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ments of his age; he possessed also the I shall venture to quote them. For they piercing vision, the direct intuition of are as beautiful as they are familiar. the prophet into the constitution and Custom cannot stale them. needs of human nature. He felt that the mechanical philosophy offered to That which we dare invoke to bless, him in the name of physical science was

Our dearest faith, our ghastliest doubt, utterly inadequate to life. And he

He, They, All, One, within, without,

The Power in darkness, whom we guess. turned from the macrocosm to the microcosm; from the universe without

I found Him not in world or sun, him to the universe within him. He

ur eagle's wing, or insect's eye, found in the laws of man's spiritual Or in the questions men may try, and moral being the solution of “the The petty cobwebs we have spun. riddle of this painful earth.” On those laws he based his Theistic belief, his If e'er when faith had fallen asleep, ethical code, and his political prin- I heard a voice "Believe no more,” ciples. Let me indicate this in the And heard an ever-breaking shore barest outline—it is all that is possible Which tumbled in the godless deep, to me now-leaving you to fill in the details, if you think well to do so, by A voice within the breast would melt

The freezing reason's colder part, your own study of his works.

And like a man in wrath, the heart First, then, as to Tennyson's Theism. Rise up and answer, “I have felt.” A thinker contemporary with him, but belonging to a very different school, has You see he appeals to the laws of man's remarked, “It is indeed a great question spiritual nature for light upon this mowhether Atheism is not as philosophi- mentous question; those first great cally consistent with the phenomena of spiritual laws the denial of which is the the physical world, taken by them- essence of Agnosticism. Tennyson disselves, as a doctrine of a creative and cerned with Spinoza that the primordial governing power." The term Agnos- law of being is being; that the fundaticism had not been invented when mental want of man is to prove, affirm, these words were spoken by John augment, his own life. Henry Newman before the University of Oxford fifty-seven years ago. The 'Tis life, whereof our nerves are scant, term appears to me to meet a distinct Oh life, not death for which we pant;

More life, and fuller, that I want, want. Littré defines an Atheist as one who does not believe in God. But the Man lives under the law of progress tendency of late years has been to nar- which is the striving after perfection, row the meaning of the word; to confine and of which the highest expression is it to those who expressly deny the the quest of the All Perfect. Hence Theistic conception. The word Agnos- those “æthereal hopes," as Wordsworth ticism has been coined to describe the speaks, which are part and parcel of us; mental attitude of doubt, suspension of “those mighty hopes which make us judgment, nescience regarding that con- men,” Tennyson calls them, in words ception. It applies more correctly than which seem to me true to the letter. the word Atheism to a class, consider. The intellect, as Plato teaches, testifies able not only from their numbers, but that the ideas of truth, goodness, for their intellectual endowments and beauty, justice, belong to an order of their virtues. It appeared to Tenny- absolute principles, anterior and supeson that to shut us up in physical rior to man, and is compelled by an science, to confine our knowledge to architectonic law of its own being, to matter and force, and ascertained refer the complete realization of those sequences and co-ordinations of phe principles to the Ultimate Reality, nomena, is to doom us to Agnosticism, which it therefore contemplates as You remember the verses in which he Tó 'EqWuevov, the Althogether Lovely, has told us this. Familiar as they are, the object of all desire. Towards that Supreme Object, human nature tends; cree, by what I regard as the dominant necessarily tends by virtue of a law English characteristic-reverence for written on the fleshly tables of the duty as the supreme law of life: the heart. Despite the limitations of his subordination of all ideals to the moral being, man tends towards the Infinite, ideal. You remember how in one of his because the Infinite is in him. The de- earliest poems—“Enone"-he tells us:sire of the Infinite is, I say, a law under wlich he is born. He may resist, he Self reverence, self knowledge, self con

trol, may violate that law, as he may resist,

These three alone lead life to sovereign and may violate any other law of his

power. being; for the eternal hands that made and fashioned him, while:

How he indicates us the rule of life:binding nature fast in fate,

to live by law, Left free the human will.

Acting the law we live by without fear; This is his princely and perilous pre- And, beca use right is right, to follow right. rogative, the very essence of his per- The thought was always with him. sonality, in virtue of which he is “man But in the “Princess," in the “Palace of and master of his fate;" this is :

Art," and the “Vision of Sin," he that main miracle that thou art specially insists upon this law of life: thou;

a law in the proper sense transcenWith power on thine own act, and on the dental, as transcending the limits of world.

space and time: a law of absolute uniBut the law, whether obeyed or dis- versality, as are all moral laws that are obeyed, remains-witnessing to the strictly such; valid for all rational beSovereign Good, the Everlasting Rights ings in all worlds. Again, in the eousness, the Supreme Object of “Idylls of the King,” this law is the Rational Desire which is the True End dominant thought. Arthur, as I reof man. Through "a dust of systems member a famous German critic once and creeds,” this vision of this Ineffable remarked to me, is conscience made Reality shone out for Tennyson un

flesh and dwelling among us. And the dimmed; the light of life to him, without primary precept of the heroic monarch which it were better:

to his glorious fellowship of the Table

Round is to "reverence their conscience to drop headlong in the jaws

as their king." And, here I would reL. vacant darkness, and to cease.

mark in passing, how finely Tennyson Such was Tennyson's Theism. But it has vindicated that higher law of the is on this great spiritual law of prog- relations of the sexes, wrought into our ress that his ethical creed also rested. civilization by Christianity, and emThe surest law of man's nature we bellished by chivalry, which contemmust account it, according to that say- porary Materialism burns to abrogate. ing of Plato, “I find nothing more cer- With Tennyson the passion of sexual tain than this—that I must be as good love, refined and idealized-humanized and noble as I can." "Must." Neces

in a word-is.a chief instrument of our sity is laid upon us. This is that law of ethical life: its office:which Butler speaks: "The law of virtue that

born under."

.. not only to keep down the base in

man, Tennyson has formulated it in his own

But teach high thoughts and amiable way as being to:

words, move upward, working out the And love of truth, and all that makes a

beast, And let the ape and tiger die.

Once more. Those great ethical laws I find Tennyson peculiarly and com- which dominate private life should. pletely English in his cast of thought. Tennyson held, be the laws of public He is distinguished, in the highest de- life also: a truth much dimmed just now

VOL. XIV.

we

are

man.

LIVING AGE.

702

in the popular mind; nay may we not a danger arising out of its special greatsay, well-nigh effaced from it? I was ness. There is one and only one antimentioning to an accomplished friend, dote to this danger, the apprehension of a short time ago, that I had it in inten- law issuing from the nature of things tion to write a book on “First Frinciples which is rational; the first fact in the in Politics;" a sort of sketch of, or intro- universe, though invisible, impalpable, duction to the laws of human society. imponderable: most real, indeed, beHe replied, “My dear fellow, there are cause most spiritual. It seems to me no first principles in politics, there are that Tennyson has given us the groundno laws of human society, it is all a work of a philosophy of life which will matter of expediency, of utility, of con- never be overthrown, because it is vention, of self-interest." This is an based upon this eternal adamant. And expression of that lawlessness, that loss his stately verse is a fitting vehicle for of the idea of law, that I spoke of just his august message. The dignity of his now. And its last development in the diction corresponds with the dignity of public order is the doctrine which sub- his doctrine. He possesses, in ample stitutes the caprice of the multitude for measure, that charm to quell the comwhat Shakespeare calls “the moral monplace which we find in the great laws of nature and of nations." Tenny- classics, and notably in the foremost son discerned, clearly enough, that this poets of Greece and Rome. His poetry doctrine of the absolute and indefeasi- is a perpetual Sursum Cordaever ble authority of what is called “the elevating our thoughts to what is noble people," that is, of the numerical and pure, and to the Eternal Source of majority of the adult males of a coun- all nobleness and all purity. He has try, is really a doctrine of anarchy; that told us in lines unsurpassed, as Taine it means the triumph of the passions thought, by any writer since Goethe for over the rational will; whereas the true calm and majesty, how "The old order theory of the state whatever its form, changeth, giving place to the new.” means the triumph of the rational will Yes: the old order changeth.' We live over the passions. I cannot go into this amid "a dust of systems and of creeds." matter further on the present occasion; Much has gone during the last hundred but, I may observe that, from first to years that men once thought durable last, Tennyson's political teaching as the world itself. Much more is goseems to me perfectly consistent. I ing. What is the prospect? To Tennyknow of no difference of principle be- son one thing at all events was clear: tween “Locksley Hall” and “Locksley that neither worthy life for the individHall Sixty Years After." At the end, ual, nor social health for the body as at the beginning of his career, politic, is possible, unless we live by Tennyson was the loyal worshipper of something higher than ascertained Freedom, which he justly terms:- sequences and co-ordinations of phe

nomena; unless we appeal to some loather of the lawless crown

holier spring of action than the desire As of the lawless crowd:

of a remembered pleasure. “This ever Freedom, the very first condition of changing world of changeless law," he which is servitude to law. The years sings in one of his poems. Amid the as they went by stripped him of many constant flux of all things, the law of of his illusions. But they strengthened the universe does not change. It is his grasp upon his principles.

necessary, immutable, absolute and This then, was, as it seems to me, the eternal. Nor does the power of man's mission of Tennyson: to bring home to will change:us the supremacy and universality of law. The exaltation of the materialist This ever changing world of circumstance,

a power to make and positive element in life, the depre- In changing, chime with never changing ciation of the spiritual and moral ele- law. ment, is the special danger of our age;

W. S. LILLY.

From The Revue des Deux Mondes. way in a very short time. But however
A SWISS TOURIST.

long and laborious his excursion may be What is a tourist? According to the the excursion itself is all. The tray, French Academy it is “One who enjoys eller has no concern save that of abantravel, and travels for his own pleasure doning himself to the pleasure, the exand instruction.” But explorers, too, ercise, and the slight inevitable discomenjoy travel. They enjoy it very much fort of travel, of beguiling his fatigue indeed, and they travel for their own by getting all the amusement he can instruction, and for ours as well. They out of the chance distractions of the delight in seeing what no one else has route. For the explorer the world is a seen before them; and they delight yet place where discoveries are to be made. more in measuring their own strength, For the savant it is a study. The misenergy and courage, and in doing what sionary sees souls to be saved in every the common run of mankind cannot do. place; the “drummer," customers to be Yet who would presume to say that the beaten up. For the genuine tourist the Mungo Parks, the Cailliés, the Barths world is a promenade. and the Bingers were merely tourists. M, Paul Seippel is a Swiss tourist,

If the Academy has done the tourists who, after having gone up and down more than justice in attributing to them the earth a great many times, has, at a desire for improvement which they last, been round it, beginning at do not always possess, Littré, who America. He crossed the Atlantic in was a stay-at-home body, seems unduly the Bourgogne, saw Canada and the to have depreciated them. He defines river St. Lawrence in flood, saw Monthem rather disdainfully as “persons treal and Quebec under melting snows. who visit foreign countries out of mere He visited sundry cities of eastern idleness and curiosity.” But all tour- America, whose numbered blocks, and ists are not idle. Sometimes they are buildings twelve stories high, inspired exceedingly busy people who get only him with no wish to settle there. He occasional vacations of a few months enjoyed, as he says, “the enchanting which they improve by stretching their spectacle of vast plains where the virlegs. On the other hand all manner of gin forests have been replaced by tourists are curious. The geologist who millions of advertising boards, celegoes through the Alps, for the purpose brating in gigantic letters the virtues of of studying the formation of glaciers, is Castoria, and the surprising efficacy of animated by a far more vivid curiosity Bechman's Purgative Pills." He made than the chance tourist who ascends a tour in California, sailed up the Mt. Blanc merely because he wishes Pacific coast, and saw the salmonto say that he has done so; that upon a fisheries of the river Columbia. At given day a certain small man found Victoria he embarked for Yokohama himself perched upon a peak in the sky and passed two months and a half in where he discovered nothing. Littré Japan. He then took ship again, gave a adds that the tourist goes a certain passing look at Shangäi Hongkong, round in the countries habitually visited Canton, Macao, Saigon and Singapore, by his compatriots. Now I know some and passed the winter at Cexton in the who prefer to go where no one else goes; sanatarium of Nuwara Ellixa. All he their humor is solitary; they have a

had to do after that was to return to taste for novelties. But they are none Geneva; but he stopped over, both at the less tourists. The explorer, the Bombay and Cairo, and arrived home missionary, the commercial traveller, exactly a year, to a day, from the time and the scientific traveller find their of his departure. account in travelling. The tourist is This was surely a tremendous tour. essentially a wandereronly, and this is But the traveller is modest. He calls his distinctive mark. Nowadays, thanks himself a simple tourist or globe-trotter. to railways and transatlantic steamers, Nevertheless, it is undeniable that he it only depends upon him to go a long saw a great deal and saw it well. The

principal episodes of his excursion have all things are made. . . . Leave vain supplied him with the materials for a things to vain men. Close your own handsomely illustrated quarto volume, door behind you. Had you never gone which is very good reading. Not only out, and heard the uproar of the world, has he good eyes. He has gaiety and you would have remained in the sweet humor and he does not lack philosophy, peace of this place. It is because you Now cheerful philosophers are rare at love to hear new things, that you have the present time. Yet you might almost now to support a troubled spirit. . think, to hear M. Seippel talk, that he And M. Seippel resolves that he will regretted having journeyed so far. He close his door, and avoid trouble of protests that the most amusing and mind and the uproar of the world, by profitable of journeys are, after all, those simply staying at home. He declares which a man may make without leav- that he has passed the best years of his ing home; and that if travellers were youth in incessantly roaming the earth, only honest and told the whole truth, only to discover, one fine day, that after —if they recounted their sufferings, all he dislikes travelling. Do not betheir misadventures, their attacks of lieve him; he is fibbing. To-morrow melancholy, the incessant packing and he will feel the need of beholding yelunpacking of valises, the arrival in tire- low, brown or black faces, and will some and dismal hotel bedrooms, the strap his trunks with a light heart. bad beds, the loathly table d'hôte, “with “The cell which is rarely quitted,” says its vague viands, swimming in that the “Imitation" "becomes very sweet. famous international sauce which is the Frequently abandoned it is wearisome.” same in all latitudes,” the people who This is not the wisdom of the tourist. stay at home would realize that they If he have a healthy mind he will enjoy had chosen the better part-and Cook's quitting his cell just as much as he enAgency would fail. He has discovered joys returning to it with a "Here I am that this big world is, after all, very again!" and M. Seippel has a peculiarly little, and that one soon gets to the healthy mind. other side of it. He brought back from But there are tourists and tourists. Japan a Bouddha in bold-lacquer sitting The larger number are incapable of rewith closed eyes and crossed legs, on an counting their recollections for the exopen lotus-flower. He often talks with cellent reason that they have seen this deity, who is at once lofty and com- nothing, and remember nothing. "At passionate and who enjoys telling him the Grand-Hotel of Yokohama,” says M. that the universe is only a vain appear. Seippel, “I met two young globeance, a dream, a foam-bubble. One of trotters from Chicago, who were passthe vignettes in his book represents the ing a month in Japan. They literally painted wood-work ornamenting the spent their whole time in the billiardstable of a horse which is consecrated room playing 'pyramid' and drinking to the service of a temple of Nikko various kinds of 'cocktails.' Others, Here are depicted three apes, convinced more enterprising, had pushed on as far disciples of Cakia-Mouni, all sitting as Mianosita, where, in a barren valley, under the same tree which is full of the most melancholy in all Japan, there fragrant blossoms. One of them is stop- is an hotel, which is, for some ping his eyes, another his nose, the third scrutable reason, very fashionable. One his ears. To see, to smell. to hear may always count upon meeting there nothingherein is supreme wisdom!

choice collection of international After discoursing with Cakia-Mouni, snobs, entirely absorbed in astonishing M. Seippel meditates a little on the one another, by the renown of their twentieth chapter of the first book of the titles, the splendor of their millions, or “Imitation.” “What can you see else- the elegance of their cravats. In their where which you do not see where you character of free citizens of a great and now are? Here are the sky, the earth, impartial democracy, a good many the elements, and it is from these that American tourists adore this sort of

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