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iron to the use of cast steel, it was no longer thus keeps each pair of rail-bearers at the proper | rail. A few holes are punched here and there practicable to punch the bolt-holes in the web, distance from each other.

in the horizontal arm of the rail-bearer to assist and every hole had, at considerable expense, to In fig. 7 a plan is suggested to effect economy in draining the ballast. It is scarcely necessary be bored and slotted out. Besider, under all of material by slightly reducing the height of to urge anything in favour of the principle of circumstances, particular care was required in the rail, and replacing expensive screw bolts longitudinal permanent way generally. In some correctly adjusting the holes in the web with with cheaper keys and wedges, all of which can countries the

first cost may appear greater; bat those of the rail-bearers. These combined con- be simply rolled as a bar and cut off to the re- the ever-increasing expense of keeping theo siderations made it desirable to devise a system quisite size. The cross-bars of these systems wooden sleepers, especially in hot climates; the establishing a direct and strong connection of the can, of course, be made of any section of iron. interruption of and dauger to traffic during ren head-rail and rail-bearers, without the head bolts Those now making are partly

of double T iron, pairs ; and, on the other hand, the advantage illustrated by figs. 6 and 7. The bulb or rib of arm of the construction. By these means the rolling stock, as well as increased safety and the vertical arm, instead of being placed outside, Outer arm of the rail-bearer

can at all times be comfort in travelling, are considerations of sucha as in the Brunswick

permanent way, No. 4, is removed for the purpose of shifting, reversing, importance as to render the abandonment of the here turned inwards, and is rolled into a dwarfed or renewing the head rail, without disturbing present cross-sleeper construction merely a T section, thus forming a groove into which the the gauge of the railway.' The cross-bars are matter of time. ribs or balbs of the rail-bearer gripe; and the most conveniently fitted near the end of the rail

In the systems just described the life of the bearers, where they contribute

to stiffen the fish iron parts is practically unlimited. The only gether by the screw bolts, or wedge keys, pase- joint, and at the same time serve admirably portion subject to gradual wear is the steel bezig without touching the web at all. The head bolts the fat surface of the cross-bar. In order to economical

application of the more expensive are placed 2010. apart; and in order to prevent prevent the sliding backwards and forwards of material justifies the their pressing the angle-bars closer together the head-rail by the friction of the wheel, a crucible cast-steel of a high class

, instead of than necessary, a stop rivet is placed under square stop bolt is applied to the head, passing the cheaper but less durable Bessemer steel

, each of them near the throat of the angle, which through a notch in the web at each end of the which, for good financial reasons, is the only

engineer in using

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steel which railways have hitherto allowed them

BOILER EXPLOSIONS. selves to use. The weight of the new system,

[N our last number we gave the paras per dimensions shown in fig. 6, is 223 tons per mile, the cost, inclusive of laying at 9d. took place at a dyeworks, and which per yard, about £3,100. The weight of system was fully reported upon by Mr. Fletcher, No. 7 is 193 tons, and the cost about £2,700 per the chief engineer to the Manchester

FIG.1. mile of single railway. But these prices are based

Boiler Association. We now give the upon the use of high-class Prussian iron, at £12 details and illustration of another ex. to £14 per ton, and bolts from £24 to £30 per ton; with the use of English iron the cost plosion, which we also obtain from Mr.

Fletcher's report. This explosion ranks per mile should not exceed £2,200 per mile. I

as No. 55 in the list, and occurred at would finally arge, in favour of the iron per eleven o'clock on the morning of Monday, manent

way, the consideration that wood is November 26th, at a paper mill, through getting scarcer and dearer every year, and may the collapse of a mal-constructed internal well be saved from decaying in the ballast in

fue tube. This boiler was under the order to fulfil the nobler mission of meeting inspection of this association, but the the numerous wants of our domestic and social weakness and consequent danger of the habits and dwellings. And if railways in Eng: Aue tube had been clearly pointed out to land and its colonies were generally to adopt the owner by the association's chief enthe iron permanent way, an immense impulse gineer at the time the boiler was enrolled, would again be given to an industry now un. I when it was also explained that its safety fortunately languishing, but the prosperity of could not be guaranteed until the fue bad which forms the back bone of the wealth and been radically strengthened, or power of this country.

placed by a new one, while this warnWeight and Cost of System No. 6 per Mile, calou- the association's written reports to the

ing was repeated from time to time in lated on the price of Prussian Iron.

member on the condition of his boilers. (PER LENGTH OF 20 FEET.)

The explosion was not attended with any serious | arisen from this cause, this construction, as alIb. at per cwt. £ 8. d. consequences. No one was either killed or in- ready stated, has for years past been given up, 12 head-rails ...

460 16s. 6d. 3 Û 9 jured, while the damage to the surrounding pro- while thicker plates have been used, which is 4 rail-bearers 1,180 128. Od. 6 5 7 perty was confined to the blowing up of a brick. most important in consideration of the increase 3 cross-bars

170 138. 6d. 1 g work flue at the back of the boiler by the tor- of pressure which has of late years taken place. 4 fish-plates......

26 12s. Od. 0 o rent of steam and hot water that rushed from the Millowners using boilers of this patent class, if of 62 bolts and nuts

48 309. Od. 0 12 9 boiler, and though this took place at both ends early date, should therefore ascertain whether 22 stop-bolts ....... 8 24s. Od. 0 1 9 of the Aue, the attendants in the firing space at the oval fue is of the original or improved con.

the front of the boiler escaped unhurt, not being struction, and should it prove to be of the former, 1,892 lb.

£11 11 7 directly opposite the furnace mouths. The boiler then it should either be strengthened or removed = per mile, 223 tons............ £3,056 18 0

was one of a series of six set side by side, three altogether.

of them being to the left and two to the right of Laying down, at 9d. per yard 66 0 0

Such were the remarks in the report for Dethe exploded one, but neither the exploded boiler cember of last year, and they are equally appli. Total................ £3,122 18 0

nor any of the others were stirred from their cable in the present case, while the occurrence

seat, and though they were all connected to- of this explosion shows the necessity of the reWeight and Cost of System No. 7 per Mile, calcu gether, the steam pipe joints were not broken, commendations contained therein. The construc

so that as soon as the exploded boiler was discon- tion of the flue in question will perhaps be the lated on the price of Prussian Iron.

nected by screwing down the junction valve, the better understood on reference to the following (PER LENGTH OF 20 Feet.)

remainder of the series were ready to resume cats :-Fig. 1 is a cross section of the boiler, lb, at per owt. £ 8. d. work, and they did so after waiting a few hours 2 head-rails ............

460 16s. 6d. 3 7 9 for the brickwork flue to be repaired. 4 rail-bearers

1,050 128. 3d. 5 12 6 The boiler was of patent construction, having 4 cross-bars 44 128. od. 0 4 8 two furnace tubes, which, instead of running

FIG.2, 4 fish.plates

26 12s. Od. 0 o right through the shell, as in those of the ordi26 wedges and cotters 37 188. Od. 0 5 11 nary flued class, united behind the fire bridge in 18 stop.bolts

7 24s. Od. 0 1 6 a single flue or combustion chamber of oval 16 bolts and nuts...... 16 30s. Od. 0 4 0 shape. This oval fue was strengthened by ver.

tical conical water tubes, which, at the same time 1,640 lbs.

£9 19 4 that they acted as stays, promoted the circulation

of the water. =per mile, 193 tons.... .... £2,631 40

The boiler was 7ft. in diameter Laying down, at 8d. per yard 57 00

and 28ft. long, while the oval flue or combustion

chamber measured about 4ft. llin. in width, and Total..... .... £2,688 4 0

2ft. 8in. in height, the thickness of the plates showing the shape that the sides of the flue as. being 7-16in. in the shell, 3-8in. in the furnace samed after collapse. Fig. 2 is simply a diatubes, and 5.16in. in the sides of the oval flue or gram giving a profile view of the objectionable

combustion chamber, while the pressure of the form of fue with the sides struck from two cen. IMPROVED COMBINATION TOOL. steam was 50lb. per square inch.

tres. This is now discarded in all new boilers. THE term “Yankee notions” has been applied

This explosion is so precisely similar, both in Fig. 3 shows the improved form of flue now to many simple but very effective devices, the construction of the boiler and character of adopted in the place of No. 2, having the sides designed to lighten labour and conduce to the its failure, to another that occurred on the 28th in one sweep throughout, and strook from a single comfort of the race. These “notions" are often of February, 1865, and details of which were centre only. very valuable. The engraving herewith pre- that the remarks then made on that explosion explosion is no reflection on the inspections of

given in the monthly report for December last, It will be clear from the foregoing that this
are here quoted as a description of this one. this association, but rather a vindication of their
They are as follows :The boiler failed at the
oval fue or combustion chamber, just described,
the sides of which collapsed longitudinally and
crushed inwards towards the vertical water
tubes. A great many boilers of this patent class

FIG. 3.
are now at work, with perfect safety, and nearly
sented shows one of these handy combination but the one in question, which had been made

one hundred of such are under our inspection ; implements, simple in construction, cheap in some years since, and was of an early pattern price, and effective in operation. It is a com

now happily discontinued, had a grave defect in bination of hammer, pincers, nail-drawer, tongs, its construction, which it is important should be and hooks, and can be applied to varied uses pointed out, since many boilers of similar make about the house. The jaws A are intended still remain in use, and, it is feared, are fre- truthfulness, since the danger was fully anticito pull tacks and nails, to grasp covers of stoves, quently worked at higher pressures than it is pated and faithfully pointed out in the associahandle cooking utensils, &c. The hammer B is safe they should be. This defect consisted in the tion's reports to the owner of the boiler, wbo for driving tacks, and the books C for lifting pots, sides of the oval fue being made of two different frankly acknowledges the service rendered, and kettles

, sad-irons, and other household appli- curves, one of them being struck with a radius had ordered a new boiler in consequence, about

The working part is of iron, and the of about 19in., and the other of 14in. The a week before the explosion occurred, and is now handle of wood. It was patented through the longer radius, of course, gave a fatter sweep rapidly removing all others on his works of Scientific American Patent Agency, and is manu. than the shorter one, in consequence of which the similar construction to the exploded one. factured by Messrs. J. C. Longshoro and Bro. arch was not in equilibrio, the sharper curve ther, Mansfield, Ohio.

being unable to resist the thrust of the flatter
one, so that the sides crushed in with steam at

A letter from the Grisons reports the fall of red tween Delhi and Meerut is nearly completed, as also done had their curve been struck from a single hours, and was succeeded by white to double that The Lahore Chronicle states that the railway be a much lower pressure than they would have

snow to the depth of 3in. The fall lasted about two that portion between Umritzer and the Bear centre, and thus made an aro of one circle

depth, The phenomenon in question is not un. River. It is expected that both these portions will throughout.

common, and is due to the presence of a micro. be opened for traffic early in the present year.

In consequence of the explosions that have scopic mushroom, the proto-coeus nivalis.





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the making of iron tubing has been in the past. MO

UCH has been said and written upon the D'Been made to do awagamithinLap and rivet can be created, there genius will find a means

subject of the exhaustion of our coal-fields, and the importance of conserving as much as

system of joining boiler-plates; one great objeo - to supply all that is needed or called for.possible our present supply of black diamonds tion to the system of riveting being the corrosion American Artizan. without effecting any radical change in the of the plates on the interior of the boiler, where

the line of rivets join the plates together. When existing state of gs. Here, however, we

THE GLACIAL PERIOD IN NORTH have something tangible and practical upon the boilers are made of a single plate bent into a

AMERICA, subject, something, too, that cannot fail to reach circle and having only one longitudinal riveted the hearths of Englishmen, as it proposes about with the longitudina pravemente as it does away A PAPEL Ompon the above subject, read by ever was practised by the most economical. It and riveted boilers built up of sectional plates. Institute of Natural Science, contains some inis embodied in a recent letter from Mr. This may be called the first step in the improve- teresting information, the result of observations Recorder Warren to the Mayor of Hull, and is ments in boiler making, and seems a sensible made by him during the progress of the exploa valuable hint not only for the people of that one, that ought to have been adopted when the ratory works of the Nova Scotia Gold Company, place but for all people using coal in domestic until the time shall come when we will have the glaciated rocks and drift beds of Nova Scotia, fire-places. The Recorder writes :-"Wishing yon and all the town and corporation a happy the machinery that " is to be” in the future of from floating icebergs on a submerged land must

seamless boilers of steel, rolled like a tube upon he maintains that the drift, had it been dropped cannot leave for town without offering a practical mechanical skill, we are content to use the old have levelled when, the elevation

king place,

it was exposed to the action of the waves on the suggestion to yourself and every householder in style of lap and riveted boilers.

We find in this style of boiler two evils to con. spreading coast line. Mr. Belt accounts for the Hull, which may at least show my goodwill. On that suggestion I have profitably acted for tend with; corrosion of the plates by a chemical poverty of the gold deposits of Nova Scotia by seven years, and it relates to coal. Do you wish action, and corrosion and mechanical action the absence of true alluvial deposits in that proto have the full benefit—that is, without waste the boiler, and we find the surface of the plates drift grain gold is sparingly disseminated, and

combined. The first occurs in various parts of vince. He observes that through much of the of every ounce of coal you pay for ; to save nearly one-third of your ordinary consumption ;

irregularly pitted. But the last-named evil its distribution affords another argument in to have a fire lit in the morning, which, with a

occurs along the line of the laps, both the longi- favour of the supra-marine theory. In Australia, little care, will last nearly the whole of the day, occurs mostly below the water-line. Corrosion, have been found in valleys lying immediately

tudinal as well as the transverse joints, and all the most important deposits of alluvial gold with possibly a single replenishing, and so save it is true, can be accounted for by chemical above the bed rock, beneath beds of gravel and trouble as well as coal, and have warmth equally principles'; but when we find annular grooves clay; wherever surface washings have been

dis. distributed throngh, your apartment, great con running parallel or in the immediate vicinity of covered much richer deep sinkings have been small ?--then attend to the

following practical the riveted joints, we must look to some other found in the vicinity. This, indeed, seems to be suggestion, upon which I have acted at home

cause, and must attribute it to tbe effects of heat a necessary result of the sorting arrangement of with complete success, for, as I have said, seven years, and have, with a like result, recommended mechanical and chemical action. We will sup- auriferous quartz lodes are abundant, no similar

apon the joints, and to the combined effort of water. But in Nova Scotia, though denuded to very many friends. The suggestion is not my pose that a chemical action has commenced deposits have been found with one exception, to own; I met with it seven years ago in a London journal. Ordinary fire-grates have open

equally over the interior surface of the boiler; the consideration of which I will return. The bars at the bottom, the result of which, of course, will be such that there will be unequal expansion of the superficial deposits, is either distributed

we find that the effects of heat upon the plates gold, instead of being concentrated at the bottom is to place the coal between the two draughts, where the laps occur; perhaps this may be throughout them or occurs in greater abundance up the chimney, and ensure two things, rapia accounted for in consequence of the plates not at the surface than below. The great richness of

the gold washings in Australia, and their scarcity consumption and diminished heat in the apart. traction is succeeding expansion the deposit of and poverty in Nova Scotia, notwithstanding the ment. When I arrived at my hotel last Wednes- scale induced by corrosion is cracked and broken abundance of anriferous lodes that have been day afternoon—a bitter cold day, I found a off. This lays the surface open to a similar suo denuded, may be thus .explained :

-In Australia large fire, which

was twice

replenished before I ceeding action, which, in process of time, forms the denuding agent was water, which carried off went to bed. The coal was excellent, but I could scarcely get warm. I prevailed on my the plate at this point. The corroding action of so that in the gravel beds nearly all the gold,

an annular groove, and destroys the strength of the ground-up rocks, but left behind the gold; worthy landlord to try my experiment on my the water upon the plate is quite weak compared but only a small proportion of the original rock fire-grate here. He has done so, and with what with the action that goes to form these annular mass, is left. In Nova Scotia the dennding agent resolt? Ask him. But I will tell you that to-day grooves,

was glacier ice, which carried off alike the story my fire was made up at ten a.m. It is now five

Upon locomotive boilers this evil is much masses and their metallic contents. The drift p.m. I have enjoyed, and am enjoying, a most comfortable warmih, without having to sit with greater than in the stationary boiler, and for this beds left contain only the same proportion of

the different supports and braces of the gold as existed in the original rock mass, ex. in a yard of the fire. Not an ounce of additional boiler are rigidly made, and they offer a great cepting where subærial denudation has concen. coal has been placed on it, nothing having resistance to the expansion and contraction of trated it on the surface. Perhaps in sediments been required but now and then, at long intervals, the boiler, which has a greater tendency to throw older than the glacial period, and which have a poke tron beneath and a pressing down from off this scale and present new surfaces for escaped destruction during it, or in the beds of above. Now, how is this brought about? I will tell you. Send for an ironmonger or black. Corrosion than in any other kind of boiler. The existing streams, or on the present sea coast, smith, and order him to take the measure of the system of forming boilers of a series of hoops or deposits of grain gold may be found, but they

loops, with but one riveted joint, overcomes a will be only the exceptions to the general rule. bottom of your grate and make you a sheet-iron part of this evil. Another pian has been used, I have mentioned one exception. It belongs to plate of about the 1.6th of an inch in thickness; with some success, of rolling the plates with the third class; it has been produced by the or even less, which, if your grate be large, will the customary thickness of body, the edges waves of the sea on the existing coast line. I cost you 2s. Simply lay this on the bottom of tapering with a gradual thickness, by this means refer to the gold washings at the Ovens, near the grate, then let your servant lay and light ensuring an equal springing of the plates instead Lanenburgh, which, though limited in extent your fire as usual. It will soon burn up, but you of the concentration of force acting upon them at and soon exhausted, for a lime largely remane. must keep pretty open the lowest bar, so as to

a single line. In this mode there is a gain of rated some of those employed upon them. From secure a slight draught. When the fire has begun to burn, poke it gently from beneath, and strength where the lines of riveting occur, as the side of a rocky promontory, traversed by the flame will gradually get through the entire by the series of rivet holes, but is compensated out a bed of glacial drift, throughout which grain

the loss of metal consequently weakens the plates numerous small auriferous quartz veins, spreads mass of coal, the iron plate beneath gets red for by the additional thickness. It has been gold is sparingly disseminated. The sea is slowly hot, and so keeps up a constant combustion, at shown by actual experiment that boilers con- eating into this bed, and re-arranging its mate; the same time dispersing the heat through the structed upon this plan have been successful; 10 rials. It grinds up the stones to shingle, and room, instead of its being sent up the chimney, annular grooves being formed by corrosion finally to sand and mod, which it carries off to thus entirely consuming the coal, instead of consequent upon the mechanical action. filling the hearth with ashes. In my own house

deeper water, leaving behind the tough, heavy I tried the experiment for a week in the break. with a fair prospect of success; but there is but between tide marks, on the surface and in the

Welded longitudinal joints have been made gold. This is found at the bottom of the shingle fast-room, then in the dining-room, then in the little prospect of their ultimate adoption. In all crevices of the bed rock, where the gold formerly and then I had the sheet-iron plate put into experimental boilers of this find that have been distributed throughout a large mass of drift has every fire-place—and there are many through much more than any other kind of boiler. In- been submerged during the deposition of the out the house—with equal success. So I do stead of adopting heavier boilers, we are contin glacial drift, every part of it, during its subse. with the fire-place in my official residence. ually looking for a boiler that shall be lighter as quent elevation, would at some time have formed a.m., for the day, an occasional poke, and of strength. The great want seems to be a boiler been subjected to the action of the waves; and possibly a single replenishment, suffices for the that shall be light, constructed of Bessemer or such deposits as those of Lunenburgh, instead of day. In my own case, and also at my hotel here,

some kind of steel that shall be perfectly homo- being confined to the present shore, would have where three scuttles were required, one now geneous-made seamless, perfectly cylindrical, been formed all over the emerging land. The suffices."

and of length or diameter to order. When we paper contains a vast amount of interesting in

call to mind the improvements made in steam formation, which can be very profitably studied E. J. Reed, Esq., Chief Constructor of the Navy, hammers, and the huge forgings that are formed by all engaged in the search for and treatment will occupy the chair, and 8. W. Worssam, Esq. by their aid, the rapid improvements made in of gold. the vice-chair, at the fourteenth anniversary festival the manufacture of wrought-iron tubes, can we of the London Association of Foremen Engineers, not look to the future as producing boilers made The Astronomical Medal this year goes to take place at the Freemasons' Tavern on Feb. in this manner and upon these principles ? It jointly” to Professor W. A. Miller and Mr. Hugo ruary 16 next,

may be of no greater difficulty in the future than gins, for their spectrum researcher,



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Spain is about to have its army re-organised. A Legal Intelligente.

royal decree to that effect has been issued. The TR. W. GERARD, of 108, Minories, bas

effective force is to be fixed at 200,000 men. This

force will be divided into the standing army, the its object the making tight joints in a ship's deck


contingent determined by the Cortes, the active around masts and other projections through the

reserve at the disposal of the government, and the deck. For this purpose he attaches around the

January 28.

second reserve, only to be called out by a special mast or other projection at a point just above the THE AMERICAN WAR.—THE BLAKELY ORDNANCE deck a metal hood of conical form. This hood is

Such is the activity in the Prussian gun manü.

COMPANY. made in two halves which can be applied around

factories that by the middle of May, the whole of

This was a summons before Mr. Church, the the North German troops will, it is hoped, be armed the mast or projection and drawn together with Chief Clerk of the Master of the Rolls, which in- with needle-guns. With equal zeal the new castsorows antil the upper and smaller end of the volved a question as to the claim on some guns, steel 4-pounders, which are to entirely supersede hood tightly embraces the mast or projection, shot, and shell in possession.

the 6-pounders, are being manufactured in the and an elastic packing of india-rubber being in

foundries. Mr. C. E. Lewis applied on the part of the

At Krupp's, at Essen, no less than terposed a perfectly water-tight joint may be made. Before the hood is applied an india-rubber special liquidator, Mr. Holylands, for an order to 2,370 cast-steel cannon have been ordered by this

and other Governments.

and collar or a collar of other waterproof material is sell certain shot and shell on an offer made ;

The shipping Gazette observes that the intended fixed to the deck all round the mast or projection; he proposed that the money should be kept sepa. expenditure of £5,000,000 in ironclads will give this is done by placing a metal ring on the edge rately, as a question was likely to arise as to the some impulse to the iron trade, as probably of the collar and passing screws through the ring Upited States.

£3,000,000 will be spent in iron. and collar into the deck. The other edge of the

Mr. Hays (Warry and Co.), for Captain A new gun, specially adapted for the use of the collar is fixed to the metal

hood on the mast by Blakely, claimed the property. There were guns, artillery, has been tried on the plain of Satory, near screws passing through the lower edge of the besides shot and shell, and the point was whether Versailles. The experiments were made under the hood through the collar and screwing into they did not belong to the Confederate States, eye of General Bourbaki, who gave orders that the another metal ring below. Usually it is neces. and whether, as those States had fallen, the trot. It was, however, universally admitted to be sary that the two metal rings and the elastic United States could not put forth a claim.

very inferior to the fusit Chassepot, which weapon collar should be made each in two parts to allow

Mr. C. E. Lewis said there was nothing illegal, carried off the honours of the day, and is proof their being placed around the mast or projec- but the question would have to be decided to nounced far superior to the Prussian needle-gun. Lion. When the collar is thus made it is prewhom the money belonged.

A strange action is reported to have been recently ferred that it should be of two or more thick- The Chief Clerk asked whether any claim had brought at the Crewe County-court, against a rifledesses cemented together, and the joints in the been made on the part of the American Govern corps captain. It appears that a woman, who two thicknesses are placed as far apart as pos- ment, and it did not appear that they had been pressed somewhat too close to the volunteers when gible. The collar may be a short cylinrer of served with notice.

on parade one day, received a blank-cartridge in india.rubber or elastic material, or it may col

The summons was adjourned to enable them to damages! Of course she did not get a verdict, but

her eye, and 80 sued the commanding officer for sist of two or more broad flat rings laid the one appear if they thought proper.

the jury recommended the members of the corps to on the other, and attached at their inner edges.

raise a subscription in her behalf, which the captain Iu this way a joint may be made which will re

promised should be done. main water-tight notwithstanding the working of

TO CORRESPONDENTS, the parts to which it is applied. The metal hood

The MECHANIOB' MAGAZINE is sent post-froo to subcompletely encloses the elastio collar and pre- scribers of £1 ls. 8d. yearly, or 108. 102. half-yearly, pay. serves it from injury. able in advance,

Miscellanea. In the accompanying engraving fig. 1 shows a

Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANIOS' MAGA

LINE at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 in.

sertions, or 4d. a line for 26 insertions. Each line con- From a series of synthetic experiments on meteor-
sists of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same ites, Daubree has been led to certain inferences re-
rate as type. Special arrangements made for large adver- garding the formation of these wandering bodies,
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, and this crystal is found in some of our lowest

and that of our globe. They all contain peridot, ged

To insure insertion in the following number, advertise

rocks. Assuming meteorites to be planetary speci

mens, peridot appears to have the privilege of Thursday evening.

ubiquity, and is, as Daubree describes it, the uniWe must absolutely decline attending to communica- versal scoria. Oxygen, essential to organic nature, tions

unaccompanied by the name and address of the has played an important part in the formation of a

writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of meteorites, and, by inference, of planetary bodies good faith,-ED, M, M.

generally. RECEIVED.-W.J.M.-D. R. O. P.0.-S.N, W., jun.

The pendulum experiments now carried on in O. W. R.-W. H. P.-0. J. F.- Messrs. 8. w. and Co.Iodia in connection with the great Trigonometrical R. F.-Messrs, F. B, and Co.-J. G.-G. P. R.-R. 0.- Survey, under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel W.F. S.-W. T. F.-A. A.-S, W. and Co.-A, W.- Walker, R.E., have led to certain new and im. J. N.-_J. B. T.

portant conclusions as regards mountain attrac

tion. Theoretically, the nearer the observing staFIG.2.

tions are to the Himalayas, the greater should be Hleetings for the Sleek. the force of gravity; but the reverse is found to be

the fact, and the difference between theory and fact

diminishes with the increased distance of the stations Mon.-Royal United Service Institution." A Light, from the hills. Commenting on this phenomenon

Short Gun, throwing a Sharp-edged Discoid- in a communication to the President of the Royal ally formed Projectile," by Lieut.-General Society, Colonel Walker writes : "This seems a

"The Working of remarkable confirmation of the Astronomer Royal's Heary Broadside Guns,” by Mr. A. W. Drew, opinion, that the strata of earth below the muun. Royal Institution.-Monthly Meeting, 2. tains are less dense than the strata below plains Society of Engineers.—“On Safety Valves,” by and the bed of the sea." Is there not something in

this result worth consideration by geologists ? Turs.-Royal Institution.-"On Vibratory Motion, with special reference to Sound,” by Professor Ty - weather and Sons steam fire engines, for the pro

Lord Derby has purchased one of Messrs. Merrydall, 3. Institution of Civil Engineers.--Discussion on

tection of Knowsley Hall against fire. “Ships of War;” and “Description of the

The Dundee Advertiser says:- "The other day, as Clifton Suspension Bridge," by Mr. W. H. an ordinary sized orange, purchased in town, was Barlow, 8.

being opened, it was found that there was another WED.-Geological Society, 8. TouRg.–Royal Institution." On Vibratory Motion, situated exactly in the centre of the large one, and

orange of smaller size inside. The second one was vertical section and fig. 2 a plan view of a ship's

with special reference to Sound," by Professor

was about an inch in diameter. It was perfectly mast where it passes through the deck.

Tyndall, 3.
a is
Chemical Society, 8.

formed, with rind, tissue, seeds, &c., all of course the mast; 6 the deck; c is the metal hood em.

Linnean Society, s.

in miniature; and a very curious circumstance was bracing the mast, the joint between the hood and FRI.-Royal Institution." On Publio School Educa- that the rind, though it had been entirely covered the mast being made tight by an elastic washer,

tion," hy Rev F. W. Farrar, 8.

up by the substance of the exterior orange, and Sat.-Royal

Institution." On Harmony," by Mr, G. A. therefore shut out from light, was of the same or by paint, or otherwise ; d d' are two discs

Macfarren, 3. of painted canvas connected together at their

yellow colour as the rind of ordinary oranges.". inner edges. The outer edge of the upper disc d

A very curious Arabian astrolabe, says the Atheis connected to the bottom of the metal hood c

neum, made by Abdul-Aima, a celebrated Arabian Nabal, Military, and Gunnery Items. astronomer and mechanical engineer, has been pre the hood, through the disc d, and through a metal

Instruction in Persia, to M. Duruy, who bas placed The outer edge of the lower disc d' is The Russian authorities are going to send to the it among the collection of instruments in the Paris fastened to the deck by a ring s placed above the Exhibition of Paris eight models of their iron-clad Observatory. edge of the disc and screwed down on to the deck ships. Six are already finished, and the Ministry We bear that an undertakinghas recently been all around the mast. In place of the discs d d of the Navy is at this moment completing those of organised in New York, to operate at the Pearl being of canvas, as above described, india-rubber the frigato “Sebastopol," and the clipper "Temt. Islands, about 30 miles from Panama. A subor other flexible material may be employed.

chong." They are constructed on the scale of marine boat has arrived capable of carrying 10 or one Porty-eighth.

12 men at one time, who can work under the water We learn that the School of Musketry at Fleet for many hours, and so constructed that it can be

wood is to be broken up in September next. It is lowered or hoisted at a moment's notice, and so ar. Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N., is appointed considered that one establishment of this

nature is ranged that when lowered they can open the boat managing director of the Telegraph Construction amply sufficient for the instruction of our troops, at the bottom, by means of two trap.doors, allowand Maintenance Company, in place of Sir R. Glass, and that at Hythe will in future undertake the ling a space of 10ft. square in each for working purwho has resigned on account of ill health. whole duty.


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A quick process for getting drying linseed oil is The “Melbourne Cup” day of the late Spring Patents for Inventions. given by Dr. Dullo. He boils the raw oil for two Meeting of the Victoria Racing Club afforded a hours with binoxide of manganese and bydrochloric notable instance of the extraordinary operations in acid, and so gets a rapidly drying oil in very much the shape of news-distribution which mark this ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS less time than by the processes generally employed. telegraphic era. Within five minutes of the race

The first locomotive made in Now South Wales being run the names of the horses gaining first, se- Tax Abridged Specifications of Patents given below ara was tested on Thursday, November 15, on the cond, and third places were known at Sýdney and Olassified, acoording to the subjects to which the respective branch line between the Redfern Railway station Adelaide, and within

a few minutes more at all the inventions refer, in the following Table. By the system

of classification adopted, the numericaland chronological and Pyrmont. This locomotive, which is upwards large towns of Victoria.

order of the spocifications is preserved, and combined with of 70-horse power, was made by Messrs. Vale and The Derby Mercury is informed " that the new all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be Lacy, engineers and boiler-makers, Druitt-street, structure to replace the viaduct at Apperley Bridge anderstood thatthese abridgements are prepared excla. and is to be employed on the steep inclines or zig: which was swept away by an extraordinary food sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by zags on the Great Western Railway. The trial about two months since, was completed and opened the Government, and are therefore the property of the was pronounced by the scientific gentlemen present for traffic on Thursday last. The destruction of this proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby to be very satisfactory.

means of communication has occasioned a heavy warned_not to produce them without an acknowledge Geological and botanical sciences have lost an ener. diminution in the traffic receipts of the company; BOILERS AND FURNACES,—1789, 1792, 1811, 1813 getic observer by the untimely death of Frederick but

the rapidity, with which the new

viaduct has BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS,—1768, 1770, 1787, James Foot, Esq., M.A. &c., of the Geological been constructed is almost marvellous, and the

1794, 1726, 1820 Survey of Ireland, at the early age of 37, drowned design exhibits great skill; both reflect high honour CHEMISTRY AND PAOTOGRAPHY-1778, 1786 on the 17th January, at Lough Key, near Boyle, on Mr. Crossley, the engineer.”

CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural imple Ireland, in endeavouring to save the lives of two A company is said to be forming, for the con. ments and machine3,-1764 people who had fallen through the ice while struction of a steam tram road of about 250 miles


FIBROUS FABRICS, including machinery for treating fibres, skating. in the province of Bahia, and 200,000 acres of

pulp, paper, &c.,-1769, 1774, 1775, 1790, 1791, 1804, 1814, So far as is known, there are but two mines of Brazilian forest are to be conceded to the company. 1816, 1835 emery in the world, one in Chester, in Rampden A volcano in the moon is said to be in an active FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing county, Massachusetts, and the other in the island state. The crater called Linné, on the Mare Sereni. food for men and aniinals,-1801, 1834 of Naxos, in the Ægean Sea. tatis, was noticed by an astronomer at Athens, a M. FORNITURE AND APPAREL, including household atonsila,

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c.,A letter written from Boutourlinovka, in the Schmidt, during the months of October and No.

1771, 1798, 1799, 1806, 1807, 1821 Russian government” of Voronege, states that vember to be obscured. Eoglish photographs taken GENERAL MACHINERY, --1765, 1772, 1773, 1776, 1780, 1985, on the critical night of the 14th of November last, during the same time show the crater very faintly 1788, 1812, 1816, 1817, 1829, 1832 the phenomenon of falling stars assumed a peculiar marked. The same darkness was observed on this LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING,—1782, 1827 form. A cross, composed of these meteorites of spot by the eminent astronomer. Schroeter, in METALS, including apparatus for their manufacture, extraordinary brilliancy, appeared in the eastern November, 1788. The impression is that an erup: MISCELLANEOUS,–1795, 1797, 1800, 1809 part of the heavens. Around this cross there was a tion is going on, but, says the Spectator, if so, must

Roads AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car. ring displaying the colours of the rainbow, within not the moon have an atmosphere? Could com.

riages, saddlery, and harness, &c.,-1766, 1784, 1815, which a zumber of shooting stars was observed. bustion take place without oxygen? Would the Two of these stars were peculiarly remarkable: they smoke—the carbonic acid gas-rise without some SHIPS AND BOATs, including their fittings,-1713, 1806, came from two opposite points, one from the east heavier gas, like atmospheric air, to rise in. and the other from the west, met within the circle, It is apparent that the Italian Government is STEAM ENGINES,–1767, 1777, 1781, 1802, 1808, 1822, 1824, struck against each other, and burst with a loud ex- both anxious and willing to give its support to the WARFARE, 1793, 1810, 1819, 1828 ploslon. After this the circle and cross became development of the mineral riches of the country, iainter and fainter, and then disappeared entirely. which have hitherto attracted but little attention,

1764 H. TYERMAN. Improvements in reaping and more The observatory connected with St. Gregory's and not nearly so much as they deserve. In the by fire. The fire originated apparently in the granted, viz. :-“Six for iron mines, one for copper, the knife or cutting instrument employed in reaping and College, Downside, near Bath, has been destroyed year 1866 alone fifteen mining concessions have been ing machines. Dated July 3, 1866. heating apparatus, and was rapidly communicated to the equatorial room above, in which was a mag- for lead, and three for petroleum. Seven very im wear and tear of the working

parts, and the waste of motivo nificent refracting telescope of 15in. diameter and portant petroleum deposits have been discovered in power in working them. The invention consists in the

application of a slidable joint-piece, which the inventor 20ft. focal length. The loss of the glass and astro. the southern part of the province of Naples." nomical plant attached to the telescope is the more

The Hobart Town Mercury states :— The

last of framing, parallel with the knife, to which the knite is

mounts upon one or more slide bars or rods fixed to the unfortunate, as the observatory

had only
just been the male aboriginal natives called at the office on attached

, and to this joint-piece he attaches the connecting placed in full

working order. The logs to the Col. Thursday, and informed us that he was leaving the rod. lege of the antiquities, curiosities, and natural his. colong, and going 'home' to England in the ship piece, which spring or springs is or are compressed or detory collections in the museum cannot be esti.

Ethel.' His name is William Lanney, aged about lected at each end of the stroke, consequently producing mated, for they contained many unique and

in- twenty;nine years. He says he was born at Laun momentum of the waiters and it also Szertsa a reaction valuable specimens, and were the result of fifty


thereon, causing it to recoil or rebound, thus returning the years' accumulation.

It appears that castor oil is much better to soften crank pin and connecting joints. Patent abandoned.

and to redeem old leather than any other oil known. Three pounds of amalgam, from which the liquid When boots or shoes are greased with it, the oil will for tapping and cutting screws, and machinery to be em

1765 W. Adkins. Certain improvements in taps and die metal has been carefully pressed out, are said to not at all interfere with the polishing afterwards, as ployed in effecting the same. Dated July 3, 1866, yield llb. of gold. The gold remaining after the in the case with lard, olive, or any ether oil. In Instead of facing the out lide of a tap parallel or nearly quicksilver has been driven off by the heat from the Harrisburg, Pensylvania, the old leather hose of so with its anis, as now.commonly

practised, the inventor amalgam is a porous mass, somewhat resembling some of the fire companies was greased with it, and purposes making the cut line of a spiral form, more or less sponge-cake in appearance. found to become almost as soft and flexible as new Secondly, the improvements consist in fasbioning the lower

. The Montreal Gazette notices the first bloom leather. Leather belts for transmitting motion in end of the tap with two or more cutting edges, like a dr!ll, made in that part of the world with pure peat fuel, machinery will usually last from three to five years, so that as the tap is driven into the hole as a plag at the and pronounces it of the very highest quality, equal according to the wear and tear they are exposed to; first start, and then turned, as the draught is imparted from to the best Swedish iron. The bar was bent cold when greased with castor oil it is said they will last the thread to the part to be tapped, so the cutting edges the by a vice, and donbled up close at right angles ten years or more, as they always remain flexible the lower ends of the tap regulate and clear the hole in the with an edge, without a crack

or flaw appearing, and do not crack. Besides this advantage, castor avendonba thread to follow up and complete the work. Patent the outer corners remaining smooth and sharp : a oil will prevent slipping, so that a belt 3in. wide,

1766 H. WOOTTON. test which it is said no coal iron made in Canada impregnated with it, Fill be equal to a belt 4fin. and arrangement of self-acting railway signals. Dated July

Improvements in the construction will stand. The fact is of great importance to wide without castor oil.

3, 1866. Canada, in view of her large supplies of peat and The American papers, referring to the statistics

This invention has reference to self-acting signals for ase iron. of the productions of the oil regions during the past in juxtaposition to the rails. The signals employed may

on railways, the same being operated by signal levers placed The long-looked-for lions have at last made year, express a hope that science may soon do some be whistles, bells, or other suitable sounding apparatas. their appearance in public at the base of the Nelson thing to bring petroleum into use for purposes in Patent completed. Column, and grand old beasts they really look-addition to those of illumination. The yield of 1866 no discredit to their designer nor to the Column was so far in excess of the demand that it

1767 W. ADOLPH. Improvements in apparatus for abo

calcu. taining motive power by means of steam." (A communicathey at last adorn. Mr. H. C. Sorby, whose researches with the spec. on hand in the various markets of the world of lated tha present year commenced with a surplus tion.) Dated July 3, 1866.

This invention relates to a machine consisting of two trum microscope, have been recognised as of much 733,000 barrels of refined, “which will have to be artificial fall of liquid by means of the pressure of steam

essential parts-first, an apparatus arranged to produce an scientific importance, has made a further advance, consumed before the production of 1867 can be second, a turbine upon which this fall, or this compressed and, after persevering endeavours, succeeded in de brought forward." vising a method of measuring the spectra produced

liquid, produces its action in the ordinary manner. The by the instrument, and of printing them in types Atlantic yacht race, was Mr. Steer, an Englishman,

The builder of the "Henrietta,” the winner of the invention cannot be described without reference to the

drawings. Patent completed. by a simple process. The images can thus be ren- formerly of Plymouth,

1768 A. P. J. ALLEMAND and L. G. SPEYSER. Improve dered available for comparison and reference, a fact

ments in machinery for making bricks, which improvemente which will be appreciated alike by microscopists

The Eastern Railway Company, France, has just are also applicable for moulding blocks for building, or for and spectroscopists. We shall probably hear more adopted a new third class carriage. It is two stories artificial fuel, or for other purposes. Dated July 3, 1886. of Mr. Sorby's investigations before the present high, and contains seats for 80 persons.

According to this invention the clay or material of which season closes,

Notwithstanding the repeated cautions which the bricks or blocks are to be formed is placed in a hopper The skeletons of a horse and its rider, and a long public have received against the use of green paper bricks or blocks are to be formed are caused to pass in rust-eaten lance lying close by, have been dis- for covering the walls of rooms, &c., from the succession below the bottom of the hopper, in order to be covered in the midst of a tuft of bushes of extra. dangerous effects so insidiously produced by the illed. The moulds are, for this purpose, formed on tracks ordinary thickness, in the Forest of Cinglais, near arsenic which forms the basis of the colouring mat- or carriages linked or connected together so as to form an Caen. An examination has led to the conclusion ter of the most attractive hues, another death from endless chain, to which a continuous motion is imparted. that the remains are those of a Cossack and his this cause has just taken place at St. Bartholomew's After the moulds have been filled with brick-making or

other material from the hopper, they are carried opwards steed. The supposition is, that the animal, being Hospital, London.

until they are brought under a roller, which is pressed wounded, fell with its rider into the thicket, which The Manchester statue of the Prince Consort was downwards towards the moulds hy weighted levers or lies low, and that they were unable to extricate unveiled on Wednesday week. The statue, 9ft. Otherwise; this roller, by pressing down on to the top of themselves.

high, is in Sicilian marble, the Prince being repre: moulds move onwards beyond the roller, they pass below The magnesium light has for some time been ap- sented in the robes of the Order of the Garter. It knives or scrapers which remove any excess of the materials plied to photographing places where the light of has been executed by Mr. Noble.

from above the top of the moulds. The materials in the day cannot penetrate, such as the interior of the The annual value of the madder cultivated in moulds are next subjected to pressure from below. Each Pyramids. The director of the Polytechnic School Vaucluse

and Alsace is estimated at £480,000. The mould is, for this purpose, provided with a movable bottom successful sketches of the ancient tombs in the French soldiers. in England a large amount of scrapers these pistons are pressed upwards, whilst at the of Lemberg has just taken by this means some very plant is used as a dye

for the red trousers of the or piston, capable of rising upwards into the maldinom crypt of the Dominican church in that city, madder is annually used in cotton printing. same time the moulds pass under another roller, The

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