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quantities of phosphorus and sulphur are mode- that at the beginning of the process the sul experiments and publication dated nine months rate, the former particularly, and this is a matter phides become oxidised to sulphates; towards later. He regretted the absence of Mr. Fairbairn of very great importance, as, while there is no the end the heat is increased in order to decom. from the meeting that evening, as he was the difficulty in removing the silicium almost entirely pose the sulphate of iron; the product obtained chairman of the meeting at Cambridge, and could from the iron, by the refining process to which it in these processes of burning with sulphuric acid have fully corroborated all that had been said. is submitted at Königshütte, the quantities of is then extracted with water until the soluble sul- [It matters not so much, we think, to whom sulphur and phosphorus undergo no appreciable phate of copper is removed; the solution is then belongs the credit of having suggested chilled diminution, as is shown by the following com- allowed to remain in cortact with metallio iron, shot, as to whom the country is indebted for parison of the above numbers with those obtain. which precipitates the copper in the metallic having wrought the bare idea into a practical ed by the analysis of a specimen of the metal re- state. Should the ore contain silver, as some fact. This more satisfaotory honour is on all fined by the gas reverberatory furnace :

times happens, this metal would likewise pass hands acoorded to Major Palliser, who has emi.

into solution, and may be removed therefrom by nently advanced the position of modern artillery, Pig Iron, Refined Iron.

the introduction into the solution of metallic by solving this important question. -ED. M. M.] Silicium


0.62 Phosphorus

copper previous to the precipitation of the copper 0:56


by means of iron, Sulphur


The quantity of sulphuric acid used for this

The inferior description of coal obtained at process depends on the quantity of copper pre-
in a fire, render necessary the adaptation to the still contains sulphides, a proportionate quantity

G. Pignonblanc, the efficiency of has paddling furnaces of a particular arrangement of of acid is required to oxidise the sulphur

and the been tested by very competent persons. It ap. the fire-bars, which appears worthy of notice, as metal combined with it. Under all circumstances pears to be as ingenious as it is simple, and has by its means not only a very inferior description it is advantageous to employ an excess of acid. the great merit of always being handy and apof coal, and very small coal, 'may be used, but a

It has been found that for the purpose of making plicable in nearly all cases of shipwreck. The more perfect combustion of the fuel than in the the bricks it is sufficient to mix the quantity of life.buoys at present in use only sustain the person ordinary grate of a reverberatory furnace ap. to combine with the copper and silver with so him either from cold, hunger, thirst, or from

strong acid which analysis shows to be necessary on the surface of the water, but do not guarantee pears to be attained. simply pieces of -in. bar iron, 7-in. broad, much water as is necessary to obtain a plastic sharks, that are met with in great numbers in and cut to the requisite length slide into a slop- formed with the ordinary means employed for a man is unable to have any repose. On board even

mass with the ground residues which can thus be hot climates ; and once abandoned on the sea ing rack, each one projecting about two inches this

purpose ; shortly after the mixture is made the

largest ships there are but few life-buoys, and beyond the one underneath. By this arrange the mass becomes firmer, and can be moulded in case of shipwreck but few persone can take ment, it is impossible for even very small frag- into any required form; shortly it sets, and can advantage of them, and in a heavy, sea those un, ments of coal to fall out of the grate; the accumu. then be handled and 'dried previous to being fortunate persons are soon knocked about and lation of clinker between the bars is also far less burnt.

drowned by the waves. The life-buoy of M. likely to occur, and, when such is the case, it

Pignonblanc, says the Society of Arts Journal, is may be easily removed; indeed, a defective bar

simply an ordinary cask, the bunghole of which may be at any time replaced while the furnace is


is enlarged in order to admit a man, and round in operation. M. Brand spoke in high terms of the economy of fuel effected by this arrangement

, AT the last meeting of the Manchester

Literary this biode å sleeve of canvas is nailed about 18in. and observed that the smallest coal might be used F.R.S., &c., vice-president, in the chair

, Mr. Side short piece of spon yarn. This sleeve is only in these grates without any difficulty, while a far botham called

attention to the letters which had closed when the breakers are very heavy, in smaller portion of the fuel was lost in the form of appeared in the Times during the previous few order to prevent the water from entering into the smoke than is the case in the ordinary furnace. days, with reference to chilled cast-iron shot and cask. In order to prevent the cask from rolling, a Very large quantities of Scotch iron are

converted sheli

, intended for penetrating armour-plated weight or piece of iron is attached by means of two into bar iron at the Königshütte works; it is ships, and as to whom the credit of first suggest. the cask at about 200 yards distance from the shore, expected, however, that, when all the blast fur. ing it rightly belonged. He said that no donbt naces are, at work, the production of iron at whatever existed that at the meeting of the British on which the waves broke violently. The cask Königsbütte will almost equal the demand. Association, in October, 1862, their member, which canght the cask, which inclined slightly,

drifted slowly towards the breakers, the first of Mr. Nasmyth, C.E., did most strenuously urge a

speedy trial of chilled cast-iron elongated shot but was instantly lifted op again. The second TREATING RESIDUES OF PYRITES.

and shell, as being not only much cheaper than and third drifted it towards the land, where the

steel, but better in every respect for the purpose fourth breaker safely deposited it. The piece of AN N invention having for its object improve of penetrating iron-ciad' ships; he also gave his iron then served as an anchor, and instead of

ments in treating the residues of pyrites reasons for such an opinion, and held his own being washed back to sea, the cask remained on usually called burned ores, in order to separate during a long discussion against all comers, dry land. In this cask provisions may be taken copper and silver if present from the oxide of Mr. Sidebotham then read letters to Mr. Nasmyth and be kept dry, and the person may rest himsell

as in a hammock. iron in the residues, has been patented by Mr. from P. Le Neve Foster, Esq., who acted as Warren De La Rue, of Bunbill-row, in conjunc. secretary to section G at the Cambridge meeting tion with Mr. Hugo Müller, of 79, Gower-street. of the British Association, and T. Aston, Esq.Q.C.,

LONDON ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN The residues are ground or reduced to a fine who took part in the discussion. The latter con

ENGINEERS. powder, and are wetted or mixed with sulphuric cludes his letter by saying :-“There can be no acid, and the mixture, which has the property of doubt whatever that anyone who may claim to


N Saturday eveniog last an ordinary monthly setting, is moulded or formed into blocks or lamps have been before you in teaching the public the which are subjected to heat in a furnace, the tem. use of 'chilled cast iron for projectiles intended took place at their rooms, Doctor's Commons, peratore being raised sufficiently to decompose to penetrate armour-plates, must give proof of City. Mr. Joseph Newton presided on the occa. gulphate ofiron and leave the salphates of copper having done so prior to your vigoroas advocacy sion. After the ordinary business of the meetand silver andecomposed. By these means the of that material at the Cambridge meeting of ing a discussion took place upon the relative copper and the silver are for the most part 1862.”.

merits of iron and Bessemer steel as employed rendered soluble in water, whilst the iron is for Mr. Sidebotham then read reports of the dis. in the construction of boilere, crank axles, rails, the most part left insoluble in water; the copper cussion from the Times and the Athenæum ; both &c. The discussion was of a highly practical and silver are then separated from the iron by these are short, as such reports usually are, and character. Messrs. Campbell, Miles, Ramsbill, water, and the copper and silver are separated do bat represent a very small portion of what was Purvis, Stabler, and Bragg recounted severally by deposition from the solution in the ordinary said. The report in the Times of October 7th, the results of their experiences with both matemanner. 1862, is as follows:

rials, the prevailing opinion being that for boil. According to the nature of the ore and the “Mr. Nasmyth inquired whether chilled cast- ers the best iron was preferable to steel, whilst means employed in burning it the residue con iron shot had been tried, the process of obilling for many other purposes, and especially for the sists of a more or less homogeneous mixture of cast-iron was a very inexpensive one ; and if chile working parts of locomotives, steel might be used oxide of iron, oxide of copper, sulphide of iron, ling flat-ended shot had not been tried, it was with great advantage. Mr. Naylor said that in and sulphide of copper. In order to facilitate very desirable it should be.

his capacity of inspector of machinery for the the operation it is necessary that the material is "The President (Mr. Fairbairn) said they had Great East Indian Peninsular Railway such infor. in the state of powder, and may for this purpose no practical experience in the matter

; but he mation as he had gained was of value, but that be ground under ordinary edge runners or other believed that the shot being chilled only to a cer. his own testings of both metals led him to simi. wise; the powder is then mixed with dilute sul. tain extent they would find that the whole shot, lar conclusions to those of the gentlemen who phuric acid, and exposed to red heat, either having the same velocity when striking the ob had preceded him. The chairman made a few formed in the shape of bricks or blocks, and jeot, would break, as if it had not been hardened remarks upon the subject. He hoped that the burnt in a kiln, or in the state of powder in an at all.

latent ability of the members might be oalled ordinary calciner, or in a muffle furnace. If the “Mr. Nasmyth: That is a mere matter of into active existence on all future ocoasions fas former process is adopted it is essential that opinion. Have you tried any experiments on the it had been that evening, and that papers and all the iron contained should be in the state of subject? It would involve an expense of only suggestive questions would present themselves oxide, and the copper likewise in a state of oxide some ten shillings.

abundantly. The fourteenth annual dinner of or nearly 80; otherwise a considerable quantity of "The President: In order to gratify Mr. Na- the Association will take place to-morrow week sulphuric acid will be required to oxidise the sui- smyth, I hope that before the next meeting of at the Freemasons' Tavero. E. J. Reed, Esq., phides.

the British Association we shall have the matter Chief Constructor of the Navy, will occupy the If the operation of burning is carried on in a proved experimentally."

chair, and S. W. Worssam, Esq., the vice chair reverberatory furnace it is of less importance Mr. Sidebotham, in conclusion, said he thought on the occasion. that the ore should be previously so completely from the above it would be seen that their mem. oxidised, inasmuch as oxidation then takes place ber, Mr. Nasmyth, ought to have the credit of the

The cannon foundries of the Duchy of Badenat the expense of the atmospheric air, and the suggestion of elongated chilled iron shot and shell, Baden are busy transforming a part of the old Swiss operation then may be carried on in such a way in place of steel, rather than Major Palliser, whose artillery into breech-loading guns.

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and a ring or gland 17 (which can be tightened up commander of his pleasure yacht, M. Georgetta IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM ENGINES.

by nuts 18) screwed upon the rod 11 or 12, and thus Dubuisson, it will be adapted to a ship for the W . wand probably be established on board

have illustrated above an important in forms a steam-tight joint between the inside of first tim wbich has been patented by Mr. John Yule, of The passage 2 on one side, with its two pistons vessels of the first class, and those of ocean Glasgow, engineer. The advantages of the im. 13 13 and ports 7 7, serves for the admission of transport. On Tuesday evening, in the Bois de proved arrangements comprised in itare simplicity steam into the cylinder 1, the steam having access Boulogne, at the grand skating

fete, fifteen elec. and economy in construction, with easy working by a branch pipe 19 to the middle part of the tric lights erected for the purpose lit up, a giorno, of the parts, whilst the steam valves being sepa- passage. In a similar way the passage 3 at the the whole scene of lake, island, ice skaters, and rate from the exhaust valves can be actuated so other side, with its pistons 14 14 and ports 88, spectators. The effect was splendid. This as to cut off steam at any desired point without serves for the exhaust steam which leaves that lighting up was executed by M. Serrin, and was interfering with the exhaust valves, which last passage by a branch pipe 20 at its middle. The remarkable for its steady brilliancy, while, at are worked by a separate eccentric. Our en valve rods 11 12 have forked eyes fixed on their the same time, it was simple, economical, clean, graving represents a single cylinder land engine front ends, and are thereby directly jointed to the and very powerful. For each of the fifteen as constructed with Mr. Yule's improved arrange- rods 21 22 of the eccentrics 15 16. The packing batteries, there were collected forty Bunsen elements. Fig. 1 is a plan of the engine, partly in of the pistons 13 14 at the back end of the cylinder ments placed in a subterranean chamber, which horizontal section; fig. 2 is a side elevation, may be dispensed with and hollow covers may concealed the battery from sight, as well as pre. partly in vertical section ; fig. 3 is a back end ele- be fixed on the back ends of the passages 23, and, vented the odoar of nitrous gases from annoying vation; and fig. 4 is a transverse vertical section. if preferred, stuffing boxes may be applied the spectators. By the side of this pit there was

In this example the steam cylinder 1 is hori. at the front ends. The details of Mr. Yule's, im- fixed a pillar, hollow within, through which the zontal

, and is made with two tubular or pipe-like proved arrangements are obviously susceptible wires passed to the platform, solidly, and at the passages 2 3, which are on diametrically opposite of modification, and are equally applicable with same time slightly constructed. On this platsides, as shown, and are parallel to the cylinder's ordinary two.cylinder engines for land or marine torm was fixed the electric light established by axis and in the plane of the crank shaft 4. Each purposes and with double-cylinder expansion M. Serrin. It was arranged catoptrically, as in end of each passage 2 3 is bored

out to receive a engines. In the last-mentioned case there will the lighthouses of Havre and Odessa, furnished cylindrical bush or lining piece 5 5 6 6 and there be three passages with their pistons to each pair by the Alliance Company of Paris, and was are four ports 7 7 8 8 communicating with the of cylinders, one between the

cylinders, and one placed on rails ; thus, as soon as the carbon ends interior of the cylinder 1, two at each end, and at each outer side. These improvements are were barnt away, and the light diminished, the each formed partly in the side of the cylinder also applicable to vertical or inclined engines

. man in charge had nothing to do to renew the and partly in the bash in the side passage. The Mr. Yale, has constructed an engine on this splendid light but to push, by the band, a newly bushes 6 6 6 6 are fitted tightly into their places

, principle at his works in Glasgow. It was started lighted lamp, which instantly supplied the place and being formed with shoulders externally, in May last year and has been in constant work of the faded one. When this was burned out, which are slightly over-lapped by the end covers ever since. He tells us that it still continues to another lamp was rolled into its place, capable 9 10, require no further fastening. In each side work admirably and saves upon his old engine of burning again several hours. By this

arranger passage 2 3 there is a rod 11 12 having formed or about 20 per cent of fuel, working under the same ment, a single additional lamp, was suficient fixed on it two pistons 13 13 14 14, in this example conditions.

(or a sixteenth one) to conduct the service rigor. without packing rings, but which may have

ously carried on, and the interruptions of which packing rings if preferred. These pistons 13 13 or 14 14 are suitably situated on their respective


were quite imperceptible. rods 11 12 for alternately uncovering the ports

E are every day becoming more and more

accustomed to the use of the electrio the action of eccentrics 15 16 on the crank shaft 2. light. In a few days, says the Paris correspon is to be held at the Hague, in the present year, by

An exhibition of fishing implements and produce Gasket or other suitable

compressible packing is dent of the Chemical news, thanks to the initia. the Society for the Encouragement of Industry applied between the outside of each piston 13 14, tive of H.I.H. the Prince Napoleon, and the there.

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tion of Mr. Warren E. Hill, of New York, and is known as Hill's skeleton bar.

Fig. 1 in the cut shows the longitudinal, and fig. 2 a transverse section of the grate bars. The column of cold air passes up both sides of surfaces of the bar, at the same time through the

longitudinal opening A as shown at the bottom of ANNEALING OF STEEL. each furrow as it is turned, and bring to the su

the out, then passing out at the side holes B, it perace all conch grass or other roots and weeds forms the double purpose of coolingsthe bar, and E have often noticed that, after the smith had The precise form of the breaker will depend in highly heating the air before it reaches

the fuel

, steel or iron forging in a condition of sufficient and other circumstances ander which it is to be form of ordinary bars are made with special ductility for the lathe workman or filer to operate employed, but we will here describe the instru: regard to the scientific principles of combustion. opon, he would carelessly heat the forging and ment or breaker in the form which Mr. Homer

The following points are submitted as embrac. either insert it into the ashes and coal-dust of the has found to be effective and suitable for general ing the principal features of superiority in the forgo or heedlessly throw it upon the ground be purposes, and which can be attached to or de- skeleton bars. A positive and radical improveside the anvil-blook; consequently when the turtached from the plough at pleasure.

ment has been introduced which consists of the per or filer begins his work he finds it full of small The apparatus consists of three parts, namely, channel running

the whole length of the interior hard spots, some of them exceedingly minute, the shaft or bar, the connecting rod, and the of the bar in connection

with the holes at the sides. and technically called "pins,” which spoils the breaker or knife. The shaft or bar is to be at. A greater depth than in ordinary bars gives more cntting the edges of his tools and destroys his tached to the beam of the plough at about the than twice the surface of heated metal in contaot Ales. Finding it impossible to proceed further in same place and by the same means as the or with the air to the air which is so intensely rari. his manipulations he takes the unfinished article dinary skim coulter. This shaft or bar projects fied as to greatly accelerate its passage to the from the lathe or vice and sends it back to the downwards from the beam, and is carved or fuel. The trough-like form of the bar is calonforger to be re-annealed and returned to him. otherwise made

in such a form that its lower end lated to resist warping or twisting; while the ra. We have seen this process repeated two or three shall lie in the last farrow or that previously pid and constantly changing current of air through times on some kinds of work, when a little know. made by the ploagh the last time it was drawn the heart of the bar, entirely preserves it from ledge and care would remedy the whole thing; along), and to this

end is jointed the connecting the effects of the fire, thus increasing its darability, In annealing, says the American artizan, the steel rod, which is of such a length that the breaker Complete combustion and consequent economy of should be heated slowly and carefully, as there is or knife which is attached to its other end shall fuel are claimed for these bars. The vitality of as much danger in overheating as there is in follow at a certain distance, (say about 4in.) fire depends as much upon the oxygen derived forging, and the whole article must be thoroughly behind the turnfurrow. The best form for the from the air as upon the carbon or bitumen of the heated through, and brought to no higher tem- breaker or knife whioh projects upwards near fuel used. Scientific and practical men have peratore than a "light red heat. If the article to the rear end of the connecting rod, is about long been aware that the supply of air through is long, like a spindle, it must be turned frequently 10in. long, and slopes backwards at an angle the interstices of grate bars has been lamentably in the fire, to prevent its warping or becoming of about 45 degrees. As the plough is drawn deficient, and a serions waste of fuel, the result. aprung by the unequal expansion upon its sides; along, the earth is thrown by the turnfurrow Hill's bars have the merit of furnishing the needed and at the same time be carefal to heat it equally on to the connecting rod in front of the breaker quantity of air in the condition most sonducive the entire length. The forger ought always to or knife, which is thus drawn through the

to complete combustion, viz., in a highly heated have an iron box of dry powdered oharcoal by his centre of the earth or furrow just turned, cat state. These bars are in extensive use in the forge, and in this quickly insert the artiole that ting through and breaking it up, and at the same United States, where they are highly spoken of. is to be annealed, and cover it close with coal-dust, time bringing all couch grass and other roots and Our readers doubtless remember the celebrated so that the air cannot come to it, and there let it weeds to the surface.

trial between the “Winoski” and “Algonquin." remain until perfectly cold and no signs of warmth In the annexed engraving, fg. 1 represents The latter vessel used these bars, which were subbo perceptible. If this is carefully done, the a side view of a plough with the improvements jected to a severe test and gave great satisfaction. lathe workman or the filer will have no cause for applied thereto, and fig. 2 is a plan or horizontal complaint about "pins” in the course of his view of the same, as seen from above. operations. Some forgers bury the articles that The shaft or bar a b is made in two parts so they wish to annea) in powdered or air-slaked as to enable it to be set either higher or lower,

CONVERTING ENFIELDS INTO lime, cast-iron borings, and saw.dust, &c. These and also a greater or lesser distance sidoways

BREECH-LOADERS. may answer a very good parpose, but they are in from the point of the coulter. The part a of the UR readers are no doubt aware that the En.

her deres vero non being converted into is another method called "fire annealing that the beam c of the plough, and is fixed to the pro- breech-loaders, in accordance with the deteris practised to some extent. It consists in beat. per height (when adjusted) by the set screw d. mination of Government to change the arm ing the steel red hot and then holding it in a dark The upper arm of the part 6 is capable of being which our soldiers possess. It may not be so well place antil a faint glow is seen upon it, and then moved horizontally in the claw at the lower end known that a portion of the work is being done in quenching the heat that remains in it in water. of the part a, and when adjusted to the proper this district

. Birmingham has been so justly This may answer when there is need of the forging width of the furrow is fixed therein by a set celebrated for the manufacture of guns and rifles to be wrought upon immediately, but it is an operation that we do not approve of, and is not to its lower extremity the connecting rode,

the that it would be something astonishing if in any

Some waffectual as the operation that we have de other end of which

lies in the furrow last made, and great work of the kind she had no share. poribed with goal-dast. Let anyone who works projects about foar inches behind

the turnfurrow been received by the Birmingham Small Arms in steel try the various methods, and he will give , having attached to it the knife or breaker 9: Company (Limited), to convert a number of Ena hearty approval to the box of charcoal-dust. It will be evident that as the plough is drawn along field rifles into Snider breech-loaders. This was

the earth or soil is thrown by the turnfurrow f on
to the connecting rod e at about the point in done with a celerity which is most creditable to

The order was received on the APPARATUS FOR SCARIFYING LAND.

front of the knife or breaker g, which is then the company.

drawn through it, cutting through and breaking 24th of July, and by the end of October 700 rifles, THE object of the invention which forms the it up, and at the same time bringing

finished in accordance with the pattern gun, were subject of the accompanying engraving is to grass and other roots and weeds to the erface.

completed and forwarded to Canada. The break, palverise, or soarify each farrow as it is

difficulty of accomplishing this work was very toroed by the plough. It has been patented by

great. Patterns had to be made of the new parts, Mr. G. W. Homer, of Athelhampton, near Dor. cheater, and consists in attaching to the ordinary hands that shows on bits Places to figure out those still, new

machinery, constructed for the more A Mr. P. Barlow has patented a watch without dies fashioned, tools invented, and, more difficult

Yet all this was form as will follow immediately behind or by agures are displayed

as they are wanted, and no done, and the first order completed in the very the side of the tornfarrow and break or pulverise others appear on the watch face.

short space of three months. Those who are


uninitiated may think that this job must have machine, which performs several very important dication of fire-damp, when accumulating either monopolised all the skill and all the industry operations. It would be tedious to describe slowly or rapidly; but there were objections which the company possessed. This is not so, them all separately. They embrace facing, which on the face of them were serious, and however. The company had on hand at the time milling, chambering, screwir.g, and gauging, which by practical men were considered fatal the pattern gun was received an order for 30,000 No harm has yet been inflicted on the barrel, unless under exceptional circumstances. Guided rifles for Turkey. It is impossible to go through which is now almost ready for the breech action, by the opinions then expressed by those most the factory and see the long succession of The barrel is passed to the hands of the breecher. concerned, Mr. Ansell endeavoured to find a machines in every department without feeling who brings the barrel and the breech action to more simple form of instrument, which could be that the process of manufacture is only limited their right positions. Finally, the barrel is readily understood by a workman of ordinary in. by the extent of the order, and that the power of banded to a man who recesses the action for the telligence. In coal-pits there are many casualties production is incomprehensible. In this exten- insertion of the cartridge. Then it goes to be --including the bulk of the accidents arising sive and beautiful factory every appliance that proved by the Government officials in the proof- from explosion-caused by a sudden irruption can save labour and multiply production, and house, near the factory. But we have only

of fire-damp (carburetted hydrogen) to such an every variety of labour that the human mind can followed the barrel in its progress towards come mile of space explosive in a few minutes, and

extent as to render the atmosphere in even & devise, will be found. The men who are

engaged plete conversion. The most important part of there are cases on record where an enormous about the machines occupy the position that all the work remains to be seen : this is the conmen should in the world of labour. The steam struction of the breech action. To explain the space has been so polluted in a few seconds ; but hammer, trimming machine, drilling machine, component parts of this, which is the soul of the the common event is to find that a fall of roof screwing machine, barrel-cutting machine, and gun, we shall have to make use of some technical or the breaking in of a thin part in the sides many others, do the hard, the dirty, the sinew- phrases. The breech action is made up of two or door of a gallery, liberates an amount of gas wearing work, while the men look on and direct parts—the shoe and the breech.block. The shoe which, by mixture with the ordinary air of the the labour. As you go through the extensive, is that part into which the cartridge is first travels on slowly with the ventilation, till pre

pit, renders the whole explosive. This mixture lofty, well-lighted and well-ventilated work placed, the barrel being screwed on to the end of sently it meets a light, and, possibly an hour rooms, you feel the men's labour is dignified, and it. The breech-block is that portion which con after its first formation, destroys many lives. In that the discoveries of science have happily tains the needle, or, more properly speaking, the all such cases Mr. Ansell proposes to use an inameliorated the toil that skilful workers in the piston, and which falls into and fills up the shoe. strument, of which fig. 1 is a sketch (page 87), same trade had once to undergo. This company This breech action is made out of Marshall's best

It consists of an iron funnel, provided with does not exclusively depend upon the manufacture iron. Two men, with a forge and steam ham. an iron, one end of which is closed by a of rifles, or their conversion, for existence. They mér, were at work in one of the shops fashioning piece of glass tube fixed in brass, to which one cultivate with much success another, and, we the iron. Bars of iron were reddening in an pole of a battery is attached; the upper part of think, a higher branch of the trade—they manu. intensely bright flame, fed by anthracite coal. this glass tabe carries a brass collar, through facture the machinery and tools which produce The hammer was fitted with two dies. These which passes an adjusting screw, at the lower end the very work in which they are now engaged. were the breaking down die, by which the shape of which is fastened a piece of copper wire with An order for the construction of rifle-making of the shoe was roughly outlined in the red-hot a platinum point. Mercury is poured into the machinery is received as thankfully as one for the metal; and the finishing die, which completed iron funnel till it rises in the glass tube to a conproduction of a few thousand rifles. This depart. the form. When the shoe is cool it is passed to venient height. This mercury is allowed to ment will, perhaps, show how complete the fac- another steam hammer, where the surplus find its level by the opening of a valve when tory is. It does not depend on any other manu- "Aash” left by the steam hammer is cut off. setting the instrument. factory for the supply of anyching which it uses

Now the shoe is of the exact shape required, but The septam is a tile of Wedgwood ware, and in the gun trade. Machinery of the most complex many things have to be done before it is com closes the open part of the funnel, good seal. character is made there, and tools of every kind pleted, because it is still one solid lump. It has ing wax being the best cement for securing it are turned out by the hundred. The variety of to be pierced from end to end, screwed at both in its place. The other battery wire is connected machines in daily use is interesting to note. ends, sized, faced, counter sunk. Upwards of with the instrument, so that if diffusion take There are knives at work shaving iron as easily twenty-five distinct and separate operations are place the mercury is pressed up against the plaas a man would pare cheese ; little, round, finely- gone through before the shoe is ready to be tinom point, and thus communication is esta. . pointed tools that bore a straight hole through a screwed on the barrel. The manufacture of the blished. Mr. Ansell has found that this in. block of iron more swiftly than a waiter can drive breech-block is on a plan precisely similar to that strument gives warning in 4 sec. if the mixture a corkscrew into a cork; cutters that put the by which the shoe is produced. First of all the of gas be still below the point of explosion ; but thread inside the barrel of the rifle more readily block is struck by a steam hammer in a solid by adjusting the point so that there is not more than a sportsman could untwist the loosest screw; mass, and it is then passed from one machine to than the thickness of a shilling between it and and hammers that give blows mightier than the another until finished. From first to last up. itself known'in 2 sec. A source of great dan

mercury, a dangerous irruption may make combined power of any number of men or horses wards of thirty, distinct operations are gone ger is that state of the pit which arises from could produce. With such servants as these, through before it is finished.

When the parts that are obedient to the gentlest touch of the are completed and put together, each gun is sent

the gradual bleeding of gas from the coal. human hand, it is not to be wondered at that an to the proof-house, where men sent down by somewhat like the noise of a cricket. In some

As one walks in a pit one hears a continual click immense amount of work can be got through in a Government prove them. short space of time.

put in and fired.

The best testimony to the pits this may arise from the settling down of the The work of converting an Enfield into a character of the work is evidenced by the fact strata and cracking of the coal, but the expebreech:loader may seem at first thought to be a that not one breech-action has been injured in perienced ear soon knows the difference. Should very simple process, involving but few opera- any

way by the test out of many thousands that bleeding very gradualy raises the atmosphere tions. The old barrel has to be shortened, and

have been proved. the breech action put in.

from zero (the point of purity) to the point of In the outline we have given of this work we explosion ; or it may be that a gradual fall of the

This action is con. tained in two parts—the shoe, in which the cart- have omitted mentioning many operations, and barometer admits of the

oozing out of gas either ridge is placed, and the breech lock, in which the construction of the minor portions, such as the from a goaf or from the mass of coal, and needle or piston works. Yet, few as they are, and the spiral spring.' 'After proof the action is extent as to render explosive the whole air of

extractor, the hinge pin, the piston, the nipple, this, although very minute, may be to such an these parts require upwards of 100 different pro- again taken off and separated, the shoe and ex- the pit, if the ventilation be not very good. cesses to complete the transformation. not going to weary our readers by attempting to tractor are blued, the breech-block hardened, There are parts of the pit where gas may so describe even one-fourth of these operations, but and then it is finally put together. These opera- accumulate in half an hour ;,others where it a general description of the chief processes may

gone through, the barrel is ready for may be two hours ; and again others, & whole not be altogether uninteresting. The rifles that


The company are converting 2,000 day n rising to a dangerous mixture. To meet are sent to the factory have never been in the rifles a week. They employ 470 men altogether, such cases Mr. Ansell used, in the first instance

, hands of our soldiers ; they come direct from the and the work is carried on night and day. At an india-rubber balloon; but this, although per. stores. As soon as they are received the first the Enfield factory, near London, 3,000 rifles are fectly good for its purpose, was too fragile. thing is to strip the rifle. Every portion is taken converted evey week; and 1,900 men are em. Therefore, he has abandoned that plan, and he away from the stock excepting the trigger. First ployed night and day

. The rapidity of the pro- pow uses white Sicilian marble, and by regulatof all the pull of the trigger is lightened, and cess, as carried out here, thus contrasts very ing the thickness avoids the evil

of effusion to then the stocks are laid up in the racks until the favourably with the rate of production at the such an extent that he can, and does, in the barrel is converted. The hammer is taken away; machinery is being iaid down, by which, in the tions. Mr. Ansell has found that by replacing and a piece cut off the end to flatten it. almost wholly obliterates the chequering, that course of a month, the Small Arms Factory will the Wedgwood ware tile (fig. 1) with inarble rough diamond-shaped cutting in the top of the be able to convert 3,000 rifles a week. The very lin. thick, he can show the preserce of an ex. hammer by which it is laid hold of with the fin- satisfactory manner in which this order is being plosive mixture of fire-damp and air which has gers. The operation of rechequering is perform executed at Small Heath reflects the highest credit been balf an hour in forming, or by using ed by boys, who, after a little practice, show con- upon the enterprise of the company.—Birmingham niarble kin. thick he shows if it has been two siderable aptitude at their work. Leaving the Daily Post.

hours rising from zero to the explosive point. lads, tapping with their little hammers as they

In all such cases notice, if it be so desired, may chequer, we pass into the long machine room. ANSELL'S FIRE-DAMP INDICATOR FOR

be given before the mixture becomes explosive, Here the barrels are shortened, by what is called


the warning being continued for a considerable

time, even if the atmosphere does not become been fired in its place , a wheel armed with

shark RF che in venenta be mer ingen eat is hardly to the very circumstances which admit of the air teeth cuts off the required length, which mea- be expected that Mr. Ansell would have left his becoming fouied to the extent of 10 per cent. sures about 2fin, This operation is done indicator as it was when first introduced, espe- also admit of its going on till 40 or more per 80 well that no mark of any kind, not even a cially as he has largely tested the instruments in cent. has been reached, always remembering scratch, is left upon the barrel, and consequently coal.pits in the positions where they would be re- that these instruments are to be fixed high up the process of re-browning is avoided. After quired for use. They entirely answered the in the roadway or goaf, and that the gas accumuthis the barrel is fixed on the " barrel-screwing" | purpose for which they were proposed the in, "lates there notwithstanding the law of diffusion.

able in advance,

Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGA

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It is do ancommon thing to find 30 per cent. of bourhood of the suspected atmosphere, and munitions of war alleged to have been manugus post the roof, at bin, lower 20 per cent. allowed to remain there till it has acquired the factured by the company for the Confederates, and at 16in, no gas at all. The cause of this temperature of that place; this usually requires and the point was whether they belonged to the will be discussed on some other occasion. a few minutes—say five. The valve must then American Government now those states had fallen.

It is proposed to fix the instruments side by be opened to allow it to find the true zero of that The Chief Clerk (Mr. Church) of the Master side, one for sudden, and the other for slow altitude. Then the valve must be closed, and of the Rolls, after hearing the several parties, aconmala ions, in pigeon holes cast in the iron the index watched for a few seconds to see if it made an order for the production of documents, props used to support the roof, these pigeon be stationary, and if it be so then the brass cap to be sealed up at present. boles being clear all through, so that the gas must be removed, and the indicator held by its oan Farround the instruments, or sweep over handle in the gaspected place, for the time spethom; for the gas as it occurs in the pit is very cified on the instrument, about 1min. curious in its habits, and from causes too mi.

TO CORRESPONDENTS. It must be mentioned that the same amount per cent. of fire-damp in different mines requires scribers of £1 ls. 8d. yearly, or 108. 10d. half-yearly, pay.

The MEOHANICS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to sub-

a varying time for diffusion through the same
tile. The cause of this is at present unknown,
but it is under investigation. The time varies ZINE at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 in-

sertions, or 4d. a line for 26 insertions. Each line confrom 45 seconds to 60 seconds, but in the same sists of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same pit it is invariably of a uniform time, so that rate as type. Special arrangements made for large adveronce determined there is no trouble. That this tisements.

All communications should be addressed to the EDITOR, is a property of the gas is proved by the fact

166, Fleet-street. that 10 per cent. of gas in one pit will explode To insure insertion in the following number, adrertise. violently, while 10 per cent, in another pit ex. ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on plodes with much less violence. The under- Thursday evening.

We must absolutely decline attending to communicaviewers call one a sharp gas and the other tions unaccompanied by the name and address of the Blow gas

or fire, and the difference writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of is perfectly well marked if observed for a good faith. -Ed. M. M. few times in the lamp. A mine to be well ven. tilated should be so supplied with air that a con

RECEIVED.-W. H.P.-R. S.-W. W.K.-B. T.-J. N.

-J. S. H.-W. B.-A. D.-R. S.-W. J.M.-E. H, N, siderable irruption should be diluted below the w.T.-E.V, M.-R. D.-J. Y.-C. J. R.-H, H. nate to enumerate here, it goes away from a point of explosion.

Ventilation which is only spot with very little disturbance. The pigeon sufficient for ordinary occasions must be con. holes being formed in iron posts would protect sidered entirely insufficient.-Chemical News. the instruments from falling roof,&o., while grooves

Meetings for the Week. may be cast in the sides of these posts for the telegraphio wires. It has been objected by some

Mon.-Royal United Service Institution.-"Manning that these instruments would cause greater de

Legal Intelligence.

the Navy," by Mr. J. Reddie, 8.30.

Royal Geographical Society.- Papers to be read : struction of life than now obtains; but these

-1. Last Letter of M. Jules Gerard, persons forget that they are not intended to dig.

" Ascent of Mount Hood, Oregon," by Mr. H. place other means of safeguard.

They are

3. “Journey Across the Cascade

Mountains, &c., through the Country of the simply proposed as additional means of know


Snake Indians," by Mr. R. Browne, 8.30. ledge.

February 2.

TUES.--Institution of Oivil Engineers.--"Description of

the Clifton Suspension Bridge," by Mr. W. H.

Barlow, 8.
V. WILLIAMS, SIR R. T. KINDERSLEY, and SIR Fei.-Geological Society.--Anniversary, 8.

Architectural Association. "The Influence of

Eastern over Western Art, and more especially THE LAW IN PATENTS.-HERBERT'S PROLONGATION.

on that Influence Exercised through the This was an application to prolong the patent

Medium of Constantinople," by Mr. T. Wells,

7.30. granted to a Mr. Herbert for mooring vessels.

Mr. Grove, Q.C., and Mr. Aston were for the two petitioners on the present occasion; the Attorney-General and Mr. Haswell

appeared for Nabal, Military, and Gunnery Items. the crown.

A question arose in this case, which was raised
by Mr. Reeves, the Registrar. Since the petitions under the command of Lieutenant-General

During the past week the troops at Aldershott,

he one of the petitioners had died, and the registrar Hon. Sir James Yorke-Scarlett, K.C.B., have been was ofopinion that there should be a supplemental exercised in route-marching, field manoeuvres, and petition.

the use of the Snider breech-loader.

Mr. Grove was willing to take a renewal in one The Regatta Society of La Rochelle have preFor the indication of carbonic acid

Mr. Ansell of the two petitioners. One had died, and was sented a gold medal to Mr. Bennett, in commem. makes a necessary alteration, which will be seen represented.

oration of the Ocean Yacht race, in which in fig. 2. This hardly needs description, for it Sir W. Erle thought this case oould proceed, “Henrietta” was victorious. will be seen at a glance that the circuit is and if necessary a supplemental petition could be

General Peel has presented Eton College with a completed by the rising of the mercury to the filed.

Russian trophy, in the shape of a cannon captured wire within the preoinots of the closed chamber The case proceeded with the examination of to be made at the Royal Arsenal. The gift of the

at Sebastopol. A suitable carriage for the gun is formed by the neck of the funnel, and is ad- witnesses viva voce, and occupied the entire day. gun is owing to the intervention of the Earl of justed for use by tarning the base on which it

Longford. stande, when a cork rises against a leather bag VICE CHANCELLOR'S COURT.

Several hundred additional hands have been and presses the mercary up to the required height. Whether marble will stand long without

January 31.

taken on in the Royal Laboratory, to expedite the disintegration by carbonic acid has to be deter


manufacture of the new Boxer cartridges (which

are now thoroughly organized) required for present mined ; if not, it can be replaced by another


issue. Heptum. This instrument is proposed for use in This was a motion on behalf of Mr. Scott, the A Philadelphia paper says that the second twentythose mines where carbonic acid becomes a dan- clerk and

registrar of the City Coal Market for inch navy gun, which was recently cast at the gerons substance for the miner. It has been the purpose of restraining the publication in a

cannon foundry of Knap Nephews, has been tested. songht by the French wine

growers as a means work called “Mineral Statistics of the United The proof charges were sixty, eighty, and one hun. of telling the time of the commencement of fer- Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for the dred and twenty pounds, three shots being fired mentation, and it seems probable that the Year 1865,” of the returns of coal, culm, and with each of the charges specified. The test was English browers will use it for a similar par. cinders imported into London, published successfully stood by the gun, and the machinery рове.

by the plaintiff under the authority of the Cor. necessary to conduct it worked to perfection. In the event of fire-damp being known to poration, and in which returns he claims a copy, The present Administration is not one wbit better ezist either when found by the fixed indicators or right. The case, which involves questions of satisfied with the manner in which the business is by the safety lamps, Mr. Ansell proposes, for considerable interest and importance, was not conducted in the Royal Dockyards than the one the use of the miner, the manager, or his deputy, concluded at the rising of the court, and accornu aneroid indicator, the description of which dingly stands over until the

first day of the sit: zette) can state that a committee consisting of Lord has already been published. Some persons who tings after term.

Henry Lennox, M.P., chairman, the Comptroller have not cared to read the description, or to

of the Navy, the Accountant-General, and Mr.

Mr. Giffard, Q.C., and Mr. Andrew Thomson H. W. R. Walker, has been ordered to assemble mako themselves acquainted with the use for are for the plaintiff'; the Attorney-General and with a view of ascertaining the possibility of not which this instrument is made, imagine thatit pos- Mr. Wickens appear on behalf of the defendant. only rendering the accounts more simple, but of Hesmos strange properties. It is, therefore, ne.

saving the public money. consary to say that it is not used for the deteo. tion of gas in the pit. The intention of this par.


Experiments have just been made with a new

naval gun of greater power than any yet tried in ticular instrument is that it shall be used to de.

February 4.

France. It is rifled, is four metres, 60 centimetres termine the amount per cent. of fire-damp or

(Before the CHIEF CLERKS.)

long (the metre is 3ft. 3.371in.), weigbs 22 tons, can Darbonio acid gas where they are known or sus.


be used both for shell and solid balls,--the latter pected to exist; and for these purposes it must

An application was made in this matter for being in steel of 216 kilogrammes, 4321b. The de. or oned rigidly according to the instructions the production of some documents by the topicior tails of the experiments are not given, but they will given with it, not according to the fancy of the use liquidator on the part of the United States go- metres the solid shot can easily pierce

plates of 16 or as he thinks it should be used. It must be vernment. Captain Blakely was represented, centimetres, and destroy in a short time the thickest taken, with its brase cap still on, into the

neigh- and the matter arose as to the guns and other walls of fortified places."

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