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present invention applied thereto. The object is, of the piston of the smaller cylinder to and from COAL.CUTTING MACHINE.

as above stated, to make a machine self-acting each other is by the handle on the end 5* of one IN N the coal-cutting machines invented about by the application thereto of a separate cylinder of the piston-rods st , sapposing the machine to

two years ago by Mr. J. G. Jones, of Blaina and gearing in such manner that the machine be at work and the suid allowed to enter both Ironworks, near Newport, Monmouth, it is fonnd may be caused to take a slight retrograde motion the larger and smaller cylinders, the pick will necessary at each stroke of the pick to give to at the time that the pick has made its stroke and be actuated by the piston in the larger cylinder, the machine a backward and forward motion. is about to return in order to make another and the piston of the smaller cylinder will by its This has heretofore been effected, by the work, stroke, and also that the machine may be caused movement cause the machine to make a short man attending the machine, by the aid of a hand to make a somewhat longer forward motion retrograde motion at the time when the pick is wheel. Some attempts have been previously towards the work than it has been caused to retro about to be withdrawn from the work by the made to render the machine self-acting, but with grade before the pick makes its next stroke. piston of the larger cylinder, and the piston of out success. According, however, to an invention The engraving shows the arrangement as being the smaller cylinder will, when the pick has been recently patented by Mr. Jones, he renders the used for acting with a lever pick, but the same brought back, cause the machine to advance a machine self-acting by applying a small working is equally applicable when using a sliding pick distance somewhat greater than it retrograded, cylinder combined with the large working cylinder or otherwise working in a straight line. The and this is accomplished by means of the nipping which gives motion to the pick. The two ends gearing between the small cylinder and the levere, which are stopped in one direction by a of the small cylinder are connected by pipes or wheels of the machine, and the means of supply. sorew pin passed into one of the two openings 2 passages to the two ends of the large working ing compressed air thereto, may be varied, but in the horns u* of the ring. The screw pins us are oylinder, so that the fuid employed (usually com- the arrangements shown in the engraving will be shown in the proper positions for enab ing pressed air) is supplied into the small cylinder at found most convenient; ss is the small cylinder the nipping levers to come into action and nip the same time that it is supplied into the large in which the piston s' works ; tbis piston is in the bosses, for the purpose of obtaining thereby oylinder to work the pick to and fro. The piston two parts, which are capable of being made to the short retrograde and the somewhat longer within the small cylinder is made in two parts to come nearer together or farther from each other advancing motion of the machine above deadjust the length. On each side of the piston by male and female screws s. In the end covers scribed; but when it is desired to move the there is a projection and corresponding recess in of this cylinder are recesses si, in which soft machine about then the positions of the screw each of the end covers of the small cylinder, in material is introduced, lead with a small quantity pins will be altered according to the direction which a ring of soft material or packing is intro. of tin mixed therewith being preferred. Air or in which it is required to move the machine, duoed. There are two piston-rods to the piston other fluid is supplied to the smaller cylinder s and they will be placed in one or the other of of the small cylinder, and they respectively pass by the two pipes so, s, and it is preferred to the holes 2? ua, in the two horns u*, and by through two stuffing-boxes made in the end have the parts of the larger cylinder so arranged bringing the two parts of the piston of the covers of the small cylinder. The outer ends of that they may be closed and yet allow the air or smaller cylinder nearer together it will by making the two piston-rods are connected to double other fluid to pass from the passages leading to a longer stroke cause the bosses on the wheels pauls or grip levers, which are carried by rings the ports from the slide valve of the larger and consequently the wheels to which they are fitted to the bosses or centres of the wheels of cylinder to the smaller cylinder only, as by such fixed a larger extent of motion. the oarriage of the machine, and by such means means the machine may be moved from place the piston of the small cylinder in its to-and-fro to place by the working of the piston in the motion by the aid of the double pauls or grip smaller cylinder without working the piston in lovers alternately gives a slight backward motion the larger cylinder.

According to a return prepared by the Govern. and then & forward motion. The backward The piston.rods st, st have projecting studs ment Inspector of South Durham it appears that motion takes place near the end of the stroke of thereon, one of which enters a slotted opening s5, Britain in the ten years, 1856 to 1865, were 2,019.

the deaths from explosions of firedamp in Great the small piston, and when the pick is in the in one of the nipping levers t t, which turn on Out of this number 412 'occurred in South Wales

, work. The piston of the small cylinder and the the axes v v carried by the upper parts or horns 340 in Yorkshire, 238 in North and East Lancaparts worked thereby are arranged to admit of ri* of the two rings u which embrace the bosses shire, and 126 in 'South Staffordshire and Worces. adjustment.

of the wheels of the machine; these rings will tershire. The total number of explosions from fire. Our engraving shows a side elevation, partly turn or move freely on the bosses when the damp in Great Britain was 236 in 1856, and 377, in section, of so much as is necessary of one of nipping levers do not act on or nipthe peripheries 215, 95, 363, 119, 190, 163, 94, and 168 successively Mr. Jones's coal-cutting machines, baving his of the bosses. The adjustment of the two parts on the nine following years,

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MACHINERY FOR BORING ROCKS. prevent the borer from further inward motion ter or re-adjusted to a lathe for sorew outting.

When the pressure is excessive of course the The improvement herewith illustrated is intended THE THE invention to which the accompanying handles are let loose and must be stopped again to save a portion of the time and labour ex. engraving bas reference consists of certain according to the

direction and experience of the pended in this work. It is a plate, resembling improvements in the construction of machinery workman. The borer or tool is to be made op. in appearance the ordinary steady rest, for for boring rooks, whereby the hardest rock may symmetrical in order to prevent it from sticking which purpose it can be used. The plate A be pierced in the same manner as iron is bored, fast in the bore or hole of the rock. One lap of is secured to the block B by bolts passing through providing the boring tool be pressed against the the edge should be about two-tenths of an inch segmental slots in the foot C. The block is rocks with sufficient force. It has been patented longer than the other, and therefore the diameter secured to the elide or carriage of the lathe, and by Mr. S. Richards, of Crosby House, Bishopsgate, of the bore becomes two-tenths of an inch is fed along with it. D are tool posts, which and consists of a slow-threaded screw, the head larger than the dianieter of the edge, so that the have shanks paesing through the plate A, that of which is made sufficiently large and solid to borer may be readily extricated even from a hori. are furnished with segmental threads similar to allow of a square recess being cut therein for the zontal hole when it is turned to and fro with a those on the jaws of the ordinary scroll chuck, reception and holding of a boring tool. The suitable iron key for the purpose.

and, like them, engaging with a soroll thread on sorew is held in position by means of a nut

In the engraving, fig. i represents a longitudi. a disc at the rear of A (not shown). E are having a female scrow thread cut therein, soch nal section of the borer, constructed according to jaw rests set by scrows in the ordinary manner. put being fixed in a pipe or tube, the nut being the foregoing description. a is the tube; b the The object of the improvement is to avoid the formed of stool and the tabe of wronght

iron. The screw; C the nut; and d the boring-tool-holder ; trouble of removing bolts or studs from the end of the tube farthest from the nut and boring e the point or basis of resistance to the machine. lathe, after being turned, for the parpose of tool is closed by a cast-iron play somewhat in the Fig. 2 is the steel pivot. ff, fig. 1, show the threading them in the screwing machine, which form of a dome, or of a conical form, the surface or form of the arms, handles, or stay pieces fixed to is a quicker way than that of chasing them on end of the plag being faced with steel. The plug the periphery ofthe tube near the plug, for the pur. the lathe, but renders them liable to be threaded and face are bored through for the purpose of pose of preventing the tube from rotating. Fig. one-sided. For cutting V-threads op bolts or receiving a steel pivot, the eularged head of 3 is a section of the nut c; and fig. 4 a side view studs, or any thread of more than four to the which projects in the rear of the machine, the of the boring tool. Fig. 5 is a side view, and inch, pat block B on the carriage of the lathe, diameter of the head of the pin being about fig. 6 a plan view, of the lever for working the and the wheels for cutting the thread required. three-tenths of an inch less than the diameter of

a is a steel lever; b the square cut for When cutting coarse threads use three chasers the screw, such diameter being equal to that of the gripper ; c the rack; and d the paul con. or dies in the tool posts D. The dies can be cat the face of the plug against which the head of trolled by a spring. This rack lever is applied to with the hub between centres, and the dies are the pin bears. The extremity of the head of the fig. 1 as shown at %. A brake should be applied thus readily formed. For threading shafts of pirot is brought to a poiot, and forms the basis to the machine at A A for the purpose of regu. any size it is no less efficient, as will be seen at a of resistance of the machine. When it is desired lating the speed of the borer.

glance. Long screws, as those intended for to operate the borer, this pointed head must be

lathes, are kept from springing, as the rests brought to bear upon some unyielding object

E follow the cutters on the top of the thread and capable of resisting the power of the screw DESTRUCTION OF MODELS AT THE hold the work steadily and firmly to the tools. It against the solid rock. Between the screw head


can be used, also, for cutting down hubs on cast containing the boring tool and the tube a stoel lover is applied to the square shaft of the

MONG the many works of art consumed by for many other purposes easily understood by

or wrought work, facing and squaring up, and sorow; this lever is worked by a reciprocating band motion, the female squaro-cut gripper being extensive and valuable collections of naval and the practical machinist. Where the thread to be

cut is square and fast the plate A can be oontained in a circular rack actuated by a paul engineering models placed in the galleries of the set obliquely by means of the bolts and segmen. contained in the lever; it thus follows that when tropical department. Conspicuous among these tal slots in the foot C. It has been patented the machine is firmly fixed against the face of a was the model of the great suspension bridge, through the Scientific American Patent' Agenoy rock and the lever is brought to bear upon the balf a mile in length, over the River Doieper, at by Mr. James Wolfenden, of the Locomotive Borow, the screw will travel round out of the Kieff, in Russia, erected about fifteen years ago Works, Jersey City, N.J. fixed dot from the tabe and cause the boring im. by Mr. Vignoles, F.R.S., for the then emperor, plement to penetrate the rock.

at a cost of nearly balf a million sterling. This In order to prevent the tube itself from rotat. model was first shown in London at the Exhibi.

DYEING OF HORN. ing daring the motion of the screw four handles tion of 1851, and was subsequently placed, on or jatting stays are fixed to the periphery of the loan, in the Crystal Palace, where it had remained DR

R. HIRSCH communicates the following to tabe near the plug; they are brought parallel many years. It was considered a remarkable

the Scientific American:-A few recipes towards the middle portion of the tube, and are work of mechanical skill, and was constructed at for the dyeing of horn, especially with reference then bent outwards at right angles or there an expense of several thousand pounds. The lose to the manufacture of tuttons, or such other abonts, forming radii to the central line of the to Mr. Vignoles is irreparable, though a doplicate articles as may be exposed to the heat of boiling machine. These abutting arms are for the por model remains in the

engineering gallery at water, may not be out of place especially, as pose of being controlled by the knee of the St. Petersburg, pluced there by the Emperor practice has proved them to work satisfactorily. workman while he is boring, but

if an excessively Nicholas I., to whom it had been presented, with i. Dull Black.–The buttons aro boiled in's hard piece of rock should resist the efforts of tho the imperial permission. Attached to the model saturated solution of sugar of lead, until the boring tool, and therefore cause an excessive was a printed descriptive account, from which colour has acquired the desired shade. Accorddegree of friction upon the screw threads and the above particulars are extracted, by way of ing to the quality of the horu, this may take a the face of the plug and pivot on which the tube putting on record some recollection of this quarter to half an hour. The buttons should is adjusted, then, by reason of the increase in beautiful and singular work, destroyed, with so then be washed with water, slightly acidulated diameter and bearing surface of the screw over many other most precious and interesting objects with vinegar. 2. Irou Black. The buttons, that of the plug and pivot, it will follow that the of nature and of science, exhibited in the Crystal after being treated as stated in No. 1, are placed tabe will turn, carrying the fixed out with it, and Palace.

in a cold solution of an alkaline sulphurot. The

result is, the buttons possess a bright, metallic founded are at present mainly empirical, then have any sensible influence on the empirical law, lustre. 3. Pearl.- After undergoing the treat- it may be replied that in the early stages of every upon which storm warnings have been based. ment of No. 1, the buttons are brought into science its rules are mainly empirical ; but it has The truth is, this land meteorology scheme is diluted muriatic acid, containing 3 per cent. of never before been urged that, therefore, we ought altogether unnecessary for the purpose of cor. the strong acid. This weak solution produces, to deprive ourselves of such advantages as may recting these empirical laws. It is not so much according to the duration of its influence, all be derived from the limited amount of knowledge in the multiplication of observations over limited shades, from the darkest blackish blue to the we may happen to possess.

areas, as in the adoption of improved methods lightest wbite. 4. Silver-Gray.---The buttons The rules by which the laws of magnetism are of combining and treating observations at stations from No. 1 are placed in a solution of nitrate of applied to tho correction of compasses in iron scattered some distance apart over every accessi. mercury. saturated at a temperature of 140 ships are to a great extent empirical, and, in spite ble portion of the earth's surface, that we must degs.-170 degs. Fah. The treatment in this of the greatest care in their application, serious look for new discoveries, and for the means of bath should last ten to twenty minutes, which, if errors are sometimes made; but are we on that establishing the rules of meteorology on a strictly cleanliness be observed, will produce most elegant arcount to decline to avail ourselves of such aid scientific basis. results. 5. Chocolate Brown -- The buttons as they do afford, imperfect, and to some extent The cost of carrying out the land meteorology from No. 4 are boiled for about a quarter of an uncertain, though it may be ? Long after the scheme would be out of all proportion to the hour in a concentrated but thin solution of predicted places of the moon were given in the results ever likely to be obtained from it; and it catechu. 6. Chocolate Brown, Dark.— The but. Nautical Almanac," the longitudes derived from would be unjust to the commercial community tons from No. 5 are placed in a warm bath of lunar distances were often very considerably in to withdraw the funds which have hitherto been bicarbonate of potash, containing 3 per cent. of error, but no scientific man, or body of men, at so usefully applied in the interests of humanity the salt. With the duration of the treatment the that time ventured to suggest that the publication and commerce, and devote them to the establish. colour darkens. 7. Chocolate Brown.- The but. of the “Nautical Almanac" ought to be suspended ment, by an irresponsible body, of a scheme of tons of No. 5 are placed in a warm solution of until astronomers had perfected the lunar theory. such doubtful utility: It will be evident from sugar of lead, saturated at the common tempera. The laws relating to the strength of materials the above remarks that the recommendation of ture. This colour looks especially well in knife were long in a very unsatisfactory state ; but the president and council of the Royal Society, handles, etc. 8. Bronze Brown. The buttons scientific men did not urge that, therefore, we from whatever point of view it may bo regarded, from No. 4 are placed in a solution of æsculine ought to suspend building and engineering is a retrograde movement, opposed to the true (the pigment of the horse chesnut), and treated operations until these laws had been established interests of the science of meteorology, and and boiled as in No. 5. 9. Bronze Brown. The on a strictly scientific basis. It is needless, likely, if acted upon, to retard its progress. It buttons from No. 4 are boiled for quarter of an however, to multiply illustrations to show the is therefore to be hoped that the Board of Trade hour in a concentrated solution of green vitriol, unsoundness of the principle on which the recom- will reconsider their decision, and not, for light and then in æsculine. The resulting bronze mendation is based ; and it requires but a and insufficient reasons, discontinue à system differs materially from the former, possessing moderate acquaintance with scientific methods which, on grounds of humanity and commercial great softness. 10. Light Brown.— The buttons to see that in a science which aims at prediction, economy, has met with the general approval of from No. 4 are boiled in a solution of galls or its progress will be best and most surely advanced the country, and is, moreover, so likely to con. pure tannin. This is especially adapted to netty by a continuous and systematic comparison tribute materially to the advancement of a designs, to which it imparts a silky lúster. Upon of the phenomena as they actually occur with the popular and highly-important branch of science. the sensitive surface, produced by treatment No. phenomena as predicted. It is in this way that Mr. Thomas Heelis, F.R.A.S., urged that the 4, a great many combinations of colours may be the methods of astronomy have attained their abolition of the cautionary signals would tell produced.

present high degree of perfection; and it will be hardly against the coasting craft and fishermen.

obvious, on a little consideration, that, if Mr. To large well-found sea-going vessels, wel. SUSPENSION OF STORM SIGNALS.

Babington's predictions or forecasts of the provided with instruments, the signals were not

weather are regularly and systematically com- of much use, but the case was very different with AT

Literary and Philosophical Society, held many points of considerable interest will doubt. who were unable to afford instruments. He December 11, 1866, Edward Schunck, Ph.D., less often be brought under immediate votice instanced the case of the colliers which supply F.R.S., &c., president, in the chair, Mr. Joseph which might otherwise long escape detection, and the large steamers at Southampton with coal Baxendall, F.R.S., read the following paper: in this way an impetus will be given to the pro- brought from the south Welsh ports. These “On the Recent 'Suspension, by the Board of gress of the science which could not be applied vessels have to make all their passages from Trade, of Cautionary Storm Warning: :"-On in any other way, or by any other means. Southampton to the westward in ballast, and it the 29th ult., a circular was issued by the Board In the circular issued by the Board of Trade is of the utmost importance to them not to be of Trade, announcing that the " cautionary it is stated that the president and council of the caught by a gale from the southward between storm warnings,” which have from time to time Royal Society think that "in a few years the Plymouth or Falmouth and the Land's End. been issued by the meteorological department of rules on which storm warnings are founded may He was not aware that any complaints as to the the board, would be suspended from the 7th day probably be much improved by deductions from inefficiency of the storm warnings had been of December instant. This step, it appears, has the observations in land meteorology, which will received from the masters of coasters, and com: been taken on the recommendation of the presi- by that time have been collected anů studied." sidering the amount of capital and number of dent and council of the Royal Society, who are Now, this allusion to land meteorology refers, no hands employed in the trade, and the fact that of opinion that "at present these warnings are doubt, to a recommendation made in a letter they had no powerful organ to advocate their founded on rules mainly empirical, and there addressed by the president of the Royal Society views, he thought that their intereste deserved fore should not be issued under the superintend to Mr. Farrer, one of the secretaries of the consideration, and feared that they had been ence of the scientific body to whom the discussion Board of Trade, on the 15th June, 1865. Mr. overlooked. The saving of life should, especially of meteorological observations will be com. Farrer had informed the president that the at present when so many complaints are current made by the board to ascertain the opinions and place in the hands of their hydrograplier, all be a great object, even if such saving were effected wishes of those classes of the community for those observations which can properly be made by empirical means. whose bonefit the system of issuing storm warn- use of in framing charts for purposes of navi- dence in the prospect of improving the me. ings was briginated by the late Admiral Fitzroy. gation, but not those which relate to meteorology teorology of the coast by observations inland. No complaints against the system, as carried out proper;" and the president, in referring to this, He rather advocated the improvement of the by the admiral, and since his death by Mr. interprets the term "meteorology proper

land meteorology by observations on the coast; Babington, have been made by those most deeply mean merely " the land meteorology of the and he had noticed a decided improvement of interested in its operation; nor has any evidence British Islands ;” but how this singular inter- late in the storm warnings. been produced to show that it has led to loss or in- pretation was arrived at is not stated. He then engaged in a yachting cruise on the Cornislı convenience. On the contrary, it is very genc goes on to urge the desirability of establishing coast during the months of August and September saving many valuable lives, and also an amount equal distances, in a meridianal direction, from signals, and had never seen them hoisted without of property. greatly exceeding in value the whole che scuth of England to the north of Scotland, the forecast being speedily verified. cost of the department in which it bad its origin. furnished with self-recording instruments, supWhether the rules on which it is founded are plied from, and duly verified at, one of the empirical or not, the system, as a mere commer- stations, regarded as a central station." This

THE OCEAN CURRENTS. cial speculation, has been successful, and it is central station he afterwards suggests should be therefore difficult to understand why the Board the observatory of the British Association, at

DROFESSOR GRIMES, of Philadelphia, made of Trade should have attached so much import- Kew. Now, it has long been known to meteorolo- the Ocean Currents, at a recent meeting

of the

the following remarks upon the subject of ance to the reasons advanced by the president gists that 'deductions from observations made American Institute-Polytechnic Branch, tho and couucil of the Royal Society, and allowed within

the narrow limits of the British Islands president, Professor Tillman, being in the chair; them to outweigh other far more important con:

are quite insuficient to lead to the detection Columbus, during his first voyage, discovered in eiderations. If the president and

council think and development of the laws which regulate the midst of the ocean an immense stream that the superintendence of the duties connected those great movements and phenomena of the moving with great velocity and superior in its with the system of issuing storm warnings would atmosphere upon which the daily changes in the proportions to the largest continental rifer be derogatory to the scientific body to whom the weather at any given station depend. The known. Since the announcement of the exist. discussion of meteorological observations will be principal meteorological elements of the British ence of this

, the Gulf Stream, similar currents ought to be suspended for an indefinite length of siderable accuracy, from observations made Oceans, and

now physicists recognise five, one time, but rather, that its management ought to during long series of years, at various observa- each in the North and South Atlantic and Pacific, be committed to some more suitably constituted (tories and stations, both public and private; and the remaining one in the Indian Ocean. The six body. If, however, it is intended to be under any minute chauges in their values that may be continents of the world are arranged in pairs, 28 because the rules upon which storm warnings are improved instruments are not at all likely to this and many other points of similarity, it is


Having been evident that whatever force caused the one re. In 1843, the Frith gun was patented in interesting; and I should be glad if any of your peated itself in forming the others. The hypo- England, having a cast-iron barrel, that part correspondents could inform me as to where I thesis advanced by Professor Grimes refers the most acted upon by the explosion being could get access to such, if published. question back to the age when the entire earth strengthened by strong wrought-iron or steel In the common refinery for “plate iron” or was covered with water, at which time six bands, driven on while hot, so that the contrac-"refined metal,” which generally has six blow. elliptical currents were formed. Five now re- tion thereof in cooling would produce firm adhe- down tuyeres, the iron treated is decarbonised to main; the sixth one was formed in the North sion. The question might here arise, whether a considerable extent; but what appears to be of Indian, an ocean which, owing to the elevation the information in the description would enable greater importance is, that the resulting “plateof land, no longer exists, but the Caspian and an intelligent mechanic to make the proper iron contains generally 60 to 90 per cent. Aral seas, and the large lakes of Asia furnish difference between the interior diameter of the less silicon, and 25 to 50 per cent. less sulproof of its former reality. By a simple mecha- hoop and the exterior diameter of the guns pbur, than the pig iron from which it was pronical problem we can demonstrate why these body. We are assured that anyone having any duced. It does not appear that the partial decorellipses were formed.

If near the edge of a disc knowledge in relation to this subject is qualified bonisation effected in the refinery benefits the revolving rapidly on its centre a ball is placed, to carry into effect in a scientific way the pur- ironmaster, as far as the cost of the subsequent and caused by any means to pass alternately pose and object of the patentee. This is also process, puddling (when sach,“ plate-iron” is back and forth on the radius, its motion will affirmed in detail by all the defendant's experts, practically totally decarbonised)-is concerned ; not be in a straight line, but it will iuvariably whose attention was called to the subject. The as a higher price is paid the puddler for converttraverse an ellipse. To make an application : state of the art was familiar to Chambers in 1849, ing it than for common white iron, which con. when the waters in the Gulf of Mexico have be- for by his own statements he determined the tains more carbon. There is the advantage of a come heated by the sun, the tendency will be to difference in diameter of the wrought-iron hoops against the waste in the refinery, and a better pass north antil cooled, then to return to the used in his wrought-iron guns of that date, on equator, and, such wopld be the only motion the principle of the law of expansion of wrought quality of bar produced, I do not expect that

iron. Another point should be noticed. earth is a constant force acting upon the current thickness of the walls of the Frith gụn nearly melted. Were it blown into, I do not think the


melted for the moulds, is blown into, but only eroly motion, and turning it to the east, by the correspond with the thickness of complainant's, results would be so uniform as is claimed, for it coast of Ireland. Becoming cool, it seeks the and the same is true as to thickness of the hoops would be difficult to turn off the blast at precisely warmer regions, and the easting is transferred Whether or not this inventor has a knowledge of the same stage of refinement in two consecutive into a general southernly direction, bat, as it Barlow's Law, cannot affect the question. nears the coast of Africa, its velocity is lost, and

The point of superiority of finish of the defend- proaching plate-iron in character so adaptable for

meltings; por is it likely that they find iron apas the earth moves more rapidly than the car. ant's cannon over the old Frith gun is not en

guns as a mixture of iron simply melted and rent, the latter is left behind, or is giving an

titled to consideration. It is owing to the kept in that state for some time, or iron so melted apparent westward motion, till the Gulf of mechanic and not the inventor. Upon the whole, three or four times in succession before casting; Mexico is again reached and the circle is com. without pursuing the case further, we are com- the latter method having been proved by Mr. pleted. During the Creation the land appeared pelled to the conclusion : That in view of the Fairbairn to greatly increase the strength of cast on the margin of, and between, the circles; in state of the art at the time, the improvement in iron. proof of which the pointing of the three south the construction of cast-iron guns with wrought

The removal of sulphur from ordnance iron ern continents to the south-east-features first iron hoops, claimed by the complainant, will be does not appear to be desirable for increasing its pointed out by Humboldt-the accumulation of found in a description of the Frith patent, and strength. In the ordnance produced at Finspong, lands toward the north, rather than the south, upon this ground a decree mnst be entered for cast direct from a charcoal blast furnace, there is and the direction of the glacial markings during the defendant, dismissing the bill.

a good percentage of sulphur; and in the speci. the drift period—these all bear witness to and are

mens of Finspong gun iron exhibited in the explained by this theory.

Stockbolm Exhibition, the sulphur appeared to

have assamed a distinct network form, with the Correspondence.

graphitic iron in the meshes, instead of the

mottled form (when it arises from salphur) so Legal Intelligence. GAS REVERBERATORY FURNACES.

common in this country. It would be of great

interest to your readers if anyone could favour TO THE EDITOR OF THE “MECHANICS' Magazine." them with the chemical composition of the seveUNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT, SOUTHERN DIVISION.

SIR, -I gather from reading your article and ral pig irons used at Königshütte, and of the iron Before JUDGE Nelson.

description of the method of working the Silesian and slag produced from them. There is abun.

Gas Furnace, in No. 2,198 of the MECHANICS'dant room for improvement in the refining ap. DECISION IN THE PARROTT GUN CASE.* MAGAZINE, that it is used as a substitute for the paratas in common use in this country; and as at The bill is filed by Treadwell against Parrott, common reverberatory furnace in which iron is many works the iron is refined before puddling maker of the well-known Parrott gun, founded on melted for casting purposes, and also as a sub for the production of best quality plates and bars, letters patent granted Dec. 11, 1855, and restitute for the refinery,

as used in this country, and at other works for the sale of refined metal for issued Feb. 4, 1862, for improvement in the for making a plate iron " or "refined metal." I casting purposes, &c., the capabilities of Eck's and manufacture of cannon, to restrain him from in- do not clearly learn whether or not the side Siemens's arrangements to reduce the cost of refringement. The invention claims, first, casting tuyeres are used at Königshütte when iron is fining should command the attention of iron

In the a cannon the walls of which are encased with melted to be run direct into gun moulds, or only refiners. The great saving is in fuel. wrought.iron rings, smaller than the part which when iron is to be refined for again melting in common refinery, at least four out of the six they are to surround but enlarged by expansion, mixture with other irons, and then run into tuyeres are—or, at least, two-thirds of the work and by contraction bringing the particles of said moulds without any blowing. In the description of each is-required for the combustion of the body nearer together. Second, in securing the of the method of working the Silesian gas fur- fuel for melting down the charge, or for keeping hoops, a female screw is cut on the inside to fit nace, it is stated that the “furnace may be em. it molten if charged iu that condition; while threads cut on the body of the gun, and are ployed with or without the two lateral tuyeres; only the other one-third, or less, of the blast is finished to 1-1000th part of the interior diameters these are introduced when it is to be used as a used for oxidising some of the carbon, sulphur, less than the male screw to be encircled. The refinery farmace; but, nnder any circumstances, and silicon in the iron. Also from the positiou Berlow Law, to which the inventor refers as their judicious employment must facilitate the of the fuel and recoil of the blast, possibly not having furnished him with the principles leading rapid mixture and purification of the metal, the less than two-thirds of the heating

power of the to this invention, showed that " hollow cylinders objects to be attained in the remelting of iron for fuel used is blown up the stack, and so lost.

the manufacture of ordnance." Now there is an Mr. G. Parry, of Ebbw Vale, observing this of the same material, do not increase in strength important difference in the results obtained by waste of fuel in the refinery, and waste of power in the ratio of increased thickness, but the power simply melting, and by melting

and blowing com- in producing two-thirds more blast than was ness is obtained.” To obviate the elements of bined. When iron is melted in a common rever- utilised in refining properly so called, adopted

beratory furnace, and kept in a molten state for a modification of the common reverberatory fur. weakness caused as above, and to obtain the some time, more or less carbon is eliminated; nace, and of Eck’s refinery combined, for restrength of wrought instead of cast iron, the plan the quantity chiefly depending upon the greater fining. Mr. Parry's improved refinery consists of construction befora described is resorted to, or less time the iron is exposed to an oxidising of a reverberatory furnace with a bridge much and by this means a gun is made nearly four flame. During the process some iron is also higher than commonly used, and having

two side times stronger than a cast-iron gun of the same oxidised, most of it passing into the slag, and tuyeres in the body of the furnace, as in Eck's.

some into flue dust. The percentage of sulphur Mr. Parry's refinery has a stack 50ft. high, which, The only material and difficult question 18, is increased during the operation, sulphur being by its draught, produces combustion of the fuel, whether or aot the patentee is the original and absorbed from the gas filame and dust from the instead of four out of the six blow-down tuyeres first inventor of the improvement. After an at- fire. Also it is probable that, although son of of the common refinery; thereby saving the tentive examination, and our best consideration, the iron treated is oxidised, none of the sulphur power required for providing them with blast. Tho the conclusion seems clear that he is not. it originally contained becomes oxidised, and, fuel used is coal instead of the more expensive

A combined cast-iron gun and wrought iron consequently, the percentage of sulphur is in coke required for the old plan. The new furnace envelope was constructed by Thiery, a French of creased by this concentration of the iron. The has also the advantage of keeping the inorganic ficer, as early as 1834. is seen from his same is probable of the phosphorus, which is elements of the fuel well separated from the description that the hooping of cast-iron guns by likely to have its percentage increased to a slight iron to be refined. The high bridge and modified wrought-iron bands, much after the manner of extent by the diminution of the weight of iron. turnace roof cause all the flames to impinge on the patente, was then known to add to the The effect of this concentration upon any silicon the iron, and in actual work this furnace has repower of resistance ; that this was increased by originally in the pig iron is, perhaps, more fined iron with a saving of two-thirds of the fuel the contraction of heated bands ; and the differ. doubtful, as some of it may combine, as silica, generally used. Mr. Parry introduced another ence in diameter was governed by the law of ex. with the oxide of iron developed, and pass off in improvement, which was the sending of super. pansion of wrought iron.

the slag. Carefully made analyses of any iron heated steam through a third side tuyere into the

treated in an air furnace, before and after melt. molten iron. He says that steam for refining * Reported in the Scientific American. ing, and of the slag produced, would be very has been successfully used in this furnace, both



as to the operation and result, the iron retaining and lungs get filled with dust. A gas furnace for perfect melting or refining furnace is required by its fuidity for a sufficient time, and becoming de heating rail piles was 'some time ago built and the Government at Woolwicb, they should put solphorised to a great extent; but what perhaps experimented upon at the Ebbw Vale Works; down a Siemens's furnace in preference to Eck's. most enhances the value of the steaming

process bat through a fault in its design a welding heat They have capital enough, and in a short time the is its effect upon the forge cinder used in the could never be got up on the bed of the furnace. difference in the first cost would be made op, and refining process. This cinder is desulphurised the supply of air was also badly regulated, since a saving ever afterwards engared. I hope Mr. and dephosphorised to a very considerable ex. at one point, between the generator and furnace Siemens's royalty has not been so adjusted as, in tent, and thus very greatly improved for using, bridge, the bricks of an arch were melted like the eyes of the Government, to balance the differas an ore, in the blast furnace again. It is sur water; showing plenty of heating power, but ence in economy of his over Eck's. There being prising that this arrangement of Mr. Parry's has developed at the wrong point. During the ex- no patent-right for Eok's is not a little advantage not found greater favour among refiners of iron. periments the piles remained in the furnace in the eyes of ironmakers, who always detest It is an improvement upon the old method, oven from twelve to twenty-four hours at a time, and, patent royalties. without the steaming detail. to the astonishment of the workmen, the piles

I ain, Sir, yours, &c., It can, however, be readily believed that, when withdrawn were as perfect on their edges, Brendon Hill Mines, THOMAS MORGANS. setting the steaming process aside, Eck's refinery and weighed as much, as when charged. This Taunton, Jan. 1, 1867. is a more perfect arrangement than Parry'e. was a pleasing fact for the mill manager, could There must be a more perfect, and therefore more he have brought the piles out to the rolls. After profitable, oxidation of the fuel at the starting several attempts, I believe the expectation of THE VERMICULOUS MOTION OF RAILWAY point, since with a generator of sufficient height snocess was given up, and the furnace stands

TRAINS. and capacity only carbonic oxide gas goes over idle. Coke was the fuel used. the bridge; while in Parry's not a small quantity At the Sandviken Bessemer Steel Works, be ticle on this subject, and as I constantly travel on a

SIR,-[ have read with great interest your ar. of carbonio acid gas goes over, and even raw air longing to the Högbo Steeland Iron Company, I saw line that is painfully subject to this motion

with its as well, when, as occasionally happens, there is gasfurnaces for heating 45in.square steel ingots for express trains, I wish to say a few words about it. a hole in the grate. I should expect that all the hammering down for guns. These furnaces had I really do not think that the engine is at fault

, carbonic oxide which goes over the bridge of two generators each, one at either end, with excepting insomuch as it is frequently driven at er: Parry's refinery is completely oxidised by the flaes going down through the bed of the furnace, cessive speed, and I maintain that the speed is the blast tuyeres, and utilised over the furnace bed, and leading off to the steam boilers. These fur: true cause of the rocking. A train timed to run at

Mr. Cox, in a letter which appeared in No. naces are very compact, and do not occupy so 40 miles an hour, on the rail I am writing about, 2,199 of the MECHANICS' Magazine, says that much room as one would expect. They were not rides easily enough ; delay it, and try to make op Eck's furnace requires the laying down of blowing at work when I saw them, but Mr. Göransen, the the time at 50 or 60 miles, and you cannot sit in engines and boilers. This could not be urged as an manager, assured me they gave perfect satisfac- your seat. This sort of running I do not consider objection when it is to be substituted for the old tion: one of the best features being that when and curves. Depend upon it, Sir, this is the main retineries, as they are

often so vear to blast fur- the door was raised for examining or withdraw. point; all others mentioned in your article are ac. naces as to receive their charges in a molten ing the ingot no raw air went in to oxidise the cessories no doubt, and I would mention one other state from them, and so are easily supplied with steel, but gas flames came out instead. The fuel point, the closeness of the wheels of the carriages. blast from the furnace mains; and where re used in these furnaces was oval from the Shire On one occasion I was so incommoded, not to say fineries are at present used for melting down cold Oaks Colliery, shipped at Grimsby. Mr. Göransen frightened, that after trying to couple up the car. pig, as at tin.plate works, and forges making for stated that Shire Oak coal was hard, and the best riages, but with no result, I changed from a first to bar and plate mills, there are already blowing they coald get for the purpose. With such an a second class carriage, and instantly got relief arrangements; and in every case less blast would example as these Sandviken furnaces, what is to though the pace was the same, but I found that the be required for Eck's than for the present method. prevent the adoption of gas heating furnaces in second class carriage was longer and the wheels I bink Mr. Cox will also find that in several our mills, and the using of moderately bituminous farther apart. This is, I think, a great point and

was so in the coaching times. The last style of mail forges and mills there are blowing arrangements coal in them ?

coach was longer between the wheels, and you for urging the fires of puddling and heating fur. Speaking of Eck's generator, Mr. Cox says:- could gallop the team with little or no rocking.

These same arrangements could be " It must result that at times there is an excess on the North-Western line the wheels are very far readily adapted for supplying Eck's generators. of oxygen in the furnace, which must oxidise apart, and I rarely find any oscillation, even at a Reverberatory fornaces for simply melting, known and waste the charge, and at other times there is speed beyond that I have already mentiond on as "air" or "wind” furnaces, are to be found at an excess of gas.” In your account of the another line. It must also be borne in mind, at every foundry and casting establishment. At the method of working the Silesian furnace, you say not get this motion on the old main lines, it is on

least so my experience goes to prove, that you do same places cupolas and their blowing arrange the generators are always kept fall of fuel, a lines of a later date that it occurs; constructed proments are to be found. At such places the con. condition ea sy to ensure, considering the small bably at first cost cheaper, with heavy gradients version of the air fornaces and supply of blast quantity to be charged in an hour. With this and sharp curves, but surely telling a tale in would be very simple matters, and very profit- condition fulfilled,

I do not think the composition working expenses in the long run. This I will il, able to the proprietors. Four pounds per inch or the supply of the gases would be variable lustrate by an often-repeated trial on a branch of blast pressure, as used for Eck's at Königshütte, enough to interfere with the regular working of one of our leading railways where no sooner do if for the generators, appears excessive, and, the furnace. Carbonic oxide would always be you join the main line than all this disagreeable indeed, injurious ; for such a pressure must drive the predominating gas, and ot regular supply. motion ceases, bearing in mind that the speed is dust and ashes over the bridge. Ordinary fan As to oxygen in the

furnace (free, or raw air, i even greater on the main line than on the branch. blast is quite strong enough; and to get in the presume), I ào not see how, under the condi.

I am, Sir, yours, &c.,

OBSERVER. requisite volume of blast larger tuyeres should be tions, that could possibly get into the furnace. used. With low pressures less power is required Then, again, is it likely that the variation of to send the same volume of air into the gene. intensity iu Eck's, if the supply of blast were unrators. attended to, would be greater than when a fresh

TO CORRESPONDENTS. On passing many forges and mills, one cannot regenerator is turned on to Siemens's furnace,

The MEOWANIOS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to sub help noticing the volumes of smoke emitted by supposing the supply of gas and blast to be scribers of £1 Is. 8d. yearly, or 105. 102. half-yearly, pay.

able in advance. the furnace stacks; and the accompanying flames similarly unattended to in Siemens's as well ? Advertisements are inserted in the MROHANICS' MAGAilluminate, at night-time, an entire neighbonr. The fact is, both furnaces must be attended to ZINE at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 in. hood. If such furnaces are inspected, the necks and regulated; but happily that is not a difficult sertions, or 4d. a line for 26 insertions. are seen to be fall of flame, and higher up in the task with either of them. There is no doubt but rate as type. Special arrangements made for large adverstacks, at the cracks here and there, their inte. that with a generator as high as practicable, and tisements. riors are seen to be intensely heated. Now all this of a good capacity, gas of a very uciform quality

All communications should be addressed to the EDITOR, heat from the commencement of the furnace neck, and qu would be produced in Eck's. excepting the small portion of it necessary to

To insure insertion in the following numbor, advertiseproduce draaght, is, of course, entire loss. At over Eck's in the matter of stopping for cleaning Thursday evening,

Siemens's furnace has decidedly an advantage ments should reach the otice not later than 6 o'clock on the more modern forges and mills, the necks are out. "Lighting coal" is not an inconsiderable tions unaccompanied by the name and address of thout

We must absolutely decline attending to communionturned into underground flues, and the waste heat item in the cost at forges and mills at present, writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of is thereby conveyed to boilers for generating but I believe the quantity requisite to a light” good faith. -Ed. M.M. steam. This, by utilising the surplus heat, is a one of Eck's would be very much less than is step in the right direction; but, after all, we have now used with common furnaces, simply because RECEIVED.-J. E. P.-R. L.-T.M.-O. D. A.-D. G. F. the pain of knowing that imperfect combastion a more completo combustion is effected, and an

-G. E. P.-A, W.-J, 0. E.-G. E. P.-G. S. L.-A. B. B. and loss of fuel goes on as before in the furnace inferior fuel can be used after the first layer is W. Bros.-M, R. and Co.--T. Bros.-W.W.-P. and

-J. B. H.-J. H.-Sir J, 0.-J. E. P.-J. H. W.grates, and also of enduring occasional bad yields well lighted. The fact that inferior fuel can be J. M'G. from burnt iron, both in puddling and heativg used in Siemens's and Eck's furnaces, with quite information upon cotion culture and manufacture in Di

REGGENOL (Cardiff).-You will find a vast amount of furnaces. For practising the greatest economy as good heating results as best fuel can produce Ures's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, or in Tomlinsons in fuel in forges and mills, whether of old or new (though necessarily with a greater quantity of Cyclopedia of Arts and

Manufactures. The printed special arrangement, where there is already any blow the former) is a point in favour of both. How cations at the Patent Office also afford much information ing apparatus, and with least cost of conversion, often is a forge or mill manager compelled to

upon every description of coston machinery. Eck's furnaces should be adopted ; and where place the fault of a week's bad yields or small there are underground flues leading to steam make agaiust the coal supplied ?

And the same boilers the surplus heat would be utilised nearly with the forge and mill men to their masters; The Lords of the Admiralty have given direcas effciently as in Siemen's regeneratous. bad coal-no koobs-stony-dusty-dirty-clin tions for three new vessels to be laid down at

Siemens's arrangement should, no doubt, be kery coal, is their constant refuge and excuse for Chatham Dockyard as soon as the work now in adopted where any works entirely new are to bad work. We are not to forget one minor ad progress at that establishment will allow of their be put down, as being the most perfect in its vantage of Eck's furnace over Siemens's. During two of the improved corvette class, together with

being commenced. The vessels ordered include action, and most cleanly and comfortable for all the regular working of Siemens's there is a con: concerned. Only those who have bad to exist in stant loss of heat between the generators and the tended to build one or more composite gunboats of forges and mills can estimate the boon of having furnaces, which is avoided in Eck’s, as the geneno coal and ashes-fillers working close by, espe. rator is close to the combustion poiut.

and wood, and each of about 500 tons burden.

The vessels ordered will be laid down on the vacant cially in windy weather, when everyono's eyes Beforo concluding, I would remark that, if a slips early in the ensuing year.

Each line 600

166, Fleet-street.

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