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the west aisle of the north transept. the vicinity; his "equally loving and beBrigadier-General Wade (died 1745), loved” widow, who erected this whose monument by the notorious cenotaph, soon consoled herself with Roubiliac is conspicuous on the south another husband, and was eventually side of the nave, is connected with the buried in the Cloisters. In the northconquest of Minorca, where he carried west tower is a monument, by Scheethe outworks of St. Philip in a fort- makers, to William Horneck (died night. He also had fought under the 1746), chief engineer to George II., great Marlborough in his youth, but his whose inscription records that he learnt name is chiefly remembered now in con- the art of war under the great Duke of nection with the Young Pretender's Marlborough. He is connected with rebellion in 1745, when the good roads the Abbey as the son of a prebendary; he laid down to facilitate the passage and it is also interesting to recall the of his troops in the Highlands of Scot- fact that two of his descendants were land were celebrated by the well-known immortalized by Goldsmith as the couplet:

Jessamy Bride and Little Comedy.

We shall find many of the victories in If you had but seen these roads before Marlborough's campaigns inscribed on they were made,

a monument opposite Wolfe's, put up to You would hold up your hands and bless General Wade

that popular and ancient hero, Lord

Ligonier (died 1770), who first served as In the north transept, near Kane, a soldier of fortune under the duke, is another memorial of 1745, the bust and was present at Blenheim in of General Guest, who "closed a ser- this humble capacity. He afterwards vice of sixty years by faithfully defend- became a general himself, and lived ing Edinburgh Castle against the over ninety years in the service rebels.” The great Duke of Marl- of four sovereigns, whose medalborough himself has no monument here, lion heads surround his own portrait. but his body rested in Cromwell's vault Before Ligonier's name was added, for twenty-four years, while the Addison, walking here during the wars mausoleum as Blenheim was being pre- early in the century, comments on "the pared for it. His name is, however, many uninhabited monuments, which often recalled on the Abbey walls. A had been erected to the memory of perclumsy monument in the south choir sons whose bodies were, perhaps, aisle, for instance, commemorates his buried on the plains of Blenheim, or in younger brother, Admiral Churchill the bosom of the ocean.” Of the latter died 1710), who had no claim to such class we shall find many examples, but an honor. Of the duke's daughter, before passing on to the naval heroes Henrietta, we have spoken in connec- the memory of Major Richard Creed, tion with Congreve's memorial. A curi- who fell indeed at Blenheim, but lies in ous tablet, by Bird, on the north of the English soil, should be recalled. He Dave, with a collection of arms and

was connected through his mother, who military trophies, records the death of

was an artist of no mean repute and General Killigrew in the battle of a philanthropist, with Dryden and Almanza, 1707. Close by is the name Samuel Pepys. Creed has another of Colonel Bringfield, who was aide-de- monument in Tichmarsh Church, camp to the duke, shot in the head where he was buried. Shot through the while holding his stirrup, and "re- head at Blenheim, his body mounting his lord on a fresh horse, his dragged off the field by his younger former failing under him," at the battle brother, “at hazard of his own life.” of Ramilies. Dean Stanley points out This tablet, now in the choir aisle, was that the duke had really been thrown originally in close proximity to a larger from his horse in leaping a ditch. memorial (in the nave) to Harbord and Bringfield had been a constant attend- Cottrell, and was placed there, as ant at the Abbey services, and lived in Creed's inscription tells us, because of LIVING AGE.

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was

VOL. XIV.

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the worthy mention it makes of "that sept aisle, is another clumsy cenotaph great man, Edward, Earl of Sandwich," to his father-in-law, Admiral Balchen to wliom he was related, “and whose (died 1744), who, when in command of heroic virtues he was anxious to imi- the united English and Dutch fleets, tate.” The young sea-captains named now no longer at war, went down with above perished with their admiral, Lord his ship during a violent storm in the Sandwich, when his ship was blown up Channel. in Southwold Bay, May 28, 1672, after Wherever the eye rests in this portion "a terrible fight, maintained to admira- of the Abbey some naval hero's name is tion against a squadron of the Holland conspicuous. In the south aisle of the fleet for over six hours." The friends, choir “the figure of a beau, dressed in a it is said, might have saved themselves, long periwig, and reposing himself but preferred to share their com- upon cushions of state," slanders the mander's fate; and to, their memory, memory of “that plain, gallant man," and as

a record of their friendship, Sir Cloudesley Shovel (died 1707), and Harbord's father raised this conspicu- roused the wrath of Addison, exciting

double tablet, and left forty also Horace Walpole's wrathful comshillings to be distributed annually ment that monuments like this and amongst the poor of Westminster as others of Bird's “made men of taste long as it should remain "whole or un- dread such honors." The “brave, defaced in the Abbey Church." The rough” admiral met with a cruelly ignogallant admiral himself has no monu- minious end. He was leading his vicment, but lies in the Chapel of Henry torious fleet home from Gibraltar, when VII. near Addison; while another vic- the flagship was wrecked in the rocks tim of the same bloody fight, Sir of the Scilly Islands. Shovel's body Frescheville Holles, son of the well- was apparently lost, but in reality known antiquary, Gervase Holles, has found and buried by some fishermen, a grave in St. Edmund's Chapel. That and the admiral's identity afterwards there is no memorial to the latter naval established by a valuable ring which officer either is, perhaps, owing to the they took from his finger. Ultimately sentiments expressed in an inscription the corpse was disinterred and buried he left for his own gravestone, but with all honor in the Abbey. Vicewhich was, unfortunately, never cut Admiral Baker, who brought the rest there: “Know, reader, whosoever thou of Shovel's squadron back in safety be, if I had lived 'twas my intent not from the dangerous Scilly Isles, and to have owed my memory to any other afterwards (1716) died at Port Mahon, monument but what my sword should Minorca, bas a curious monument ornaraise for me of honor and victory." mented with nautical emblems, in the

In the following year (1673) two other nave. Next it is a still stranger one to victims of this same bloody war against another naval commander, Henry the Dutch were buried here. Only one, Priestman (died 1712), whose active serRichard Le Neve, received the honor vice dated back to the reign of Charles of a monument; he was a young man of II. The pyramid, round which gringreat promise, slain on board his own ning faces of sea-monsters, pieces of frigate, the Edgar, off the Dutch coast, artillery, nautical and mathematical August 11, 1673. His senior, the dis- instruments, are grouped in strange tinguished Admiral Sir Edward confusion, is another specimen of Spragge, was drowned in the same Bird's want of taste. action, and lies close by in an unmarked Of Shovel we are again reminded by grave. The space next Le Neve's a small tablet lower down this wall, tablet, in the Musician's Aisle, was, which records the name of John unfortunately, filled in the next cen- Twysden, who was shipwrecked with tury by a particularly heavy and unats his admiral. John was one of nine tractive monument to Admiral West brothers, three of whom died for their (died 1757); and further on, in the tran- country in three consecutive years. After him Josiah, the youngest, was the Dutch extraction, one of "those lofty, next victim. His tablet tells of his end black, and lasting beauties, that strikes at the siege of Agremont, in Flanders with reverence and yet delight,” we (1708). The eldest, Heneage, who was learn from Ballard, who includes her in aide-de-camp to John, Duke of Argyll, his “British Ladies.” Married at fifhas a monumental urn commemorating teen to a man much older than herself, his death at the battle of Blaregnies, in who proved a bad husband, she was Hainault (1709). Yet one more gallant left a widow at twenty-two, with a youth I would fain recall before pass- large fortune at her disposal and an ing on, for, like the hero of the Chevy estate in Gloucestershire. Although Chase ballad, when his legs were perpetually besieged by suitors, Mrs. smitten off he thought only of his duty, Bovey never married again, but devoted and refused to have his wounds dressed the rest of her life to works of benevotill he had given his last orders, and lence and charity, to hospitality, and then expired. This was Lord Aubrey to the cause of education. She was Beauclerk (died 1741), whose monument known amongst her admirers by the by Scheemakers is in the west aisle of name of Portia, and Sir Richard Steele the north transept. He took part in the dedicated a volume of his "Ladies victorious expedition against Cartha- Library” to her. Her lifelong friend gena, under the command of Admiral and companion, Mary Pope, distributed Vernon, who had learnt his trade with Mrs. Bovey's legacies, and, probably on the fleets of Shovel and Rooke, but the strength of bequests to some schools was shelved soon after this exploit and in Westminster, was allowed to erect died in retirement. A bust of Vernon, a monument to her memory here. She with a fancy statue of Fame, by was buried at Flaxley, her own home. Rysbrack, is over the door of the oppo- Two more unsightly monuments not site aisle. Beauclerk's epitaph, in the far from this commemorate the Geninflated style of the period, is said to erals Hargrave and Fleming (died be by the poet Thomson. It ends with 1750–51). Hargrave was governor of the bombastic lines:

Gibraltar, and Fleming bad been

wounded at Blenheim in his youth, and Dying, he bid Britannia's thunder roar,

in his later days took part in the '45 And Spain still felt him when he breath'd Rebellion. The fame of neither, howno more.

ever, is equal to the size of these monuThere is not space to dwell on more ments, which were erected by their sailors' names. In this transept alone families. Goldsmith's "Citizen of the the number of admirals commemorated World," in fact, only condescends to is very noteworthy; Roubiliac's bust of recognize Hargrave's as one to "some Sir Peter Warren (died 1752), the face rich man,” the general's wealth having pitted with small-pox, and allegorical been, according to popular opinion, his figures of Hercules and Navigation in only title to an Abbey memorial. Even attendance, is one of the most con- in those days, when Roubiliac's name spicuous.

was revered as a master-sculptor, there I have spoken of a monument to a

were many jeers at Hargrave's figure, youthful pair of friends, Harbord and which is represented struggling from a Cottrell; on the same (south) side of the tomb, while a robust angel above, soundbare there is a peculiarly heavy and ing the last trump, surveys the victory unattractive sarcophagus by Gibbs, of Time over Death below. The Dean usually passed by as of no interest. and Chapter used occasionally to be This, if only as a memorial of a friend. reproached for their neglect to repair ship between two women which lasted this erection, on account of the falling forty years, is worth a new moments' pyramids, which were part of the attention. Mrs. Katherine Bovey (died sculptor's far-fetched design. Minerva 1726–7) was a lady of no mean reputa- and Hercules are conspicuous on Flemtion in her generation; she was of ing's monument, which is surrounded

even

by military standards, branches of soldiers and sailors, and shown that laurel and cypress, and all kinds of war

amongst the most unsightly like emblems.

monuments the names of men of mark The last of Roubiliac's theatrical are to be found, my task is accomachievements in the Abbey-he is the plished. Much more might be written author of seven in all—is the unwieldy on the same subject, and many memofigure of the great Handel in Poet's rials have been perforce omitted for Corner, put there about nine years want of space; but the same lesson may later. Near by this is another piece of be learnt from all—the lesson that one the same sculptor's work, in which generation cannotlightly undo the John, Duke of Argyll—to whom refer- knots tied by those before it, and that ence has been made before-is por- the historical memorials once scratched trayed in Roman dress, surrounded by upon these time-honored stones cannot numerous allegorical figures, and this be erased. much-admired erection was actually allowed to cover the entrance to the old The moving finger writes; and, having

writ, staircase by which the monks used to Moves on: nor all your piety nor wit enter the church from their dormitory. Shall lure it back to cancel half a line, The favorite sculptors of the late seven- Nor all your tears wash out a word of it. teenth, the eighteenth, and early nine

E. T. MURRAY SMITH. teenth centuries are only too well represented in the Abbey. Thus Bird, Horace Walpole's pet aversion, is the author of eleven monuments; Scheemakers, whose beautiful bust of Dry

From The Contemporary Review, den cannot reconcile us to his other

LIFE IN A FRENCH COMMUNE. chief works, notably that in memory of

In dealing with French customs and Shakespeare, executed sixteen pieces in all. The two Bacons are actually it is impossible to generalize. Revolu

mæurs—to use a comprehensive termresponsible for nineteen, of which per- tions may come and go; the whole adhaps Lord Chatham's is the most offen.

ministrative system of the country sive. The names of Nollekens, Banks,

may be reduced to one dead level of Cheere, Flaxman, Chantrey, Foley, uniformity, but the distinctive characBailey, Weekes, Westmacott,

and

teristics of the old Provinces remain. others, will be found on numerous mon

The Norman differs greatly from the uments, and one looks in vain amongst Breton, the Breton from the Bourthese allegorical groups, inartistic

gignon, the Bourgignon from the Gastablets, or pseudo-classic statues, for

These peoples are strangely some sense of proportion or harmony diverse in their habits and temperawith the Gothic church for which they ments, in their system of life, their were designed. Yet these and other physical features, and even in their sculptors were the lights of their day, tongue, as the patois of one province is and it is only within quite recent times barely intelligible in another. I therethat any attempt has been made to fore premise that I am dealing with break the sequence of upright statues Bourgignons, in the agricultural disand busts. Of late medallions and tricts of the Côte d'Or, who live far tablets, as being least cumbrous and removed from contact with cities, and obtrusive, have been favored, and the still further away from the influences fashion of large allegorical monuments of fin de siècle civilization. The Bourhas long passed away now, but not be- gignon is a distinct type. He is cheery, fore they had crowded and defaced the affable, and convivial. He lives well Abbey walls with their vast bulk. and works hard. He is more sociable

If I have been able to arouse some than the Breton, less avaricious than interest in a few half-forgotten British the Auvergnat, not so excitable as the

con.

commune.

southerner. He is very hospitable- other feathered stock. The ducks and generous with everything, so long as geese have the exclusive use of a dirty his sous are safe. He is nothing, if not pond of stagnant water in the middle economical. Without being demon- of the square. The pond has been apstrative, he is intensely patriotic, and parently made for them. It is not conrecalls with pride that two of the few sidered advisable or profitable to clean repulses which the Germans received the roadway often, as the accumulain the war of 1870 were at Nuits and tion of garbage is much appreciated by Châteauneuf.

the aforesaid feathered stock. MoreThe particular corner of the Côte over, they eat it. The streets yet serve d'Or with which I deal is a high table- another purpose. Firewood is stacked land about twelve miles from Beaune. here, and a convenient lodgment found It is too high for vine-growing, except for carts, barrows, ploughs, and other on a small scale with uncertain results. implements. What with one thing and It is a representative agricultural dis- another-the litter, the wood, the intrict, thickly dotted with villages. plements of husbandry, and the trees, There are no isolated farms or houses. to say nothing of the local color sup, The social instincts of the people lead plied by the poultry-the streets iu the them to live in village groups, one or village are at least picturesque, if they more of which constitute the unit of are not clean. local administration-the

A visitor to the village will be struck Let us examine one of those typical by the presence of many old women village communes.

and the absence of young men. There The village is nothing but a collec- are old men too; in fact, every other tion of little farmhouses, dumped one you meet appears to be “an oldest down in more or less irregular fash- inhabitant.” But the women show the ion. Each separate property consists greater vitality. These old of a dwelling-house at one end, a cow- are not pensioners on socio They shed or stable at the other, the quar- are workers: whetner they are sixty, ters for the poultry in between, and a seventy, or eighty, they are workers. granary overhead. As it happens that If they are not working in the fields, a national highway passes through the doing something to the crops, they are village, it possesses at least the sem- herding the cows or knitting at their blance of one street. There are several doors. Everybody works. All are up other roadways lined with houses, and at four in the morning in summer and a triangular space which is dignified five in the winter. Not that they need with the name of a square. It is bere to slave for a living. Wealth is well where the village pump ought to be, distributed in the commune, and if but civilization in this corner of la there is apparently little comfort there vieille Bourgogne can only furnish a is a good deal of stored-up wealth. draw-well. An old stone cross stands, Every one is a proprietor of something; like a sentinel, near the draw-well, if not of a bit of land, then of a house pointing the way of sinners to the or a garden. There are no poor people church, wbich occupies an elevated po- in the commune. The people never sition overlooking the square.

heard of a workhouse; never made the Although the village streets are not acquaintance of the poor-rate. In a paved, that fact does not detract from population of four hundred and fifty, their general utility. They serve more over three hundred are registered propurposes than streets generally do. prietors at the mairie, where the big They are ornamented with manure cadastre shows every house and erery heaps, which are deposited here on the field in the commune. As there are payment of a small sum to the com- no poor, so there

criminals. munal exchequer. They form the rec- When every one owns something there reation and feeding ground for numer- is no cause for any one to steal any. ous flocks of hens, ducks, geese, and thing. Consequently you never see a

women

are

no

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