisable to place the cross- of systems Nos. 3 and 4. is now being constructed 334 square inches of horizontal bearing surface bars at a greater distance from each other, at Hoerde for some German railways, on a plan per running foot, that is to say, 300 square since they not only serve to keep the line to patented in this country by the author, and the inches from the horizontal arms of the angle, gauge but also contribute in holding each pair advantage of which was developed during the and 34 square inches from the cross-bar. `In of rail-bearers together to prevent their buckling manufacture of the material for the Brunswick system No. 8 (fig. 3) the rail-bearers are formed and, at all events, the greater rigidity of the and Hanoverian way. [Models, full and half by angle-bars of 93 deg.,

the dimensions of system compensates for the trifling, if perhaps size, were on the table.] When the metal used which are reduced to sfin, x 6 in. fin., superfluous, outlay. Experience will teach as for the head-rail was changed from she use of


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