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Fourthly, his names of office, under the three heads of Prophet, Priest, and King : Fifthly, names characterizing his work, rather than his person or condition.
The first of the Divine names is Jehovah; incommunicable to any creature (Exod. iii. 13, 15; Isai. xlii. 8): “ I am Jehovah : that is my name ; and my glory will I not give to another.” But this Divine name is given to Christ continually : as Exod. xiv. 2, “ Wherefore do ye tempt Jehovah?” Num. xiv. 21, “ As truly as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of Jehovah :” 1 Cor. x. 9, "Neither let us tempt Christ.” Isai. viii. 13, “Sanctify Jehovah of hosts himself, and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread, and he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel:"1 Pet. ii. 8, Jesus Christ....a stone of stumbling and rock of offence.” Isai. vi. 3, Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory :” John xii
. 41, “ These things spake Esaias, when he saw his (Christ's) glory, and spake of him.” Isai. xlv. 22, 23, “ Jehovah, a just God and a Saviour.... I have sworn by myself, that unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear:” Rom. xiv. 10, “For we shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ; for it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God : so, then, every one of us shall give account of himself to God." This proves that the judgment-seat of Christ is that of God, who is also Jehovah, as in the preceding references. Such proofs might be multiplied to any extent, but these may suffice. It is, however, very interesting to remark, that both the Chaldee and Jerusalem Paraphrases, in multitudes of instances where Jehovah alone is now found in the Hebrew text, substitute the Word of the Lord in its place; and this in many places where it can only be understood personally of the WORD, the Eternal Son. In Gen. xxviii. 20, for instance, where the text runs, “ If God will be with me, &c., then shall the Lord be my God ;” the Chaldee paraphrases it, “ If the Word Jehovah will be with me, &c., then shall the Word Jehovah be to me for a God.” Again : in Exod. ii. 25 it is written, “ And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them;" which the Chaldee paraphrases, “ And the bondage of the children of Israel was known before Jehovah, and Jehovah spake in his Word to redeem them." also Deut. i. 30, “ The Lord your God, which goeth before you, he shall fight for you ;” the Chaldee paraphrases, “ His Word shall fight for you.” So Deut. iv. 24: “For the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God :” the Chaldee has, " For Jehovah is thy God, his Word is a consuming fire; it VOL. II.-NO. IV.
(i. e. his Word) is a jealous God.” So Num. xiv. 31; Deut. xxxi. 6; and innumerable passages beside.
The Jerusalem Paraphrase makes the Word "the Creator," in Gen. i. and “the Judge,” in Gen. iii. 9; which we quote for its beauty, as well as for the illustration of our point : “ And the Word Jehovah-Elohim called to him, and said to him, Behold, the world which I have created is known before me; darkness and light are known before me'; how, then, canst thou think that the place where thou art is hidden from before me?” And Abraham, Gen. xxi. 33, is said to call upon “ the name of the Word.” And in Isai. xxviii. 5, “ Jehovah the crown of glory” is said to be “the Messiah.” And Isai. xlv. 17, and liii. i, both Paraphrases apply to The Word “ the Messiah.”
Another incommunicable name of God is I AM(Exod. iii. 14); and this Christ takes to himself John viii. 58: Before Abraham was, I am ;” and probably John xviii. 6.
Jah is the name under which the special presence of God with his people is commemorated in Scripture. It denotes the presence of Christ by his Spirit Psalm lxviii. 18, where the end of Christ's ascension is represented as being in the bestowal of the gifts of the Spirit, to render his people" the abode (or dwelling-place) of Jah-Elohim.” And this is elsewhere spoken of as the presence of Christ himself: as Matt. xxviii. 20,'“ Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world."-And here we would add, to our former remarks on this name, the sug. gestion of a friend, who observed that the two letters of this word, with the outstanding vowel necessary to give it utterance, and the mappic point denoting that a letter is wanting to the completion of the name, well represent the Trinity: Jod, as in nouns and the third person future of verbs, being origination and personal efficiency, the Father; He, the aspirate, the Spirit; and these two expressed or uttered by the outstanding vowel, the Son ;-outstanding, yet shewn to be an essential part by the mappic point in the He, which further shews the Son included in the Spirit (John xvi. 13).
Adonai, “ Lord,” is the Jewish substitute for Jehovah, and is the special and peculiar name for our Lord; as we shewed in the former paper (Morn. Watch, VII. p. 580), on the Names of God. It denotes Christ's Lordship: as Psa. xcvii. 5, “The presence of Jehovah....the Adon of the whole earth ;" and cxxxvi. 3, “O give thanks to (the Lord of lords) Adonai Adonim :
(see Rev. xix. 16.) Both the names Adonai and Jehovah are joined together in earnest intercessory prayer; as Josh. vii. 7, and especially Dan. ix. ; Jehovah denoting the essential incommunicable nature of God, which we approach through Adonai, whom the Father hath constituted both Lord and Christ (Acts ii. 36). The Hebrew Cabalists call Adonai the key by which entrance is obtained to the presence of Jehovah; and also the treasury in which are laid up all that Jehovah bestows upon the children of men (as Col. ii. 3); that Adonai is the great steward through wbom Jehovah dispenses, feeds, edifies all things; and that none can approach Jehovah but through Adonai; that thus alone our prayers are acceptable." Adonai, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall shew forth thy praise" (Psa. li. 15). “Power belongeth unto God; but unto thee, O Adonai, belongeth mercy” (lxii. 12). “O Adonai, my shield” (lix. 11).
Elohim “God,” is often given to Christ: as, Psa. xlv. 6, “Thy throne, O God (Elohim), is for ever and ever :" Heb. i. 8, “ Unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever.” So Psa. lxxxvi. 9, “ All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, 0 Adonai, and shall glorify thy name : for thou art great, and doest wondrous things: thou art God (Elohim) alone ;” and Psa. xc. 17, “Let the beauty of Adonai our Elohim be upon us;” and Psa. Ixviii. 18, Christ has “ascended up on high in order that the Lord God (Jah-Elohim) might dwell among men.” (See Eph. iv. 8.)
EI, “ God," is often used of Christ : as Psa. lxviii. 19, 20, “Blessed be Adonai, who daily loadeth us with benefits : The God (El) of our salvation : Our El is the El of salvation.” “ The great God and our Saviour, Jesus Christ” (Titus ii. 13). And Psa.xc. 1, "Adonai, thou hast been our dwelling-place in all generations....from everlasting to everlasting thou art God (El).”
Immanuel,“God (El) with us,” properly comes in here ; teaching us, that in the incarnation of the Word the everlasting God truly became one with us, and made our nature one with his (Isai. vii. 14).
El Gibbor, “ the mighty God,” is another name which links the two natures in Christ; El referring to the Divine nature of the child born and the Son given to us (Isai. ix. 6); while Gibbor refers to the human nature, in which his power and prevalency are manifested : as Psa. xlv. 2, 3: where the fairest of “ the children of men” is also the “ Most Mighty” (Gibbor), full of glory and majesty. And it always refers to the time when the Lord shall take to himself his great power and reign, and be openly manifested in the sight of the universe as “ King of kings, Lord of lords:” as the “ Lord strong and mighty (Gibbor), the King of glory” (Psa. xxiv. 8). “ The mighty God (El Gibbor)” Isai. x. 21; · The mighty (Gibbor) in the midst of his people” (Zeph. iii. 17); “ The great, the mighty God” (Jer. xxxii. 18).
All the other Divine Names we might severally and conclusively apply to Christ, since He is always the person by whom the Godhead is manifested; but as we have often demonstrated this truth, it may suffice to remind our readers of it here, and merely point to one text for each of the principal names. “ Most High” (Helion),“ Terrible ” (Norah), and “Great”(Gadol), are in Psal. xlvii. 3 all applied to Christ, at his reign on earth (see Rev. iii. 29, vi. 17, xi. 17). “ Most High ” (Helion), and
Almighty” (Shaddai), occur Ps. xci. 1 ; “Great” (Gadol), and Exalted (Ram), in Psal. xcix. 2. “ The Holy One" and " the Lord of Hosts” (Jehovah Sabaoth), occur Isai. vi. 3,--(see John xii. 41); Jehovah the Saviour, the Redeemer (Goel), the “Mighty One (Abir) of Jacob,” Isa. lx. 16, xlix. 7,26; “The First and the Last," "the Alpha and the Omega,” Isa. xli. 4, 14, xlviii. 12—(see also Rev. i. 11, 17, xxii, 13.) And, in short, every name but those which are meant to distinguish the Persons of the blessed Trinity from each other-every name which may be applied to Godhead in its separateness from every creature—is applied to the Divinity of our Lord.
The names expressing the true humanity of Christ are many. He is frequently called Adam, or man, in the Old Testament, as he is called the Second Adam in the New (1 Cor. xv. 45, 47.) The first passage we notice is 2 Sam. vii. 9, where the sense is not fully given in our translation : “ And is this the manner of man, O Lord God ?” but which ought to be rendered, “ And is this the law (manner, or arrangement) of the Man, Adonai Jehovah ?” The sources of marvel in this revelation to David, were manifold : A seed was promised him (ver. 12) to proceed out of his bowels, whose kingdom should be established for ever: and, though David's literal seed, the Lord says (ver. 14), “ I will be His Father, and he shall be my Son;" and the kingdom is at once the throne of David and his Son: (ver. 16) “ Thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.” Such was the marvel which David's faith received: time coupled with eternity; an earthly linked with an heavenly seed; a Man his son, yet also Adonai Jehovah, the Son of the Most High; at once “the Root and the Offspring of David ” (Rev. xxii. 16.) But this he stedfastly did believe, because the Lord had spoken it: “For thou, O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, hast opened the ear of thy servant......And now, O Adonai Jehovah, thou art very God (He the God, or The same God), and thy word shall be truth; for thou hast promised to thy servant this the good thing.”
Adam is the generic name for man, and denotes that our Lord took true humanity. But he is also called Ish (virum), endowed with manly, illustrious qualities : as 1 Sam. xxvi. 15, “ And David said to Abner, Art not thou a man (Ish)?” The name is applied to the Lord as “a man of war,” Ex. xv.3; and is translated husband in the margin, Hos. ii. 16: and in all these senses well applies to Christ, who is called “ The Man (Ish) the Branch ” Zech. vi. 12.
Our Lord is also called Gibbor, not only in connection with El, as Isa. ix. 6, but simply, as Jer. xxxi. 22. He is also called Enosh, which signifies miserable man, in Psal. viii. 5 : “What is man (Enosh), that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man (Adam), that thou visitest him?” (Heb.ix. 6.) This name denotes the suffering, miserable condition into which man was brought by the Fall, and to which our Redeemer condescended, that he might recover us. The sense of the word is given Job xxv. 6, “ Man (enosh) that is a worm ;” and in Psal. ix. 21, “ That the nations may know themselves to be but men.” Its radical meaning may be found in 2 Sam. xii. 15, “very sick;” or Psal. lxix. 20, “ full of heaviness.” And this our Lord bore' for us men, and for our salvation.'
He also became Son of Man (Adam), as in Psal. vii. 4; and Son of Enosh, Dan. vii. 13: all indicating that he was truly man, under every name by which man is named : “ Made in all things like unto his brethren;" taking part of the same flesh and blood with the children (Heb. ii. 14, 17); “Flesh ” (John i. 14); “ The Seed of Abraham ” (Heb. ii. 16); “ From Israel according to the flesh” (Rom. ix.5); “The Seed of David” (Acts xiii. 23; 2 Tim. ii. 8; Rom. i. 3); “ Made of a woman, made under the law,” (Gal. iv. 4); “ The likeness of sinful flesh ” (Rom. viii. 3.)
There are many other titles or epithets given to Christ, significant of his humiliation, such as “ Lowly, or Alicted (Gnani) (Zech. ix. 9); “A Worm, and no man”(Psal. xxii.7); a “Rod,"or shoot,“ of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch, (Netzer, Nazarene) out of his roots” (Isai. xi.); which becomes “An Ensign of the people ”(ver. 10); and, as in other prophecies The Branch (Zamach) the Plant of Renown. (Zech. vi. 12; Jer. xxxiii. 15.)
The Personal Names of our Lord are of very great importance; containing in them the sum-total of theology. This branch of the subject, therefore, we cannot do more than briefly and slightly allude to in a paper like the present, and direct to the quarters in which deep and diligent research may be profitably made. These names of Christ are many; but we naturally begin with Jesus as the name most familiar to us; and given to him by the angel at the annunciation (Matt. i. 21). Of the name Jesus it is first to be remarked, that it is clearly the Greek writing of Joshua, being twice applied to him in the New Testament (Acts vii. 45; Heb. iv. 8); therefore we cannot allow of such a derivation of the name as will not apply to Joshua as well as to our Lord. Next we remark, that Joshua's name was originally Oshea, or rather Hoshea, and changed to Jehoshua, or Joshua (Num. xiii. 16); and further, the meaning of the word is given by the angel in imposing it (Matt. i. 21), " for He shall save his people from their sins.” Oshea or Hoshea, Joshua's original name, denotes one saved, or made safe ; being the hiphil conjugation