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Memoirs of the Life of Edward Drinker. 479 fufficient quantity, or with suffi- dency of an artery be to contract cient velocity, to those parts. itself into a less dimension, that

Admitting this, we suppose, the portion of it, which is weakest, action of those arteries, which are will be most diftended with its at the greatest distance from the contained fluid, consequently the brain, where the motion of the extremities of the arteries, in fluid originates, would be most cafe of diminished energy, will affected.

be in a state of congestion ; and From this mode of reasoning, of course there is no opportunity a diminished energy will induce for the formation of spasm, in the the greatest degree of atony in way the gentleman endeavours, the extremities of the arteries, to maintain. If the natural and constant ten


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EDWARD of December, 1680,

DWARD DRINKER was born dents of his childhood or youth, but

the events of later years; and so faithin a small cabin near the present cor- ful was his memory to him, that his ner of Walnut and Second Streets in fon informed me that he never heard the city of Philadelphia. His parents him tell the same story twice, but to came from a place called Beverly, in different persons, and in different Massachusetts Bay. The banks of the companies. His eye fight failed him Delaware, on which the city of Phi. many years before his death, but his ladelphia now stands, were inhabited hearing was uniformly perfect and un. at the time of his birth by Indians, impaired. His appetite was good till, and a few Swedes and Hollanders. within a few weeks before his death. He often talked to his companions of He generally ate a hearty breakfaft picking wortfeberries, and catching of a pint of tea or coffee, as soon as he rabbits, on spots now the most popu- got out of his bed, with bread and lous and improved of the city. He re- butter in proportion. He ate likecollected the second time William Penn wise at eleven o'clock, and never failcame to Pennsylvania, and used to ed to eat plentifully at dinner of the point to the place where the cabin groffest solid food. He drank tea in ftood, in which he and his friends the evening, but never ate any supper. that accompanied him were accommo- He had lost all bis teeth 30 years be. dated upon their arrival. At twelve, fore his death (his son says, by draw. years of age he went to Boston, where ing excellive hot smoke of tobacco inhe served an apprenticeship to a cabi- to his mouth) but the want of suitanet maker. In the year 1745, he re

ble mastication of his food did not turned to Philadelphia with his fami- prevent its speedy digeftion, nor im-. ly, where he lived till the time of his pair his health. death. He was four times married, hardened by age, supplied the place and had 18 children, all of whom were of his seeth in a certain degree, or by his first wife. At one time of his whether the juices of the mouth and lífe he sat down at his own table with ftomach became so much more acrid14 children. Not long before his by time, as to peform the office of death he heard of the birth ofa grand- diffolving the food more speedily and child to one of his grandehildren, the more perfectly I know not; but I fifth in succession from himself. have often observed, that old people

He retained all his faculties till the are more subject to exceslive eating Haft years of his life; even his memo. than young ones, and that they fuffer ry, fo early and to generally dimi- fewer inconveniences from it. He nished by age, was but little impair- was inquisitive after news in the last ed. He not only remembered the inci.. years of his life; his education did,

Whether the gums,

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480 Memoirs of the Life of Edward Drinker. not lead him to increase the stock of is marked with several circumstances his ideas in any other way. But it is which perhaps have seldom occurred a fact well worth attending to, that in the life of an individual ; he saw old age, instead of diminishing, always and heard more of those events increases the desire of knowledge. It which are measured by time, than must afford some consolation to those have ever been seen or heard by any who expect to be old, to discover that man since the age of the patriarchs ; the infirmities, to which the decays of he saw the fame (pot of earth in the nature expose the human body, are course of his life covered with wood rendered more tolerable by the enjoy- and bushes, and the receptacle of ments that are to be derived from the beasts and birds of prey, afterwards appetite for Sensual and intellectual become the seat of a city, not only the food.

first in wealth and arts in the new, but The subject of this history was re- rivalling in both many of the first ci. markably sober and temperate. Nei ties in the old world. He saw regular ther hard labour, nor company, nor streets, where he once pursued a hare; the usual affitictions of human life, nor he law churches rising upon morasses the waftes of nature, ever led him to where he had often heard the croaking an improper or excessive use of strong of frogs ; he saw wharves and ware drink. For the last 25 years of his houses where he had often seen Indian life he drank twice every day a draught favages draw fish from the river for of toddy, made with two table spoons their daily subsistence ; and he saw full of spirit, in lialf a pint of water. Thips of every size and use in those His son, a man of 59 years of age, streams where he had been used to told me he had never seen him intoxi. fee nothing but Indian canoes ;

he cated. The time and manner, in saw a stately edifice filled with legisla. which he used fpirituous liquors, I tors, astonishing the world with their believe, contributed to lighten the wisdom and virtue, on the same spot weight of his years, and probably to probably, where he had seen an Indiprolong his life. “Give wine to him an council fire ; he faw the first treaty that is of a heavy heart, and strong ratified between the newly confederatdrink to him that is ready to pērithi ed powers of America, and the an. (with age as well as with fickness] cient monarchy of France, with all & Let him drink and forget his sorrow, the formalities of parchment and and remember his misery no more. seals, on the same spot probably

He enjoyed an uncommon share of where he once saw William Penn ratia health, insomuch that in the course of fy his first and last treaty with the Inhis long life he was never confined dians, without the formalities of pen, more than three days to his bed. He ink or paper ; he saw all the intermeoften declared that he had no idea of diate stages through which a people that most distressing pain called the pass from the most simple to the most head-ach. His sleep was interrupted complicated degrees of civilization; 2. little in the last years of his life, with he faw the beginning and end of the a defluxion in his breast, which pro empire ofGreatbritain in Pennsylvania. duced what is commonly called the He had been the subject of seven old man's cough.

crowned heads, and afterwards died a The character of this aged citizen citizen of the ncwly created republick was not fummed up in his negative of America. The number of his soquality of temperance ; he was a man vereigns, and his long habits of subof a most amiable temper; old age million to them, did not extinguish had not curdled his blood ;, he was the love of republican liberty, which uniformly cheerful and kind to every is natural to the mind of man in its body; his religious principles were as healthy ftate. He embraced the listeady as his morals were pure ; he berties and independence of America attended publick worship above thirty in his withered arms, and triumphed years, in the Rev. Dr.Sproat'schurch, in the last years of his life in the ral. and died in a full assurance of a happy vation of his country. He died Nov. immortality. The life of this man 17, 2782; aged 103:

E. F.


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Address to the Citizens of the United States. 481
YITIZENS of the United States ! the oldest kingdoms of Europe.

bave å well balanced consti, What they have been Nowly growing tution, established by general confent, . to in the course of near two thouwhich is an improvement on all re- sand years, you may hope to equal publican forms of government here- within one century. If you continue tofore established. It poftelses the under one government, built on the good qualities of monarchy, but with solid foundations of publick justice out its vices. The wisdom and sta. and publick virtue, there is no point bility of aristocracy, but without the of national greatness to which you infolence of hereditary masters. The may not alpire with a well founded freedom and independence of, a pop- hope of speedily attaining it. Cheular assembly, acquainted with the ris and support a reverence for gov. wants and wishes of the people, but ernment, and cultivate union between without the capacity of doing those the East and the South, the Atlantick mischiefs which result from uncon. and the Millilippi. Let the greatest trolled power in one assembly. The good of the greatest number, be the end and object of it is publick good. pole star of your publick and private If you are not happy, it will be your deliberations. Shun wars; they beget own fault. No knave or fool can debt, add to the common vices of manplead an hereditary right to sport with kind, and produce others, which are your property or your liberties. almost peculiar to themselves. AgriYour laws and your lawgivers must culture, manufactures and commerce, all proceed from yourfelves. You are your proper business. Seek not to have the experience of nearly fix enlarge your territory by conquest. It thousand years, to point out the rocks is already fufficiently extensive. You on which former republicks have have ample scope for the employment been dalhed to pieces. "Learn wisdom of your most active minds, in promotfrom their misfortunes. Cultivate ing your own domestick happiness. justice, both, publick and private. Maintain your own rights, and let all No government will or can endure, others remain in quiet poffeflion of which does not protect the rights of theirs. Avoid discord, faction, luxits subjects. -. Unless such efficient ury, and the other vices which have regulations are adopted as will secure been the bane of commonwealths. property, as well as liberty, one rev- Cherish and reward the philosophers, olution will follow another. Anar- the statesmen and the patriois,' who chy, monarchy or despotilm, will be devote their talents and time at the the consequence. By just laws, and expense of their private interests, to the faithful execution of shem, pub- the toils of enlightening and directing lick and private credit will be restor- their fellow citizens, and thereby cd, and the restoration of credit will rescue citizens and 'rulers of rebe a mine of wealth to this young publicks, from the common and too country. It will make a fund for often merited charge of ingratitude. agriculture, commerce and manu. Practice industry, frugality, témperfactures, 'which will foon enable the ance, moderation, and the whole United States to claim an exalted lovely train of republican virtues. rank among the nations of the earth. Banish from your borders the liquid

Such are the resources of your' fire of the Westindies, which, while it country, and so triffing are your entails poverty and disease, prevents debts, compared with your refources, induftry, and foments private quár. that proper systems, wisely planned rels. Venerate the plough, the hoë, and faithfully executed, will soon fill and all the implements of agriculture. your extensive territory with inhab. Honour the men who with their own itants, and give you the command of hands mantain their families, and raife such ample capitals, as will enable up children who are inured to toil, and you to run the career of national capable of defending their country. greatness, with advantages equal to Reckon the necesity of labour not Pol. IH. Auguft, 1791.


482 On the Government of our Paffions. among the curles, but the blessings of means of education, and particularly life. Your towns will probably ere of religious instruction, through your long be ingulphed in luxury and ef. remotest settlements. To this end, feminacy. If your liberties and future support and strengthen the hands of prospects depended on them, your ca- publick teachers, and especially of reer of liberty would probably be worthy clergymen. Let your

volunshort ; but a great majority of your tary contributions confute the disho. country must and will be yeomanry, nourable position, that religion canwho have no other dependence than not be supported but by compulsýry on Almighty God for his ulual blef- establi hments. Remember that there sing on their daily labour. From the can be no political happinefs without great excess of the number of such liberty ; that there can be no liberty independent farmers in these States, o- without morality; and that there can ver and above all other clafles of inha- be no morality without religion. bitants, the long continuance of your It is now your tarn to figure on liberties may be reasonably presumed. the face of the earth, and the annals

Let the hapless African feep undif- of the world. You poffers a country turbed on his native More, and give which in tess than a century will probaover wishing for the extermination bly contain near fifty millions ofinhabio of the ancient proprietors of this land. tants. You have with a great ex. Universal justice is universal interest. pense of blood and treasure rescued The most enlarged happiness of one yourselves, and your posterity from the people, by no means requires the des domination of Europe. Perfect the gradation or deftruction of another. good work you have begun, by formit would be more glorious to civilize ing such arrangements and inftitutions, one tribe of savages, than to exter- as bid fair for infuring to the present minate or expel a score. There is and future generations, the bleflings for territory enough for them and for which you have successfully contended. you. Instead of invading their rights, May the Almighty Ruler of the promote their happiness, and give them Universe, who has raised you to indeno reason to curse the folly of their pendence, and given you a place a. fathers, who suffered yours to lit down mong the nations of the earth, make on a foil which the common Parent of the American revolution an era in the us both previously affigned to them: history of the world, remarkable for But above all, be particularly careful the progreslive increase of human that your own descendants do not de- happiness. generate into lavages. Diffuse the

[Hif. Am. Rev.)

HE man who cannot govern hís So said the immortal Shakespeare,

passions, but gives a loose to all who seems to have studied nature with a his inordinate desires, and lets his ap; microscopic eye; and to have appreciapetites run riot without the control ted the merits and frailties of man. of reason or discretion, cannot be call. kind in the scale of the nicest discrim. led a man, but a mere fenfarion. Such ination. a being is disqualified for every kind Scipio is more esteemed for his of bulinels, and even social inter- chastity than his victories, as they course, as the moment he perceives did not altogether depend upon himan object that stimulates his fancy, all self, but upon many circumitances he other considerations lose their weight, could not 'foresee ; but his fortitude to gratify a momentary indulgence in withstanding the charms of one of that brutes enjoy in far greater per- the finest women ever beheld, proved fection than man.

the real conqueror the conqueror of “ Give me the man that is not paffion's

himself. Nave,

In opposition to what I have ad“ And I'll wear him in my heart-myvanced, it may perhaps be urged, that heart's core.

some of the greatest men of ancient


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The Death of the Chriftian,

483 as well as modera times, have been of beauty. We can, upon this occa. men of professed gallantry, and that Gon, only lament that superiour merit, they were not ashamed to facrifice at and extraordinary talents, Mould be the shrine of Venus, as a solace from subject to the errors and frạilties of the fatigues of business : but shall human nature ; or that such female the foibles and vices of the greatest charms as would almost deify the men be called in to prove their recti- sex with virtue, should be reduced titude ?. As well might the prostitue below the standard of human nature tion of some of the handsomest females by prostitution, and instead of creatbe adduced as a proof of inconti. ting our admiration, excite only our Aency being a necessary concomitant horror and dilgust,


The DEATH of the CHRISTIAN. (Extracted from an Oration, delivered by BARNABAS BIDWELL, Efq; on the Death of

ROGER NEWTON, jun. A. M, a Tutor of Yale College.] THE Christian, and he alone, can Saviour's countenance, can walk with

triumph, amidst the agonies of compofure thro' the gloomy valley of dissolving nature, in a well grounded the lhadow of death, and fear no evil. hope of future felicity. There is a See the polished Chesterfield, after a genuine dignity in the death of a real life of debauchery, proudly endeav. believer. It is not the vanity of an ouring to act the Philosopher in death. Augustus Cæsar, who called his sub- In 1pite of his refinements in the art of jects round him; and after reminding dissimulation, an anxious horror of them that he had lived in glory, bid conscience burst forth and evinced, them applaud him after his death. It that as he had lived a polite deceiver, is not the heroick itupidity of an An- so he died a philosophical hypocrite. dre, who oftentatiously desired the On the other hand, behold the amia.. spectators of his catastrophe to witness ble, the virtuous, the pious Addison, that he died as a brave man. It is in his dying scene. How humble, not the thoughtless courage of a pro,

and at the same time how dignified he fessed Hero, in the heat of spirits, and appears ! That modesty, that tranquil. amidst the confusion of battle, rushing lity of mind, that cheerful patience headlong upon almost certain destruc- and resignation, which were eminent. tion. It is not the hardy insensibility ly characterestick of his lite and write of an Indian Warrior, exulting in the ings, never forlook him to the last. midst of surrounding fames, provok. His setting fun shone bright. The ing his tormentors and singing a mer. evening of his life was pleasant and ry song of death. It is not the trifl. serene. Supported by the testimony ing indifference of a Rabelais, who of a good conscience, and a lively faith left the world with a wanton jest on in his Redeemer, as he lay on his his tongue. Not the presumption of death bed, he could look the advancthe Nave of false honor, who for fear ing king of terrors in the face with a of shame, or to revenge some trifling smile, and welcome him as a mellen. affront, exposes his own life and that ger of glad tidings. Oblerve him, ye of his friend, in a duel. Nor the admirers of fortitude ; view him in madness of an ancient heathen or mo- that critical moment, which emphatidern infidel, who under the pressure cally tries men's souls; and learn of misfortune and in a fit of despera. with what superior dignity and peace tion, becomes his own executioner. of mind a Christian can die. Who He meanly retreats from evils, which would not adopt the language of BaChristian heroism would qualify himn laam, “ Let me die the death of the to overcome by his exertions or en. righteous, and let my latter end be dure with patience. T votaries of like his ?" Is this your real with ? fame may acquire a sort of insensibility Then you must live the life of the to death and its consequences. But righteous : For eternity, with all its he alone whose peace is made with pleasing, dreadful scenes, is tuspendGod, and who enjoys the light of his ed upon our present conduct.


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