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ture of these stations, as reported, was much

INJECTOR FOR LIQUID FUEL. higher than that observed by themselves, at places not remote enough to account for the difference. Let us hope, at least, for a little amendment in this direction.

Since the foregoing was written, we have received a copy of the

proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. From these it appears that Mr. Vernon, F.R.A.S., has forwarded a letter from Dr. Buys Ballot, of Utrecht, in which the writer calls attention to the fact that the system of issuing storm warnings* was first suggested and carried out by himself at Utrecht, and not by Admiral Fitzroy in London, as is generally

22 supposed in this country. He says :

I laid down my principles before the Dutch Acad. emy of Sciences in October, 1857: in the Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris in November, 1857. I made my first proposal to the Dutch Government on the 14th of November, 1859, and the system was commenced on the 1st of June, 1860, or nine months sooner than in England. Í communicated a paper on the subject to the British and night-lamps will be difficult to improve are clack valves, and serve respectively for Association at the Newcastle meeting, land I upon, regard being had to the desirability of the admission of the exterval air to be comwonder that my system has not been adopted in displaying the signal to as great a distance as pressed, and for its escape after having underEngland, the more so because I recommended it to possible without interfering with established gone that operation. The two first valves

, Mr. Francis Galton in August last. It is not only signs. To announce the weather at one sta- those for the ingress and egress of the water, system is much better, though'it gives no parti- tion, as Utrecht, is quite a different affair to are regulated by two small machines acting calars as to rain or snow, but only the direction of that of announcing it around three kingdoms. independently, termed aëromotors, very simithe wind for the next twenty-four hours almost So far as we are aware the cones, drums, and lar to a vertical steam engine; their force is without fail, and the force or strength of the wind lamps and their symbols are Fitzroy's ideas about 28-horse power. The motion of the with great probability. It is a fact above all doubt entirely. We believe that the characteristics three valves situated upon the vertical branch that the wind that comes is nearly at right angles of his daily forecasts—the least valuable part of the imaginary siphon is the result of the barometer readings. The wind has the place of of his scheme-were entirely his own; and that difference of the pressures acting upon their lowest height at its left hand, and is stronger in he was ready to defend them inch by inch with surfaces. The valve of admission is in comproportion as the difference of barometer reading anyone. As a matter of actual fact, storm- munication with the atmosphere; that of is greater. If Portsmouth and Valentia rise much signals were originated years ago. 'Madras escape, or, as we may say, of exhaust, leads above Nairn, then I think you will have a gale and Mauritius have for years had a mode of into large reservoirs in the form of boilers

. oscillation of that difference of barometer readings. warning ships out of port, upon the commence- They are ten in number, and their capacity The only question is, how many hours does that ment of cyclones. So far as our investigation is about 22 cubic yards. These reservoirs difference take place before the wind comes ? Now, has extended the winds over our islands appear serve the purpose of storing up the comI propose to introduce

an instrument that in all our to pass at an angle of 45 degrees to the line pressed air to be used as may be required. ports will simply show the azimuth in which he between the places of highest and lowest baro- The pressure in them is maintained constant greatest difference of barometer reading prevails: meter, leaving the place of low pressure on the by a manometric colunan of water reaching acquainted with the meaning of the signs will have left hand, except when calms and light airs to 160ft. in height from the bottom. This to look at that instrument at the same time as the prevail. The rule cannot be properly exempli- column will not compress to more than six barometer. It is a new instrument that may be re- fied by a single example, and that given by atmospheres, though the rams compress to garded as a differential barometer, showing the

state Buys Ballot is not one of the best. The baro- ten, but by the application of a regulating For many years weather signals after my method meter may be very low at Valentia as com- valve this degree of compression is attained. have been exhibited every morning at nine o'clock at pared with Portsmouth, with a westerly gale The modus operandi is as follows:—The water Utrecht: the strength and direction of the wind in the Channel. We should like particulars admission valve being opened, the column of are observed every hour, and compared with the of the new instrument; in our ignorance, of water in one branch of the machine, about prognostics, so that I could say how mary times the course, we cannot appreciate it. These things 85ft. in height, falls upon a mass of water, failed. Why does not the British Government may be managed better in Holland; but then which acts as a cushion, and deadens the send a distinguished meteorologist to Utrecht, in why are we so benighted regarding Dutch pro- violence of the shock. The vis viva of this order to see what we have done? I do not pretend gress? Cannot Dr. Ballot treat us to an ex- column drives the mass of water up to the to have found the whole truth, and acknowledge position of his experience of the prognostics exhaust air valve, which opens and allows that the rule may admit of exceptions in other of gales and storms" all reduced to measures the compressed air to escape into the resercountries; but in Holland we have had more expe- and time?" If he deems himself the inventor voirs already described. Directly the blow or rience of the prognostics of gales and storms than of storm-warnings, let circumstantial proof be shock is given the water admission valve daced to measures and time ; in England and France presented. But, supposing the verdict be closes, and the exhaust opens and lets the all is vague, and in general expressions.

either way, the British nation will ere long water out. At the same time the exhaust air Now it appears to us that there is nothing

exult over the indefatigable Fitzroy, notwith-valve closes, the level of the water sinks, and tangible in this letter from Dr. Buys Ballot. standing that his reputation is now temporarily a vacuum is formed in the compressive column

clouded. Assertion is left unsupported by any reference

or branch of the machine. The pressure of the to proof. Several persons may well claim the

external air being now unbalanced, opens the honour of having originated the idea and shown VENTILATION OF THE MONT CENIS two clack valves, which admit a fresh supply the possibility of telegraphing the weather as


of air ready to undergo compression. All the a problem, and of forecasting weather as a

water being discharged from the machine, the be , IN

[N order to ensure to the miners and other compressive column is again filled with atmoHerschell, Martins, Leverrier

, Buys Ballot, lengthened enterprise the necessary amount closed, that’of admission reopens to allow..

workmen engaged in this stupendous and spheric air; the water discharge valve iş Maury, Fitzroy, in the order of

succession of air, and also to effectually ventilate the the descent of the 85ft. column of water, and Leverrier, in France, was the first who actually tunnel in its progress, two "descriptions of the operation is repeated

as before. organised a grand system of meteorological machines for compressing air are in use, the telegraphy. Buys Ballot, in Holland, soon

The pump machine is set in motion by the followed, and possibly was the first who de- other on that of a pump. To prevent con- water acting upon a number of pistons

. The one being on the hydraulic ram principle, the direct effect of a certain head and quantity of duced forecasts of weather from telegraphed fusion, and to employ simple language, we compression of the air is effected up thels data. It is not known to us, however, that he will all the first che ram and the other the atmospheres by means of six hydraulic wheels either establisbed or suggested a system of storm-signals in any way resembling the great at the French or Modane end of the tunnel, as of a little over 2ft. and a stroke of almost pump. The former has not yet been worked and twelve pump barrels, having a diameter

The wheels are provided with for nearly the whole of the British

: the employment of the other description of buckets

, and receive each a motive force of Neither the one nor the other first suggested machine. The rams, ten of which are arranged 70-horse power nominal, which enables them storm-warnings; but Fitzroy was certainly the first who carried them out as a nationa along each side of the face of the Bardonnéche to send into the storage reservoirs 55 gallors service. He was well versed in all methods end of the tunnel, resemble an inverted of air per minute, at a pressure of six atmoof signals ; and had been a member of the com- siphon in shape, and are furnished with two spheres. The whole six wheels are, however, mittee which devised the “Commercial Code of valves, one for admitting the water which is in order to allow for waste, leakage, and to set the machine in action, and the other every other possible cause of diminution

; among maritime nations. His cones, drums, the tertical branch of the supposed siphon cubic yards of air, which gives per dayeler * More likely iorecasts of weather.

three other valyes are placed," two of which eighteen hours 105,686 cubic yards at the

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RACTICAL trials, and experiments on an

extended scale, have demonstrated beyond all doubt that petroleum is admirably adapted, as a substitute for coal, for the purpose of generating steam. But notwithstanding the convincing proofs we have had of this fact, We have not yet an example of an independent

А practical application. It is true the question of petroleum as a steam fuel is a comparatively young one, and in such a case it is always a hard matter to find anyone who will take the initiative. Besides, there are prejudices to be overcome, and conflicting interests to be disposed of, and until the way is clear in this respect, the most perfect method of effecting an improvement in any department of applied science, is not likely to progress very rapidly. But the question which meets us at the outset in the present case is, Have we arrived at to the furnace except tapping a hole or two be expeoted the different combinations of fuel! There are various systems by which it over the fire-door, and placing a sheet of iron parts and their manner of working present is proposed to effect this objeot, and there ratus could be cleared away, and the furnace time to time the subject of numerous patents.

on the fire-bars. In half an hour the appa- almost endless variety and have formed from has been some deep thinking and hard be made ready for burning coal.

The action of a steam crane is exceedingly working about the matter. But, although excellent results of the working of petro- the combustion was of the most perfect cha- power, which acts almost directly in winding

In the trials we witnessed with petroleum simple, the essential feature being the motive leum furnaces have been recorded by us, it is only within the last few days that we filled the space beyond the bridge, indicating chain is connected. In all machinery, the

racter. An intensely brilliant violet flame and unwinding a drum to which the hoisting have felt an honest conviction that our ques: the thorough decomposition of the constituents great object at the present time is to utilise tion was answerable in the affirmative. This of the fuel, whilst the entire absence of smoke every square inch of material and make each conviction has been induced by a careful in- and

unconsumed carbon added further testi- separate part do as much duty and in as many vestigation of the working of a new method of burning petroleum in the furnace of a steam mony to the soundness of the principle upon different ways as possible. It is not sufficient

The result for a rod or bar acting as a tie to be unable to boiler, at a large works in Lambeth. The of the experiment, which lasted about two act sometimes as a strut if required, and it is apparatus with which these trials are now

being hours, was the evaporation of 1941b. of therefore counterbraced to endow it with the forms the subject of a patent—is the invention water by every pound of oil used. During necessary strength and rigidity. In all cranes of Messrs. Wise and Field, of the Adelphi, 351b. pressure to the engines driving the sidered as supported partly by the direct

boiler supplied steam at hitherto constructed the weight may be conand Mr. Aydon, and, like most inventions possessing real utility, is very simple oil used was of the

various machines on


works. The action of the strut or jib and partly by that of in its character. The principle consists

heapest kind; in fact, the arm or tie. The strains developed in

we believe, only refuse. The apparatus consequence upon these members are ultiin the use of petroleum or any other liquid requires but very little attention, and is mately resisted by the post, but they form of superheated steam, into the furnace. This completely under control, the flame being in the medium of conduction or transference. It is effected in such a way that it is vaporised creased or diminished in intensity almost in- is not absolutely necessary that there be any and dispersed over the surface of the fire, and stantaneously by regulating the flow

of oil or post to the crane, as in many instances that its combustion completely effected.

steam. We know what the maximum evapo- feature is wanting ; but there must in all cases

ration obtained from the best coal is, and be some equivalent resistance-a heavy weight It will be seen from the engraving on page when we find it more than doubled, as in the will answer—to counteract the tendency of 78 that the construction of the apparatus present instance, by the application of petro- the load to pull the whole crane bodily over; used in carrying out this invention is by no leum a coal-burning furnace, what In many of the steam cranes this point means complioated. We show a section of the injector, to which

the superheated steam is ad- may we not expect when the principle is de- d'appui is formed by the weight of the boiler mitted through the pipe i. The admission of boiler? It is early times yet with the inven- crane post.

veloped in a specially constructed furnace and and its accessories, and there is virtually no steam is regulated by a plug il passing the tors, but they have succeeded in thoroughly

The determination of the strains upon the adjustable nozzle 22: The petroleum is ad- mastering the principle of perfect combustion various members of an ordinary crane is pero mitted to the injector by the adjustable pipe with, to a certain extent, imperfect apparatus. formed without much difficulty by the aid of

A suitable quantity of air is mixed with They have already achieved a success in a few simple formule. Thus, let W represent the steam and petroleum in their passage burning petroleum in an ordinary furnace far the weight of the load in tons to be hoisted or though the pipe ka to the furnace. This air is beyond anything we

had previously witnessed. lowered, let L = the length of the

crane post; admitted through the opening k, and its Considering, therefore, the many advantages and the angle of inclination of the jib with amount can be regulated by means of the disc petroleum offers as a steam fuel, we may pre- the horizon. Putting S for the resulting strain

W We have thus a stream or jet of superheated principle, and with a modified form of boiler, upon the jib, we have S


sin. 0 steam, air, and petroleum, which is forcibly its application must rapidly become general. injected into the furnace through a pipe just

if S, represent the strain upon the arm or tie

W above the fire-door. This jet impinges upon a

we find its value to be s

The bridge of fireclay placed a couple of feet or so from the door. The fire-bars are covered with


strain upon the crane post will be greatest at an iron plate, and on this a shovelful of live coal is placed for the purpose of igniting the

T only requires a visit to the works of new the ground line and will equal the horizontal

Blackfriars Bridge, or to those in connec- pull of the load multiplied by the leverage the combustion of the petroleum is admitted vince one how general the employment of ir S, be this strain we find S, jet of petroleum spray. The air required for tion with the Thames' Embankment, to con- which is the length of the post. Consequently


The through openings in the fire-doors, there being portable steam cranes is becoming. Wharf no upward draught through the fire-grate. In cranes, ship cranes, winches, and in fact post is evidently in the same situation as a the present instance the apparatus is fitted to nearly every mechanical appliance used for cantilever with a load at its extremity. In this an ordinary single-flued Cornish boiler ; its hoisting and lowering weights, can be now, if instance it must be borne in mind that the arm attachment, however, involves no alteration desired, worked by steam power. As might lor tie is supposed to be horizontal, that is, the



tan. 0

sin. O

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sin e

angle between its direction and that of the jib arts and in manufacture. Hitherto it can cell as before. The magnesium battery was is equal to 6. The more usual case, however, hardly be said that any

really established use continued in action for sixty consecutive hours, occurs when the tie is inclined to the jib at a has been found for it. Even as a light-giving and maintained a deflection on the galvanodifferent angle than 0, and the calculations material its use is not yet established, but meter ranging from 40 deg. to 28 deg. The become a little more complicated. Making 0, that may be mainly owing to the fact that zinc was then put in action; the greatest deto equal the angle between the tie and jib, we there has been nosuitable apparatus to burnit in. flection given by it was about 30 deg., and in have for the strain upon the former, S, Mr. Larkin's lamp, so far as it has been tried, twenty-four hours the zinc plate was corroded W X sin. (90° - 0)

is apparently the best apparatus yet invented into holes and had lost full one-half its ori. For the strain upon for that purpose ; but it is still far from per- ginal weight, whilst with the other battery

W X sin. {90° +(0-0)} fect, as may well be supposed, seeing that it is a the magnesium plate had lost in sixty hours the jib we find s

new invention, and its defects have to show only 43 grains, the loss of the zinc being about

themselves in actual use, and to be provided 20z. That is, in equal times, more than forty A very ingenious application of steam to the for in detail. Apparently the gravest diffi- times as much zinc was consumed as magnes above purposes has been recently made by M.

culty now to be overcome is the disposal of the sium. This is an extraordinary result, and, if J. Chrétien, represented in the cut (p. 79). volatilised magnesia, or rather the magnesia it be borne out in the trials that are now It has been employed for several months at the which is produced in impalpable powder on being made, tells marvellously in favour of harbour of Villette, unloading vessels of mer- the combustion of the magnesium, and much magnesium as a positive electric element. But chandise and miscellaneous cargoes.


resembles volatilised matter. This highly- we do not see how that can be possible; the utility of the invention and the method of heated maguesia smoke, as it may be termed, law established by Faraday has been too often working will be apparent on explanation. In condenses on the glass of the lamp, and cou- verified to be so far at fault. An equivalent thus applying the direct action of steam siderably diminishes the light given out by of the positive element decomposed in all cases power to the raising of loads the inventor the burning metal. Of course so brilliant a gives an equivalent of electric force, which will kept in view the desirability of attaining light can afford some diminution when thereby decompose an equivalent of any other electhe following results :-A rapidity of motion, softness is obtained, and that is the effect ob- trolyte, or re-deposit an equivalent of any facility of working, small consumption of tained by the condensed magnesia—it causes it other metal; so that if this be true, and we fuel and expenditure in every sense, and the to give a moon-like radiance, as described by think that no one conversant with these matpossibility of indicating the weight of the load the newspaper correspondents at the Notting-ters at present doubts it, except perhaps Mr. at the time of its being hoisted, which is a ham meeting of the British Association,—but Rowland, we do not see how it is possible that novelty in machines of this description. The this condensation must go on till it gets beyond there can be more than three of zinc to one of principal feature in the design is the long that, when it must absorb a great portion of magnesium decomposed, providing, they are cylinder E, which is enclosed within, in fact the light, and it is by no means a cheap light both precisely under the same condition, and constitutes the lower portion of, the iron jib F to afford such waste, nor can it ever be, whilst no comparison would be trustworthy unless of the crane. Inside this cylinder works the th metal is produced by means of sodium. they were. piston, which is connected at the upper extre- What is wanted is some kind of an exhaust, mity with a pair of pulleys H, to which is in addition to the chimney of the lamp, the exactitude of their experiments, and are

However, these gentlemen are confident in attached the hoisting chain, which is fixed to to draw off the magnesia as it is formed the jib, as shown at K, near the intermediate either into the open air or into a condensing pursuing them with great hope, so much so

that they think that electricity can be prochamber. exhaust of the steam are represented at N. The boiler is indicated by A, and the tender; light-giving material for domestic purposes all we can say to that is, we hope it can;

This material can hardly be introduced as a nesium that it can be by the use of zinc. Well,

duced at one-tenth the cost by the use of magas it may be termed, carrying the coal and by means of this lamp, as it requires some one

but water, is shown by the letter B.. It will be to manage it who is more competent than ser

we do not at present see how Faraday's law of seen that one end of the double tie-bars G is

equivalents is to be evaded. However, leaving attached to each side of the boiler, and, there. there is no doubt of its success. For the use of that about which we with many others are fore, it, together with the tender, acts the part this lamp the magnesium

is powdered, and for sceptical, we think there is an advantage in of a post, and counterbalances the moment of the the use of photographers it is made into the use of magnesium over zine, leaving out of loads to the lever for regulating the action of ribbon and wire, and these are all the the question the cost, though we do not think is self-explanatory. The crane we have just analytical purposes cannot be reckoned in a usefnl current of electricity, for zinc is always is indicated by T, and

the rest of the

diagram metal. The small quantities required for imagine; for in the best-arranged batteries not described has been brought, after many trials and disappointments

, to a high state of perfec, useable alloy, and by itself it cannot be used impure and much is consumed by local cura tion, and more than forty of various sizes and as aluminium can, simple moisture turning it in cost must be considerable under the most power have been ordered for different localities. The idea of converting the lower or facturers have been turning themselves in aforesaid is correct. There would be no local quckly into magnesia. "Necessarily the manu

favourable circumstances-providing the law other part of a hollow jib into a piece of mechanism inherent in the machine is not dity. It has long been known that magnesium action with the magnesium, for it is perfectly new. We believe that a water crane has been stood high as an electro-positive element; but pure

, and for

a single fluid or water battery constructed in which this

arrangement is carried out in a very similar manner, but we bar to its use; any considerable surface of it zinc, providing the expense of each were so treated before. Independently of the being exposed, even to common water, would equal.

soon oxidise itself out of the water, thence From experiments we have made with magsaving of space and the increased simplicity of causing

not only the stoppage of the current

, nesium with saline solutions, we do not think action it is evident that a double duty, so to but also much waste of a very expensive ma- that a solution of sulphate of magnesium is the speak, is got out of the jib of the crane.

teral. But it has occurred, we believe, to Mr.. best to use as an exciting fluid. We should not only performs the usual function of Owen Rowland to varnish the magnesium plate prefer a solution of salammoniac, one of sustaining a considerable share of the load, but

or rod when used as an electro-positive ele- saturated solution of salammoniac to twenty of virtually becomes the agent for setting the load in motion. At the same time it is not ment, leaving only the end of the plate or rod water, but common water with a few drops of

exposed to the solution. This metal being sulphuric acid, or water slightly acidulated deprived of any appreciable amount of such a powerful element, a very small surface with common vinegar, are very good exciting strength, for since all iron crane jibs and posts only is requisite to produce a sufficiently fluids for magnesium. In fact, water slightly are, or ought to be, of a hollow form, it

powerful current for ordinary purposes, that acidulated with any fruit acid is sufficiently virtually amounts to an utilisation of space the sectional area of plate or rod is sufficient. strong for this metal when used as an electroThere is no doubt that the jib has to be made introduced to ensure endurance of battery, and will be found the most suitable exciting fluid double duty than it it had simply to act in its at the same time any desired surface can be when currents of small quantities and of long brought in contact with the solution.

continuance are required, and the best negaordinary capacity ; but a slight increase in the thickness of metal would amply suffice to of the magnesium works, have been making believe that these negatives are about to be

Mř. Rowland and Mr. Mellor, the manager tive is platinised silver or graphite; and we endow it with the necessary amount of extra experiments with a battery composed of mag- experimented with.

If magnesium be found strength. In mines, . railways, harbours, nesium and copper, arranged as a Daniel's so good an electro-positive element as we foto wharfs, magazines, and in nearly every situa battery ; a plate of 'magnesium about 2in. by pect it will--though we do not anticipate that crane is required, we think that the one in bottom of it, in the outer cell; and a plate of the afore-mentioned gentlemen do--yet, it it question is likely to afford much satisfaction,

copper inside the porous cell (this, of course, prove as good as we think it may, the demand with a solution of sulphate of copper), and in may be such that its price may be consider

the outer cell, a solution of sulphate of mag- ably lessened; and it will need to be before it THE MAGNESIUM VOLTAIC BATTERY. nesium, one part of the saturated solution of can come into general use, for at present, ac

the salt to thirty-two parts of water. To cording to our knowledge of electro-chemical S" VINCE the production of magnesium on a work in comparison with this was arranged in equivalents

, they stand in relation of price to commercial scale, many and continuous the same way an ordinary zinc Daniel's, zinc each other as forty-eight shillings to ninehave been the efforts to find a use for it in the 2in. by 4in., with copper negative and porous pence.


NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DIS is the result of purely mineral reactions. at any instant be taken off the main drum, by a

COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL Starting with the hypothesis of Daubrée, who handwheel relieving the friction strap of the APPLICATIONS.

believes that the alkaline metals exist in a free suspended weight by which it was tightened. The Action of Heat on Hydrocarbons—The shows that by the action of these on carbonic vided as a precaution, but only one of them was

state in the interior of our globe, M. Berthelot Two of these main winding, drums were pro• Origin of Petroleum and Bitumen. IN N our number for December 14, some ac- temperature, acetylides of the alkalies are pro- coupling arrangement was also provided for con.

count was given of M. Berthelot's expe- duced. These coming in contact with the necting the winding drum through spur gearing riments on the synthesis of organic

compounds. vapour of water, acetylene would be set free. to a pair of trunk engines, so that she drum could The author has mainly occupied himself with But as hydrogen and steam must also betion of the cable already paid out, should any the study of those various compounds of carbon present, and all at a very elevated tempe- Pault

occur requiring

such an operation; and this and hydrogen which are found among the pro-rature, the acetyline is unable to subsist, and constituted one of the most important improves ducts of the destructive distillation of coal in in its place we obtain the products of its con- ments over the arrangements of 1865, when it the manufacture of gas and oils ; and the facts densation, and also the products of the reac- had been necessary to hand the cable along the he has recently arrived at seem to promise im- tion of hydrogen upon it. For example, he side of the ship from the paying out machinery portant results in these great industries. They says, hydrogen, reacting upon acetylene, forms in the stern to the picking up machinery in appear to indicate that the time may soon come ethylene and hydride of ethylene. A new re- the bow, on any occasion of requiring to haul in when we shall be able to form at will any one action of hydrogen, either upon the polymers the cable; and it was during this bazardous of the compounds, instead of a mixture which of acetylene or those of ethylene, will form process that the cable was broken and lost in the gives the chemist infinite trouble to separate hydrocarbons of the marsh gas series, the former expedition. On leaving the winding into its constituents, and which involves unne- same, in fact, which constitute American petro- drum, and before passing over the stern into the cessary loss of material to the manufacturer. leum. An almost unlimited diversity in these sea, the cable was carried

over a pair of wheels, M. Berthelot has shown that the various hydro- reactions is possible, varying only according to bearing upon the top of the cable and guided in carbons are produced under variable conditions the temperature and the bodies brought in of heat and pressure; and this point being contact. Thus, it would appear that all that indicating upon a scale the tensile strain on the

a vertical framing; this formed the dynamometer, reached, it only remains for these conditions to is necessary for the formation of the natural cable at each moment by the degree of deflection be accurately ascertained in order that the carbides of hydrogen is the intervention of of the cable under the loaded pulley. The total manufacturer may produce the compound he heat, water, alkaline metals, and carbonic acid. length of cable paid out was 1,831 miles, and the Wants, and avoid the production of those he does not require.

time occupied in making the distance of 1,669

miles from shore to shore was fourteen days. We should state that an important practical INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL The new cable having been successfully laid, application of the fact had been made by Mr.


the next object was to recover the end of tho J. Young, jun., before the publication of M. Berthelot's results. Mr. Young has patented T

THE twentieth anniversary meeting of the cable lost in the previous year; and after splicing

members of this Institution was held on it to the additional length of cable brought out the distillation of the heavier hydrocarbon oils Thursday, the 31st January, in the Lecture for the purpose, to complete the laying of the under pressure, whereby, he states that these Theatre of the Midland Institute, Birmingham; old cable. The picking-up machinery in the bow heavy oils are converted into lighter ones, pos- John Penn, Esq., President, in the chair.

of the ship was made of much greater strength sessing a higher commercial value. We have

The Secretary (Mr. W. P. Marshall) having than the paying-out machinery, on account of never seen any scientific account of Mr. read the minutes of the previous meeting, the an. the extraordinary weight and strength of the Young's results, the publication of which nual report of the Council was then presented, grapnel-rope employed for raising the lost cable, would have much interest.

which showed the very satisfactory progress of the breaking strength of the rope being as much Mr. Young practically (at least his patent the Institution during the past year, and its as thirty tons. The exact line of the sunk cable statès so) effects his distillation at a pressure highly prosperous condition, with a large increase having been marked by a couple of buoys, placed somewhat higher than 2015. to the inch, in the number of members; referring also to the at a considerable distance apart by nautical obwhich indicates no great elevation of tempera- large and important annual meeting held in servation, the ship was then made to pass slowly ture. At this stage it would appear that the Manchester last summer. The annual election of across the line of the cable, dragging the grapnel. more condensed hydrocarbons are broken up

officers then took place, John Penn, Esq., being rope; and the hooking of the cable in a depth of into lighter compounds. M. Berthelot, on the elected President of the Institution for the ensu- two miles of water by the large tive-pronged contrary, operating at very high temperatures,

ing year. A number of new members were also grapnel at the end of the rope was ascertained elected.

with sufficient certainty from the increase of finds that the lighter hydrocarbons (gaseous

The first paper read was a "Description of the strain indicated by the dynamometer. After and liquid) yield more and more condensed Paying-out and Picking-up Machinery employed several unsuccessful attempts to recover the cable, products, until, as the final result, he arrives in laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable;" by Mr. in one of which it had been actually raised to the at the complete dissociation of the carbon and George Elliot, of London. The objects aimed at surface of the water, it was again hooked and the hydrogen.

in the Atlantic telegraph cable expedition of 1866 raised 900 fathoms from the bottom, and then As an example, we may quote what happens were, firstly, the laying of a new cable across the buoyed there ; after which the “Great Eastern ” when light carburetted hydrogen-such a large Atlantic, and secondiy, the recovery and comple- hooked the cable again a few miles to the westconstituent of our common illuminating gas-is tion of the one commenced and lost in the unsuc. ward, and at the same time the “Medway” hooked exposed to heat. The first result is the processful attempt of the previous year. The cable it still further west. Both vessels then began duction of a small amount of acetylene, a gas to be laid was coiled in three circular wrought- hauling the cable up, and the “Medway” broke possessing far higher illuminating qualities. iron tanks built on the main deck of the “Great it at a depth of about 300 fathoms, so that the At a higher temperature, a bright-red heat, Eastern,” and was kept covered with water during “Great Eastern" had then a loose end for much more acetylene is formed, but at the same the whole time of the laying, so as to prevent raising to the surface, and the strain on the time naphthaline and some tarry matters are

depreciation of the gutta-percha coating, and cable was much reduced immediately. The reproduced. Thus it would seem probable that afford an effectual means of constantly testing covered cable having then been tested and while higher illuminating power might be given it was passed first over

its electrical condition. In paying out the cable, spliced, the laying of the remaining 680 miles to gas exposed to heat, a more than equivalent grooved carrying wheels

, called the jockey gear, ceeded with and successfully accomplished.

a series of six deep required to finish the original cable was proloss of material might be sustained. We are and was pressed down into the grooves of the Drawings were exhibited to the meeting of the writing, however, merely to indicate to the gas wheels by weighted jockey rollers, the wheels and several machines employed in the paying out and manufacturer a direction in which possibly rollers being all fitted with friction breaks. The picking up; and also specimens of the new caþle highly valuable results might be arrived at by whole of the jockey rollers could at any moment of 1866, the recovered cable of the previous year, experiment. But we should say that beyond be simultaneously lifted off the carrying wheels, and the grapnel-rope, together with the original doubt a very high temperature would be pre- so as to let the cable slip freely through the charts of the laying and picking up, which were judicial to gas. The acetylene we have men- grooves, in the event of its ever being necessary lent for the occasion by the kindness of Captain tioned as giving great luminosity is itself to let the cable run in order to ease the tensile Sir James Anderson. destroyed at a red heat, furnishing benzol and strain upon it. The jockey gear thus served the The next paper was

On the Composition hydrogen.

purpose of giving a preliminary frictional hold and Durability of Locomotive Boiler Tubes in The problem how to obtain from coal the upon the cable during the paying out; and the reference to Coal Burning," by Mr. George A. largest amount of gas possessing the highest cable then passed to the main friction drum, Everitt, of Birmingham. The question of coal illuminating power is one far from being satis-round which it was coiled four times for obtaining burning in locomotive engines, and its consefactorily solved; and we believe these researches a firm hold upon the cable. On the shaft of the quent action on the copper fireboxes and brass of M. Berthelot may greatly assist in the solu- drum were the two main break wheels, rendered tubes, although one upon which great diversity tion. For the scientific reader we may mention self-adjusting in their action by the arrangement of opinion prevails, has drawn attention to the that the author's paper on the action of heat invented by the late Mr. Appold, and employed importance of ascertaining the

best alloy of brass on hydrocarbons will be found at length in the in each of the previous expeditions of 1865 and for the tubes, and also to the necessity of overDecember number of the Annales de Chimie et strap, and the two extremities of the strap are the copper firebox plates being of hard or brittle

1858 ; & weight is suspended from the friction coming the difficulties so often experienced from de Physique.

attached to a lever at different distances from the quality. A simultaneous deterioration has also About the origin of coal there is no question, fulcrum, so that whenever the friction strap is been noticed in the quality of copper sheathing but geologists have been at a loss to account carried round in the slightest degree by increased of ships' bottoms, the durability of which at the for the formation of petroleum, bitumen, and friction of the break, thus overliftiag the weight, present time is far inferior to what it was several other natural hydrocarbons. On this point the the obliquity of the lever slackens the strap and years previously. The explanation in each case researches of M. Berthelot throw considerable allows the weight to fall back to its proper posi- appears to be that the quality of copper known as light, and he is led to conjecture that petroleum tion. The whole effect of the friction break could ! best selected, which is obtained by skimming off

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the upper surface or purest portion of the melted

THE SILESIAN GAS FURNACE. metal in the smelting process, has of late years been 80 much in demand that the skimming is Dow carried too far; whereby the cake copper left behind, from which the copper firebox plates for locomotives and the sheathing for ships' bottoms are made, is seriously deteriorated in quality. Recently a system of testing the best selected copper has been introduced with ad. vantage by the Admiralty, and also adopted in the manufacture of locomotive tubes, a prescribed alloy of the copper with zinc being required to come up to a fixed standard of tensile strain, and to exhibit a fracture presenting a silky appearance in texture, which cannot be obtained with any but a superior quality of best selected copper. The practice has also been adopted for several years on the French railways, and to some extent in this country, of employing an alloy of brass for the boiler tubes containing a higher proportion of copper than formerly, which is believed to be beneficial as regards the durability of the tubes, particularly in resisting the action of sulphur in coal-burning engines with

LONGITUDINAL SECTION. bad coal. The increased ductility arising from the larger percentage of copper may be expected to admit of some reduction in the thickness of tubes, and consequently in their first cost, with. out diminishing their durability; and the thinner tubes, offering less rigidity, will have an advan. tage in reference to the difference of expansion an extensive Government factory; it was evident, obtained, and has since been examined chemi between the iron boiler shell and brass tubes of however, that the manufacture of enamelled iron cally. The specimen was of a lighter grey than locomotive or marine engines. Specimens were vessels was one of the most profitable portions of the generality of grey pig, and exhibited a closeexhibited of brass boiler tubes flanged over cold, the establishment.

grained but well-defined structure. It was found to show the ductility of the metal containing the

The actual production of the iron at these to contain a rather excessive quantity of silicium, higher proportion of copper now employed for works is small as compared with the quantity and a considerable quantity of manganese, in the purpose; and also samples of the standard used in the manufacture of machinery, &c. The which respect it is similar to other specimens of test bars that had been subjected to the prescribed blast furnaces, built according to the directions Silesian metal examined on a former occasion. test of tensile strength, and showed the required of the celebrated mining chemist, Karsten, are The following numbers represent its percentage silky appearance in the fracture when broken similar in construction to the largest furnaces in composition :-Iron, 91.93; carbon, as graphite across.

this country, and are excellent specimens of fur: 2:11; combined carbon, 0:15; silicium, 2-94; The meeting then terminated.

nace building. The charges of ore, fuel, and phosphorus, 0.34; sulphur, 0.03; manganese, In the evening a number of the members and Aux are conveyed up shafts to the mouth of the 2:48; arsenic, copper, titanium, cobalt, traces. their friends dined together, in celebration of the furnace by hydraulic power in the case of two of The principal portion of iron manufactured at wentieth anniversary of the Institution. the furnaces, and by mechanical power in the Gleiwitz is refined in the gas-finery furnace

other cases. Hot air is used, and the blast is already alluded to, and is then employed only

supplied by a very well-constructed engine of for the best kinds of work. The quantity of metal THE SILESIAN GAS FURNACE.

50-horse power, which had been made at to be refined is not sufficiently great to keep Gleiwitz.

the furnace constantly at work'; it is, therefore, the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE for the 16th of IN hovember lases year, he described and filhuet ,

The whole arrangements connected with the only used at intervals of a month, and, when not trated the construction of the Silesian gas tion of the metal under the most favourable con- the foundry. Silesian iron, supplied from other reverberatory furnaces in use at the Government ditions. The product of the furnaces was stated, works, is also used at Gleiwitz; a very large smelting works at Gleiwitz and Königshütte in however, to be ridiculously small compared with quantity of Scotch iron is, however, employed to Upper Silesia, and in the following number we that usually obtained from blast furnaces of make up deficiencies. It appears that while described the method adopted in working them. similar size in other countries. This circum- advantage is taken by the Prussian Government A considerable amount of interest has been stance is alone accounted for by an examination of the facilities afforded for the production of evinced in the matter and several correspondents of the ore worked at Gleiwitz. It is an argilla- iron at the Gleiwitz works, by their vicinity to have desired further particulars, a recent one ceous, brown hematite ore, somewhat similar in sources of coal and iron ore, they are principally especially asking for a longitudinal vertical sec- appearance to yellow ochre, and containing sel. maintained for the manufacture of steam engines tion. Through the kindness of Mr. James dom more, though frequently less than 26 per and other machinery required by different Gov. Anderson, of the Machinery Department at Wool-cent. of iron. The greater proportion of it is in ernment establishments, such as that at König. wich, we are enabled now to place the desired sec- an earthy or pulverulent state ; a small quantity shütte, the manufacture of enamelled iron uten. tion and further particulars before our readers. of a somewhat better description of ore, contain sils and ornamental castings being added as a Our engraving represents a longitudinal section ing about 30 per cent. of iron, and obtained in a source of profit. of Eck's furnace, and must be taken in conjunc- less disintegrated condition, is added to the other The Royal Ironworks at Königshütte are far tion with the previous description already re- ore. Small quantities of zinc, lead, cobalt, man- more extensive than those at Gleiwitz, and differred to, a perueal of which, or a comparison of ganese, and arsenic were found in some speci- fer essentially from the latter establishment in the present with the former engravings, will mens of the ore which have been submitted to being exclusively devoted to the manufaomake the matter clear. The additional particu- analysis. The first-named metal occurs very turo and refinement of iron, the production lars, for which we have been asked and which we generally, and frequently in considerable abun- of railway and other bar 'iron, and the now give, have reference to the details of the dance in the upper Silesian ores. The coal ob. smelting of zinc ores.

It appears that the working, and the results of these and other fur- tained in Silesia, and used at these works, is also ores worked at Königshütte are naces at Gleiwitz and Königshütte. The works of an inferior description, crumbling to dust in than those at Gleiwitz, in fact, even worse

, the at Gleiwitz comprise four large blast furnaces

, the furnace, and yielding, only at very high tem- percentage of iron being very small, and the with puddling and finery furcaces (one of these, a peratures, a hard, dense, dificultly combustible mineral, from its peculiar pulverulent nature, reverberatory furnace, being constructed upon coke, which, however, though tolerably rich in difficult to enrich or purify by levigation, or to Eck's principle), cupolas, rolling-mills and smithe- sulphur, does not furnish more than 3.5 per cent. work in the blast furnace. The coal is of a very ries, extensive workshops, with lathes of the largest of ash or mineral matter-an important

redeem- inferior kind, containing much sulphur

and ash, dimensions for turning and planing pieces of ing feature.

and furnishing a hard, difficultly.combustible machinery (many of these being worked by The circumstances under which iron is smelted coke. The product of the blast furnaces is as water power); foundries for shells and small at Gleiwitz cannot but be considered as very small as that at Gleiwitz—and the pig-iron obcastings ; ranges of coke-ovens, with the necessary unfavourable ; the pulverulent state of the ore be- tained, to jndge from the results of analysis of a arrangements for applying the waste heat to the ing alone an important obstacle to the proper fair sample which was procured, is very inferior generation of steam; kilns and mills for prepar management of the furnaces. Nevertheless, says to the Gleiwitz iron. Its colour is light grey, it's ing the ingredients used for enamelling cast-iron Mr. Åbel, in his report, the quality of the product structure close, and very small-grained, and it is utensils, of which a great number are made ; was most highly extolled by the experienced so brittle as to be easily pulverised. Its fractura enamelling furnaces, and other requisites of this Director, M. Kalide, and the appearance of the and physical properties were those of an iron rich branch of manufacture; workshops for the pre- slag, of the fracture exhibited by the pig-metal, in silicium; and that this is the case is seen from paration of models and moulds (a variety of small and of the castings made from it

, confirmed in the numbers, representing the percentage com. ornamental castings, such as railings, figures, great measure the high opinion he entertained of position of the metal :-Iron, 91-22; carbon, 2:06: candlesticks, &c., being also made for sale); and it

. M. Kalide stated that two or three guns had silicium, 4:66; sulphur, 0:04 ; phosphorus, 0-56; extensive store-rooms for the exposition of the been cast at Gleiwitz, some years since, of the manganese, 1:46; copper, titanium, traces, manufactured articles. It will be seen from this iron manufactured there, and that the proofs to The amount of silicium in the Gleiwitz iron enumeration, that a great variety of work is done which they were subjected had shown the metal (2.94) is higher than that usually existing in good at this establishment, some of which is of a nature to be well "adapted to the manufacture of ord- grey iron, but in the Königshütte iron that which one would scarcely expect to meet with at nance, A sample of the Gleiwitz pig-iron was amount is exceeded by more than one-balf. The

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