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As to his personal character, Fleury has been charged by scandal. mongers with profligate excesses. Not merely with the habitual sensuality imputed to Lord Somers, by even so pronounced an admirer of Lord Somers as Macaulay. But with criminal, with felonious indulgence, of the worst kind. Chamfort, for instance, not only informs us that the secret of Fleury's antagonism to the crowned wife of Lewis XV. was her majesty's refusal to give ear to his propositions galantes-in proof of which allegation is cited a letter of her father's, King Stanislaus, in answer to one wherein she had sought paternal advice at this juncturebut also that Fleury, although now seventy-six years old, had, a few months previously, been guilty of rape twice over-avait violé deux femmes.* After so grave an arraignment, one is prepared for such bagatelles as the following by the gross—as many as acidulous Monsieur Chamfort may be pleased to relate, or invent: “L'abbé de Fleury avait été amoureux de madame la maréchale de Noailles, qui le traita avec mépris. Il devint premier ministre; elle eut besoin de lui, et il lui rappela ses rigueurs. “Ah! monseigneur,' lui dit naïvement la maréchale, qui l'aurait pu prévoir ?' 't Whether all this sort of thing be or be not like the Cardinal, que sais-je ? But the telling of it is very like Chamfort.



on the 8th of May last, her Majesty the Queen visited the Royal Victoria Hospital at Netley, the foundation-stone of which had been laid by the Prince Consort. This may be considered as the first public act of her Majesty since her irreparable bereavement-an act every way appropriate, as well as in accordance with her humane disposition.]

SHE walked the corridors with footstep slow,

Thought on her brow and sorrow in her mien,
Yet winning sweetness in her tranquil woe-

'Twas England's widowed Queen.
She came to view the mansion, nobly raised

For valour stricken by pale sickness' hand;
Hearts in their eager eyes, those veterans gazed,

A bronzed, worn, gallant band.
Memory was busy in her royal breast

For memory of the lost would never sleep;
He laid yon stone-hush, heart! ye sorrows, rest!

Not now sad love may weep.

* Chamfort, Caractères et Portraits.
+ Euvres de Chamfort, pp. 91, 131. Ed. 1852.

The struggling tear was checked, or veiled from sight;

She entered wards where suffering met her now;
She moved like Mercy's angel, pity's light

"The crown that graced her brow.
Though valour calmly drooped, yet sad the scene;

Some who had fronted death, and mocked at fear,
Some who, with iron limbs, had giants been,

Weak as poor infants here.
She saw the shrunken hand that, strong in fight,

For her, for England, had the falchion waved,
The palsied forms of men, whose deeds of might

Her threatened India saved.
To each worn, wounded one, her looks, her words,

Yielded a balm, and cheering thanks she gave;
Oh, toil in foreign climes, and foemen's swords,

For this who would not brave ?
Their hearts leaped up——their scarrd, bold features glowed;

Indian, Crimean hero thrilled with pride-
Kind words and glances by their Queen bestowed,

Worth all proud gifts beside!
Now stood she by a couch where, ghastly pale,

A veteran languished ;-brightly shone the day,
But ah! like night upon a darkening vale,

On him death's shadow lay.
His soul was flitting to that unknown land,

Where he, she loved, his crown of glory wore,
Looking, perchance, down on her, smiling bland

On deeds he shared of yore.
The sinking hero heard that gentle voice ;

Light o'er his features broke--revived his heart,
His spirit seemed a moment to rejoice,

While Death held back his dart.
To see the kind, the mighty sovereign here,-

Queen of the realms where never sets the sun,-
Beside his lowly bed, a sorrowing tear

For him whose course was run:
'Twas honour, joy, sweet consolation given;

Oh, to have stemmed the battle's fearful scene,
And die like this-he poured warm thanks to Heaven, *

He bless'd that pitying Queen.

* The dying man exclaimed, “I thank, I thank God that he has allowed me to live long enough to see your Majesty with my own eyes.” The Queen and the Princess Alice are said to have been much affected by the incident.



The memory of stealthy midnight assaults, of barbarous murders committed in the open daylight, of two-sworded, swaggering, blustering bullies, yclept Yakonins, and of feudal barons (Daimios) intent on the extirpation of the foreigner, and ever heading their bravos in the onslaught, is still tingling in our brain from the tragic pages of Alcock, when lo! a more pleasant prospect opens before our eyes—Japan depicted by the simple-minded lover of nature—the Japanese as they are in their more innocent moods, untutored in broil, and amiable in their manners-Japan itself as it is when not defaced by ferocious superstitions and fierce political enmities-a land of sunshine and flowers - depicted, too, by our old friend Mr. Fortune—the same whom we followed in another flowery land, in 1847, by Hong-Kong to Amoy, Chusan, Ningpo, Shanghae, and Fu-chu-fu ; in 1852 to the Bohea Mountains and other tea districts of the interior; and in 1857 to Chekiang, Quan-ting, the silk and rice countries of the interior, and to Hu-chu-fu—the Versailles of China. This is truly Japan and the Japanese under another aspect, and glad are we to avail ourselves of it, for we have faith in the Japanese, although we abhor Daimios and Yakonins, and we believe that, as has happened in other countries, a gifted, proud, hospitable, and intelligent race of people, will one day shake off the incubus of feudal tyranny and priestly superstition that lays heavy on the country, and will extend the right hand of fellowship to the stranger.

Let us, then, leave awhile the bullies of Yedo and their princely employers, and contemplate the Japanese at home, or as he is when uncorrupted by outward influences.

The houses of the high officials (Mr. Fortune tells us, and it is to be remarked that although so old and tried a traveller in China, this was his first visit to Japan), wealthy merchants, or retired gentlemen, though generally small, and only of one or two stories in height, are comfortable and cleanly dwelling-places. One marked feature of the people, both high and low, is a love for flowers. Almost every house which has any pretension to respectability has a flower-garden in the rear, oftentimes indeed small, but neatly arranged; this adds greatly to the comfort and happiness of the family. As the lower parts of the Japanese houses and shops are open both before and behind, I had peeps of these pretty little gardens as I passed along the streets; and wherever I observed one better than the rest I did not fail to pay it & visit. Everywhere the inhabitants received me most politely, and permitted me to examine their pet flowers and dwarf trees. Many of these places are exceedingly small, some not much larger than a good-sized dining-room ; but the surface is rendered varied and pleasing by means of little mounds of turf, on which are planted dwarf trees kept clipped into fancy forms, and by miniature lakes, in which gold and silverfish and tortoises disport themselves. It is quite refreshing to the eye to look out from the houses upon these gardens. The plants generally met with in them were the fol. lowing: Cycas revoluta, Azaleas, the pretty little dwarf variegated bamboo introduced by me into England from China, Pines, Junipers, Taxus, Podo

* A Narrative of a Journey to the Capitals of Japan and China. By Robert Fortune. John Murray, Albemarle-street. 1863.

carpus, Rhapis flabelliformis, and some ferns. These gardens may be called the gardens of the respectable working classes.

Japanese gentlemen in Nagasaki, whose wealth enables them to follow out their favourite pursuits more extensively, have another class of gardens. These, although small according to our ideas, are still considerably larger than those of the working classes ; many of them are about a quarter of an acre in extent. They are generally turfed over; and, like the smaller ones, they are laid out with an undulating surface, some parts being formed into little mounds, while others are converted into lakes. In several of these places I met with azaleas of extraordinary size-much larger than I have ever seen in China, or in any other part of the world, the London exhibitions not excepted. One I measured was no less than forty feet in circumference! These plants are kept neatly nipped and clipped into a fine round form, perfectly flat upon the top, and look like dining-room tables. They must be gorgeous objects when in flower. Farfugium grande, and many other varie. gated plants still undescribed, were met with in these gardens, in addition to those I have named as being favourites with the lower orders.

One old gentleman to whom I was introduced by my friend Mr. Mackenzie -Mr. Matotski-has a nice collection of pot plants arranged on stages, much in the same way as we arrange them in our greenhouses in England. Amongst them I noted small plants of the beautiful Şciadopitys verticillata, several Retinosporas, some with variegated leaves; Thujopsis dolabrata, and variegated examples of laurel, bamboo, prontium, and Hoya Matotskii-a name given by some Dutch botanist in honour of the old gentleman, and of which he was not a little proud. Mr. Matotski is a fine mild-looking Japanese, rather beyond the middle age. He has a collection of birds, such as gold and silver pheasants; and in his library are some illustrated botanical books, which he shows with great pride to his visitors. He presented me with a few rare plants from his collection, and offered to procure me some others, of which he had no duplicates in his own garden.

Two other facts in natural history struck our traveller in his early rambles ; first, living salamanders for sale in tubs; and, secondly, strikingly beautiful fowls with long and gracefully-curved tail feathers, and fine silky ones hanging down on each side of the hinder part of the back. Bantams were also plentiful, and bold, independent-looking little fellows they appeared to be. Camphor-trees of a great size grew about the Buddhist temples on the hill-sides. Facts of a different kind, and appertaining to the life of the people, also presented themselves to his potice. Among these was a procession of a number of men dressed up as Chinamen, who were supporting a huge dragon, and making it wriggle about in an extraordinary manner:

Another procession consisted of little children, some so small that they could hardly walk, who were dressed in the Dutch military costume-cocked. bats, tailed-coats with epaulets, dress swords, and everything in the first style, closely resembling Mynheer on gala-days, when the trade of Japan was all his own, and Desima-dear little prison- his abiding place. In this procession, Dutch fraus and frauleins were duly represented, and truth compels me to say that they were never shown off to more advantage. The procession was accompanied by a band, dressed up also in an appropriate manner : they had European instruments, and played European music. The day was fine; thousands of people lined the streets, flags were hung from every window, and altogether the scene was most amusing. I followed the procession through the principal streets, and then up to a large temple situated on the hill-side above the town. Here the infantine troop was put through various military mancuvres, which were executed in a most creditable

manner. I was amused at the gravity with which everything was doneeach child looked as if it was in sober earnest, and scarcely a smile played on one of the many little faces that were taking part in this mimic representation of the good Dutchmen. The exercises having been gone through, the band struck up a lively air, and the little actors marched away to their homes.

It is almost needless to remark that these processions occurred at Nagasaki, where Chinamen and Dutchmen are familiar of old. The veteran naturalist, Dr. von Siebold, lives a few miles from the city, amongst the most beautiful scenery. The doctor, whose opinion is weighty, likes the Japanese, and is himself a great favourite with the people around him. The Japanese also have nurseries as well as private gardens. Gardening is indeed a passion with the Japanese as with the Chinese—at least, with some. Mr. Fortune saw at Nagasaki a dwarfed fir-tree so curiously trained that he believes it kept a man constantly employed upon it every day throughout the year. Imagine a human being doomed to pass his life in attendance upon a dwarf fir-tree !

Mr. Fortune's views with regard to the future of Nagasaki are as concise, as they are to the point. A trade, which the quiet old Dutchmen of Desima never dreamt of, has sprung up with China, but all the exports are seaweed, salt fish, and a few other articles, while the imports are medicines, Japan wood, and dyes. The exports to Europe are chiefly tea, vegetable wax, and copper. At present there is little demand for our English manufactures ; but that may spring up. In the mean time, Nagasaki may one day become most valuable as a sanatarium for our troops in that quarter of the globe. As if a country that has not even a repairing dock in its twin colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, still less troops wherewith to resist the encroachments of Washingtonians and New Californians, could send troops to Japan!

It appears, according to Mr. Fortune, that the merchants sided with the Japanese in selecting Yokuhama as the European settlement in the bay of Yedo. The European officials wished for Kanagawa. Alcock represents the whole transaction as an act of duplicity on the part of the Japanese, and that it was they who set the merchants and their representatives at cross purposes, and in unseemly antagonism. Our representative also denounces the site as opposed to treaty, as in a marsh, away from the Tocaido, or high road, and insulated by a canal like Desima. The merchants, however, declared that Yokuhama had deep water, and Kanagawa had not, and the former carried the day. “Unhappily," Mr. Fortune adds, “all this was the cause of much wrangling and ill feeling, which it will take some time to remove." Mr. Fortune belongs preeminently to the class of men devoted to pacific pursuits. He admits that Yokuhama is in a swamp, that a broad and deep canal has been dug round the town, that guard-houses are placed at points of egress, and that no one can go out or come in without the sanction of the Japanese ; yet is he innocent enough to believe that this is intended more for the protection of the Europeans than anything else. The population is increasing, notwithstanding all these untoward circumstances. When the American squadron first visited Yokuhama in 1854, it was but a small fishing village, containing probably not more than a thousand inhabitants. Now the population amounts to eighteen thousand or twenty thousand,

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