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founded?"(x.5). And is it not written to both Judah and Ephraim, “ I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as a sword of a mighty man. And the Lord shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning: and the Lord God shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south ?" (ix. 13, 14.) And is it not written again, by the same Prophet," I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria, and I will bring them into the land of Gilead, and Lebanon, and place shall not be found for them? And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away. And I will strengthen them in the Lord, and they shall walk
up and down in his name, saith the Lord” (x. 10–12). Yea, when they have made good by strength of arm their inheritance, and planted themselves in Jerusalem once more, the nations shall gather their waves, and with tumults of war roll themselves upon Jerusalem ; but Jerusalem shall be a cup of trembling: “Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem. And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it. In that day, saith the Lord, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness” (xii. 2–4). But in these battles of shakings the bow of Israel shall not be broken, and the bow of Joseph shall abide in strength ; for the arms of his hands shall be made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob. Yea, moreover, when all nations are gathered against Jerusalem to battle, Jehovah himself shall go forth. “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. And his feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof; toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south. And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains : for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal : yea, ye shall flee like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah : and the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with thee” (xiv. 3—5).
Such, O men of all nations and kindreds and tongues, is the purpose which God hath written concerning the people whom ye have trodden under foot, like the mire of the streets. These words of the Lord cannot be broken: heaven and earth shall pass away, but one jot, or one tittle, shall not pass from these words till all be fulfilled. That people, who wander over the wide territory of Babylon and over all the regions of the earth like vagabonds, and who are treated worse than the vagabonds, worse than the lawless vagrants of mankind, shall yet be beautified with salvation and be girded with strength: they shall arise, and no man shall dare to affront them : they shall go forth, their silver and gold with them, and no man shall dare to molest them : they shall sit every man under his own vine, and under his own fig-tree, and no man shall dare to make them afraid : the people shall dwell alone in the high places of the earth. " How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob ! and thy tabernacles, O Israel! Blessed is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that curseth thee!”
So much and so fully deemed we it good to write concerning the restoration of Israel; that, with all believers in and tremblers at God's word, there might remain no doubt whatever concerning this great mystery of Divine Providence; and for the song which follows, we must reserve it for another part of our interpretation. Do GOOD, O GOD, IN THY GOOD PLEASURE, UNTO Zion:
BUILD THOU THE WALL OF JERUSALEM.
ON THE TYPICAL IMPORT OF MANY OF THE HISTORICAL
RECORDS OF THE OLD-TESTAMENT SCRIPTURES. That certain events recorded in the Old Testament history were designed to prefigure and to illustrate other parts of the Divine plan and purpose subsequently to be unfolded, cannot be questioned by any attentive student of Scripture. Our Lord's reference to the days of Noah and of Lot, and to the acts of Moses and of Jonah, as indicating what should come to pass; and St. Paul's comparison of the Christian warfare and pilgrimage to those of the children of Israel ; and his
exposition of the history of Abraham, Sarah, and Hagar, in his Epistle to the Galatians; are sufficient proofs of this position.
Neither, it is presumed, will it be necessary to shew that we are not confined, in our selection of those historical events, to instances which are specially treated of in the New Testament, any more than we are confined in the application of the sacrifices and ceremonies and feasts of the legal ritual to those
particular portions of that ritual which are expressly referred to by our Lord or his Apostles. This would be to form a boundary in our comparison of Scripture with itself, for which it would be impossible to find a warrant. Upon this principle, the instruction to be derived from ordinances, however strong their similarity to others enjoined by the same authority, and even promulgated on the same occasion as those specifically explained, must be rejected. Let us rather seek, continually and humbly, the Spirit's teaching, in the study of his word, and in comparing spiritual things with spiritual ; and then we may go safely to that word ; and if He give us light to discover a type where we have not before seen it, let us not imagine that we are justified in closing our eyes against it, because we do not also find a distinct declaration in the New Testament that it is a type.
It is certainly important, in our use of such types, to guard against their abuse. However fairly it may be inferred from the word of God, that, before the canon of Scripture was completed, and the ministration of the Spirit came in full operation, believers did derive much of their spiritual instruction through types and shadows alone, their safest use appears now to be for the illustration and confirmation of particular truths or doctrines otherwise set forth, rather than as sources from whence such truths and doctrines are to be alone deduced.
Many of the historical events of the Old Testament, we are assured by St. Paul,“ happened unto” the subjects of “them for examples (Tutoi, types), and were especially written for our admonition,
whom the ends of the age are come.” (1 Cor. x. 11.) It is our greatest wisdom, therefore, and highest duty, to search into the mines of spiritual knowledge, thus
graciously stored up for our use; and we are authorized to expect that light will be thereby thrown upon the purposes of God which the sacred pages reveal, and thus the “sure word of prophecy be further confirmed and verified. In our research, we shall not fail to be astonished at the vast variety and extent of instruction couched, not only under the form of natural things* and of symbolical figures, but also under the circumstances of the lives of eminent men, and the events befalling nations. What is not less remarkable than the varied and extensive character of the truth thus unfolded, is the beautiful harmony and analogy discoverable throughout the whole; setting forth most clearly
* Creation, or the things of the natural world, appear to have been so formed and appointed as to be accurate types or representations of things belonging to the spiritual world; they are so used throughout the Book of God: since, constituted as man is, spiritual truth must be revealed to his understanding, under the image of things with which his senses are conversant.
a unity of design, and a steadiness and consistency of purpose, which run through the entire chain of providential and gracious ordination, and connect every link with a glorious original, in whom all the Divine purposes and plans must have been laid up (Prov. viii. 22, 23 : Col. i. 15, 16, 17; ii. 9), in whom must be hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge; and who, being possessed by nature and by investiture, as God and as man, of all power in heaven and in earth, as well as of a fulness of love and of tender mercy, unfoldeth and worketh all things according to the counsel of his own inscrutable but gracious will.
The meaning of the word rendered “type” (ngan, tufov) confirms the conclusion now drawn, and at once accounts for the variety and harmony just noticed. The original word signifies the shadow or representation of some substance or thing previously eristing; and at the same time, very frequently (but not always), the harbinger or fore-shadow of what is to be revealed or manifested hereafter. An instance or two, illustrative of each sense of the word, shall be adduced.
In Hebrew, man (rendered by the LXX. rumov, a type) occurs Deut. iv. 16–18: “ Lest ye make you a graven image, &c., the likeness of male or female, the likeness of any beast .... fowl.... creeping thing .... fish:"all of them bodies previously existing. Here the word has no reference to the future.
In Greek, tytov, an impression of some substance: as, John xx. 25, "the print of the nails ;' Rom. v. 14, “ the similitude of Adam's transgression : ” both having reference also to what previously existed, not to what is future.
But nyan is likewise used, Exod. xxv. 9, 40, to denote the pattern or model after which the tabernacle and its furniture were made ; which the Apostle (Heb. viii. 5) calls tutov. Here the twofold meaning appears ; a model being the transcript of the previously existing design or draft, and also the pattern after which the future building is erected.
Speaking of another part of that dispensation, the priesthood, the Apostle says, in connection with the above pattern, that it “served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things ;” and in chap.ix. 23, he calls the tabernacle and vessels "the patterns of things in the heavens," which it was necessary should be purified with the blood of calves and goats, while the heavenly things themselves are purified with better sacrifices than these. Here again the twofold meaning is found; the type, or pattern, having reference both to what preceded and what was to follow it.
From these and numerous other passages we may gather, that whatever is shewn in type (whether it be exhibited in the persons or the names of men, in natural things, or in symbolical
figures) previously existed in the heavens, however the type may represent what is besides to be fulfilled at a time future to its development*.
To enter fully into this important and extensive subject would require an examination of nearly the whole of the Old Testament Scriptures, not to mention the New. We must therefore be content to confine our attention to some particular types, as instances or specimens, which may lead and dispose the reader to further research. Many striking lessons and illustrations of this character have been derived from the discourses or the pens of divines of eminence, when treating on the more ordinary subjects of theological discussion. Upon such it would be unnecessary to dwell. It is proposed rather to direct attention to some typical histories, or historical events, which have not been so generally treated of as such. Some of those which occur in what is usually termed the Patriarchal Age, the era which preceded the delivery of the Mosaic Law, will first be brought under notice.
It may be here premised, that some of the typical events of the Old Testament appear to set forth only future judgments, more especially those of the last days, “ in which is filled up the wrath of God.” This is in strict accordance with the principle above explained. Our glorious Lord, as Head of creation (Rev. iii. 14), possessed the whole of his creatures in himself, as their creation-Head, and is invested with universal dominion over them all ; and we must therefore expect to find that some types or shadows will be cast from Him, the original substance, which do set forth the darker and more forbidding, as well as the brighter and more cheering, scenes of the great plan which is gradually unfolding as time proceeds. It may be further premised, that, from its nature, the type will not in its every particular set forth the object of which it is predictive. None of the types expressly adduced in the New Testament did so. The want of agreement in every feature, is therefore no valid argument against an interpretation, in which agreement in the principal features is obvious.
Passing over the very instructive typical lessons contained in the order of this world's creation, the history of our first parents, the setting up of the cherubim upon their expulsion from Eden, &c. let us look at the names given to the Antediluvian Patriarchs, as recorded in the iv th and vth chapters of Genesis.
We may find an illustration of this position in the types used by our printers. The great skill of the artist is exercised in the formation, not of the type, but of the matrix, or mould: the type is only a cast from that original mould. Its form is afterwards delineated by the act of printing upon the paper such ultimate delineation being the chief consideration in the mind of the artist while engaged in moulding the matrix.