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474 The General Observer. No. XXVI. come up, both retreated with precip. lated with warm encomiums on the itation. Josephus, all this time, knew bravery of Josephus, and the old not to whom he was rendering service gentleman so heartily participated in

He turned round, and Ludovicus his son's joy, that he fervently thank, {prang into his arms. It is impossi- ed his gallant defender, and prefentble to describe the various emotions ed him Mary Ann, as a token of his. of the two friends, and therefore we unfeigned regards. Josephus receiv-' shall not attempt it. To sum up the ed the invaluable present with every whole in a few words, they met with demonftration of lupreme felicity, and no other impediment on their jour. the lover and the friend, is only exney, and arrived in safety at Ludov. changed for the titles of husband and icus father's. Here the story was re- father.

M. I.

THE

FOR THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE. The GENER A L OBSERVER. No. XXVI.

“ I found my subjects amicably join

To leflen their defects by telling mine."-PRIORE THE best of men love their imper- ot fortune, he is hoisted up by uni.

fections, and the worst love their versal applause, and every one expects virtues. I never knew a person in as he approaches near the summit, to whom the eye of candour could not see him immaculate ; thus partial, they discover something to be commended, expect in him that perfection which or one with whom the tongue of illib. is not the lot of humanity—and when erality could not find fault. It is their prejudices have abated, and their rare that the true character of a

per- wild enthufiafm cooled, they discover fon is given : It is commonly taken that he is mortal—they see him heir ex parte : His beauties are displayed, to human imperfections-disappointand his deformities concealed ; or his ed at the discovery, they view him as vices are remembered, and his virtues degenerate and corrupt ; not considerforgotten. Mankind are too apt to. ing that the change is more in their run upon extremes in all things ; but own imaginations, than in the person in nothing more than in the opinions who is the object of them ; they now they form, or express, of one another. watch for faults, more eagerly than Passion and prejudice, party spirit, before for virtues, and the most pure and zeal, are very officious intruders of mankind, has too many blemishes in this business ; humanity and phi- to conceal them all from eagle eyed Janthropy sometimes blushingly step jealousy; the cry is now turned, and forward and with persuasive emotions he is calumniated by the croud. А Dias the mind; while envy and malice, very sensible and good man, and an with their serpentine windings, craw exemplary divine, once told me, that in and corrupt the judgement; and when he settled in the ministry, his pa. pride and vanity are as chattering and rishioners would all with one accord, vociferous as magpies. Every man have it that he was an angel' ; a few who appears upon the stage of life, years, he said, convinced them of their especially if he has an important part error ; and then, lays he, they as. to act, is most critically observed on universally agreed that I must be a his first entrance ; and every grade devil. The truth was that this man he ascends, he becomes the more con- was neither devil nor angel ; but if fpicuous as he rises, ať every step he viewed with an impartiał eye, and his takes he beomes more and more, the perfections and imperfections both object of attention every motion is considered, would have been found to observed : fome look for perfections, be a very worthy man. Men in high but more for imperfections— few look ftations of life are too often treated equally for both.-If he happens to in this way. Sometimes they have begin his ascent in a prosperous gale too mucli merit ascribed to them, but

oftener

A Discourse upon Horse Shoes.

475 oftener too little : Envy is ever offi. foibles in the man of eminence, the cious on these occasions ; people are object of their envy ; and if, in him, apt to imagine when they fee one they can discover blemishes, they are rising in the world, that he is rifing spread abroad as veils for their own. from their ruins; the applause given Misguided mortals ! pitiful is your to a rising character, feems to echo re- employment! well would it be for proaches to them; they immediately ye, did ye consider that the washing let themselves to work to retain their of your own hands, would make ye supposed merited importance; and as much more cleanly and comely, than is always the cale, with weak minds, the defiling them the more by they begin at the wrong end; instead handling the filth and polutions of of correcting their own faults, their others. whole time is devoted to hunting for

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A DISCOURSE upon HORSE SHOES. [By Opay Mico, one of the Indian kings, from the Creek country. Delivered on a late

visit to Newyork. 'Translated from the Telaffee Language.] W

town, the residence of the knowledge of the thousands that beloved Chief and the Great have elapsed. Every past centuCouncil of the Thirteen Fires, my ry has been gaining, little by litattention was very much attracted tle, and the weight of all their by those huge floating machines, knowledge has fallen upon the in which the white men pass over men of the time in which we now the immense waters from country live. to country, and even (they tell On a certain day my curiosity me) those remote limits where the led me (in company with my ingreat star of the day rises over the terpreter) to go on board one of regions of the east.' My imagina- those big canoes. I was surprised tion was bulied in contemplating to find furnished like a house, the wisdom and sagacity, not only accomodated with every necessary of those who have with so much for palling many months with art constructed these machines, comfort on the great occan which but also of those men who are en- rolls over the urimeasurable spaces trusted with the management and towards the east. My various direction of them on the face of inquiries were amply gratified by such a dangerous and vastly ex- the commander, through the mouth tended element as my understand- of my interpreter,

He seemed ing tells me the ocean must be. particularly complaisant to me, as How, said I, is it poflible for them, being a stranger; and endeavourwhen once they have left the ed to make me comprehend par. main shores, to direct the prow ticularly the use of every part of with so much art and precision to

the furniture that was sublervient some small spot of earth, placed to the navigating and manæuverlike a hill in the midst of the un- ing of his vessel. fathomable waters ! Doubtless Indeed my own simple reason they must be poflessed of fagaci- and observation could, in some ty superiour to the rest of man- degree, account for the end and kind.

design of the grcater part of the Such' were my reasonings at

objects that I saw. At last, di. that time. But I have since dif- rečting my observations to the covered, that the men of the pre- lower extremity of one of the

mafts,

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first voyage.

66 But

476 A Discourse upon Horse Shoes.
mafts, I could not avoid asking fruits of the earth, at a time when
myself what could be the purpose our hopes and desires are fixed
of nailing a thin plate of iron of upon their prosperity. Against
a form approaching to circular, these, therefore, it is our duty to
and pierced with several small be upon our guard, and, by every
holes, thereupon. After forming method we can devise, repel, it
a thousand conjectures, but not possible, the shafts of their vin.
one that in the least cleared up di&ive malice.
my doubts, I directed the inter- 66 Time has been when men
preter to enquire of the master wandered over the ocean without
¿ What could be the use of this the least knowledge of the virtues
flat piece of semicircular metal ? of the horse shoe! These times,

He immediately replied that the however, thank Heaven, are past iron which had so much attracted and gone. With this inestimable my attention was no other than a jewel for a companion, we can common Horse Shoe, which he now traverse the seas in safety, himself had nailed in that spot, and not be in constant dread of previous to his embarking on his the destructive influences of eve

ry vagabond atom of mischievous Truly, replied I, upon recollec- volition that rambles through our tion, it is indeed a horse shoe, and atmosphere, and by fome unknown such I have frequently seen here- means harasses us, even from the tofore in my own country. But orbits of the superiour planets, . of what possible use or advantage

you

will ask me, į By can this be to the great canoe that what strange means does the horse travels only upon the face of the shoe ensure safety to the ship, her watry element ?

crew, and her cargo ? The commander seemed fome. " I answer, that it is only in what confused at my question, particular circumstances and pofiBut instantly recollecting himself, tions that it enfures any safety at he desired me to retire with him all. For instance, a horse shoe and sit down in his wigwam ; and new from the blacksmith's anvi! then pouring out a bowl of red would be of no avail against the wine, which he desired me to drink malevolent powers. The shoe off, he addressed me in the follow must have travelled many hundred ing manner:

miles attached to the foot of the - You must know that there is animal, and even be worn to a a certain wonderful connexion certain degree of roundness on the and sympathy between the things outer edge, before it will answer above and the things below : The our purpose. It is our custom, invisible parts of the animated also, evermore to place the open creation, and those parts which on part downward, as by this means this earth are the objects of our the shoe represents an arch (which fight and other senses. Among is a token of strength) as well as the invisible intelligences there the rotundity of the heavens, over are not a few orders that take a our heads, which are fixed, dura, supreme delight in injuring and ble, and to last forever. throwing mileries and misfortunes " It is by effects only that we in the way of mankind. It is can hope to arrive to any knowthese that wing the hurricane, ledge of a cause. If, therefore, scatter the seeds of pestilence I can honestly assure you that I through the air, and blast the have failed these five and forty

years

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Dr. Franklin's Spectacles.

477 years upon the deep seas, and of some curious inftruments, comnever experienced any dangerous pelled to be his guides and direcaccident in such ships or barques fors ; and yet, for all this his as had this particular piece of iron knowledge, and a great deal more, attached to them ; but constantly he is weak enough to make his the reverse in those vefsels where- secret dependence for safety upon in I neglected it, be assured there certain imaginary effects proceedmust be some reality in the mat- ing from a worthless scrap of ter, and that horse shoes, when crooked iron! What a number thus applied, have the undoubted of barques and canoes have I since power of keeping mischief at a visited, and not one of them all distance."

but has its horse shoe !
The mystery being thus, in Such is the wisdom of the
some sort explained, I bade fare- white men. They laugh at us
well to the master of the great for our credulity in maintaining
canoe, not without amazement some scores of pawwas to avert by
when I considered the almost u- their howlings and lacerations, the
niversal influence of folly and su- vengeance of the great evil Being.
perstition over the most intelli- They despise us for believing in

This
man,

faid I, our good and bad Moneetas, and has subjected the winds and tem- paying a superstitious reverence pefts to his control ; he has so to certain animals in the forests ; cunningly contrived things, that they call us rude, savage and unthe rays of the sun, instead of on: enlightened, at the very instant ly serving to afford him light and when they themselves are putting warmth, are, by the intervention their trust in HORSE Shoes.

gent mind.

TO THE EDITORS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE,

GENTLEMEN,
A species of Spectacles has been recommended by the late Dr. FRANKLIN, in a

letter, an extra£t from which I send you ; and as it is an imporlant object, !
have no doubt but you will be pleased to gratify the publick with it, through
your useful magazine.

Lewis LEPRELETE. Dr. FRANKLIN's SPECTACLES. “

Y Mr. B's saying that the change troublesome, and not

my double spectacles can always sufficiently ready, I had only serve particular eyes, I doubt the glasses cut, and half of each he has not been rightly informed kind associated in the same circle, of their construction. 'I imagine By this means, as I wear my {pecit will be found pretty generally tacles constantly, I have only to true, that the same convexity of move my eyes up and down, as I glass through which a man' sees want to see diftin&tly, far or near, clearest and best, at the dif- the proper glasses being always tance proper for reading, is not ready. This I find more particu- . the best for greater distances; I larly convenient, fince my being therefore had formerly two pair in France ; the glasses that serve of spectacles, which I shiftedoc- me best at table to see what I eat, casionally, as in travelling I fome- not being the best to see the faces times read, and often wanted to of those on the other side of the regard the prospects. Finding table who speak to me ; and when

one's

478

Critique on Dr. Smith's Theory of Spafm. one's cars are not well accustom- to explain ; so that I understand ed to the sounds of a language, a

French better by the help of my fight of the movements, in the spectacles.' features of him that speaks, helps

• Vide a treatise on the dileares of the eyes, by William Rowley,M. D. published in 1790,

CRITIQUE on Dr. SMITH's THEORY of SPASM,

TO THE EDITORS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE.

GENTLEMEN,
Turning aver your Magazine, not many days fince, I fell upon Doctor Smith's

Dissertation on the Cause of Spasm in Fever ; the novelty of whose
sentiments-induced me to make the following remarks, which you are requested
to infert in your monthly publication.
AF

FTER observing that the we may reason ; if there has been

arteries are endued with a no such application, and of course power of elasticity, continually no diminished energy, there can endeavouring to bring them into be no spasm. less dimensions ; that the blood In inflammation, however, a contained in them is perpetually spasm does actually exist, and is resisting that elastick power ; and considered as the proximate cause that, in a healthy state, these two of the disease ; but it would be opposing powers are in equilibrio; difficult to maintain, that a dia his do&rine of spasm appears to minished energy had been previbe explicitly this:

ously induced. Some debilitating application The fact is, the gentleman's diminishes the energy of the brain, pian will not explain the formanecessary to the action of the heart tion of spasm in inflammation ; so and arteries“; of course diminishes that we must either look for difthe a£tion of the heart and arte- ferent causes of a similar affecTies.

tion in these two diseases, viz. From this diminution of pow. Fever and Inflammation,or conclude er in the heart and arteries, they that his doctrine is founded on become insufficient to propel the mistaken facts. blood to the remote parts of the If we attend to the definition arterial system, Hence, the re- of the energy of the brain, we sistance to the elasticity of the can hardly expect the effect, that extreme arteries being removed, is alledged, from its being diminthey fall into spasms.

ished. In this way, the Doctor endea- We suppose the energy of the vours to explain the formation of brain conlists in a certain mobilifpafm. But how can this theory ty of the nervous power, or fluid. apply to spasm in inflammation, This mobility being impaired conwhere the energy of the brain stitutes a diminished energy. has not been previously diminish- If a diminished energy

effect ed ?

a debility in the action of the His norel do&rine rests totally heart and arteries, which the on a diminution of the energy of Doctor justly observes, it must the brain ; and that depends on be in consequence of the nervous fome sedative application. Hence power, or fluid, not flowing in a

fufficient

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