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wan pusson in 'ee that wull coom out wan Vriday marning hur wez thet bad an' voller me lad. Then uz tarned the Dave didn't gaw to hiz work, but zat kaurner where Mat Mucksey's hause azide hur droo the day, an' I kind o' stands, an' I thort he wud coom surely, kapt him company. Hur dauzed a bit, vor they played togither ez little lads. an' when hur wauk up Dave axed hur An' ha stud at the winder an' looked iv hur had any pain. out, an' I kind o' gripped howldt o' him “No, lad,” hur answered, "wangery, wi' me eyes. I thort maybe the Laurd turrible wangery, thics all." wud let me draw him so, but twezn't to Just about vour o' the clock hur be. Then me heart wez angirt that they zeemed a bit brighter. shud sarve my boy zo, my lamb, my “Dave,” hur zed, "I reckon I wid like little lad, my Jesse, an' I didn't yhear a chapter vrom the Buk.” naught o' the sarvice, tho' ther be terri- "Shall I vetch it, moather?” ha axed. ble comforting words in it, but I tooked "No, lad,” she zed. "I misrememmy boy an' layed him ther on the dis- bered it wez down-stairs; maybe yer respactit north zide, where the zun only cud zay a prayer?" creeps round o' wbiles; but maybe the “I ony knaws 'Our Vather' an' the Laurd will think on thic when the Blessin', moather," he answered. Jidgement day cooms an' riz him ten- . "Then I reckon 'tiz the Blessin' I wull derer accordin'. An' Dave, why shud 'ave,” she zed; “'tiz a bootivul zaying, yer want to be more than ha, pore lamb, "Vor what us 'ave recaved,'—zay on, pore lamb? wezn't ha the uldest, an'lad." why shud yer want to make yerzulf "The Laurd make uz truly thankvul,” higher?”
Dave ended. Dave ba looked up in hur vace, but "An' uz 'ave 'ad a deal to be thankyul hur kind o' tarned hur eyes tother vor, a deal,” hur zed. way.
But Dave ha jest zat ther like a stone “Moather,” ha zed, “yer wudn't ’ave an' didn't zay naught. me die a drunkard, zurely?"
“Zay, lad, zay," hur axed, kind o' But hur didn't answer ha at all. painvul. "Moather, moather," ha zed.
Thin ha tooked hur hands, mazing “Dave," hur zed, "didn't I born 'ee all, owld an' knotted hands they wez, ha didn't 'ee all lay upon my brast, an' tooked 'em in hiz an' ha kneeled azide ain't 'ee all my childer, an' why shud the bed an' put his vace down agin hur wan gau vor to make hizself higher heart. than tothers?"
“Moather, moather,” he zed, "God Dave ha drapped hiz head down on guved me thee.” hur knay, an' the kaitchen
Hur only spoke wance after thic. zilencerul.
"Lay me zide o' Jesse," hụr zed; “I At last ha lifted up biz vace, an' twez reckon the little lad 'ull be warmer a windervul pitying luk ha gived hur. along o' his moather." “Moather," ha zed, "I reckon uz zons
. 'ave brought ’ee a power o'zarrar.'
3 Wangery, tired. But hur answered kind o'random like. “Dave," hur zed, "God vorgive me an' make 'ee do wat iz vitty." ;
When the winter coomed round, Widder Vlint hur kind o' vell togither.
From The Saturday Review. The naybors zed “Hur hadn't no more
COLOR IN PHOTOGRAPHY. spirit than a warm, an' vor sich dreary. Photography of objects in their natsome folk warms wez the best com- ural colors has long veen sought after. pany.” Then hur tooked to hur bed, an' If its quest has seemed as visionary as 1 Zarrar, sorrow.
that of the philosopher's stone or the 2 Vitty, right.
elixir of life, yet from time to time par
tial discoveries have been made which the impress is made, each block must promised the speedy realization of a be printed in a pigment which is of a practical process. No one can deny complementary tint to that of the light that for many months past, and with by which the negative was produced. increasing interest, the subject of The three colored impressions must, of color-photography has excited much course, be adjusted to perfect “regisattention. Much has been done re- ter,” exactly as in the more complicated cently, and several different processes older process of chromolithography. have been successfully carried to a This kind of reproduction of color by stage of perfection far beyond any- photography is, in fact, a simplification thing previously reached. Much was, of the older methods of color-printing, indeed, left to be attained; was it at- in substituting three accurate phototainable?
graphic process-blocks for the dozen or To color a photograph with paint is more hand-made blocks which formerly one thing. To reproduce color by pho- had to be employed. Of the success of tography is another. No deems these three-block methods from a comsuch processes as staining photographs mercial point of view there can be no by hand-the “art of chrystoleum" dear question; but they scarcely fulfil the to lady-amateurs—to be worthy of seri- anticipation of photography in colors. ous attention. Several of the so-called The colored collotype photographs of processes of photography in colors are Alpine scenery which have been faequally worthless as science or as art. miliar for some years in the printFrom these to the three-block methods sellers' windows have a kindred origin; of color-printing is a long stride. Of the color-blocks from which they are the three-block methods there are many printed, though in some varieties, the fundamental idea of all than three in number, are simply phobeing the same. Three separate nega- tographic relief-blocks prepared by the tives are taken through three screens collotype process for printing. They, of colored glass, to correspond to the too, fail to realize a true photography three primary color sensations of the in colors. eye. Through a red glass screen those A more satisfactory solution of the parts of the object photograph them- problem of the photographic registraselves most intensely which are radiat- tion and reproduction of color is aring out red light. This yields a first forded by the chromoscope of Mr. Ives. negative corresponding to the red sen- Still working on the three-screen sation. Through a green glass screen method of taking negatives, though those parts which are emitting a green with important improvements, Ives component produce their greatest effect prepares three corresponding transparin the second negative; while in the ent positives, each colorless, which, ilthird negative the parts that radiate luminated separately by lights of three blue-violet light are brought out most primary tints, red, green, and bluestrongly by being photographed through violet, are then optically recombined in a blue-violet screen. Yellow light will the instrument to form a single colored affect the first and second of these; picture. Ives's success in this optical purple light the first and third; white combination has been nothing short of light will affect all three. The three marvellous. But unless the instrunegatives taken thus from one colored ment, the chromoscope, is available to subject will differ, therefore, in detail view the photographs, they convey no from one another. From them three sense of color. Ives has also produced blocks are prepared for the printing; transparent color-pictures by printing and three kinds of printing-ink must from the three negatives three separate be chosen of suitable tint and trans- prints in the three tints upon clear parency. Since all printing processes gelatine films, which are then superconsist in using pigment to darken the posed one over the other. The extreme surface of the white paper on which nicety required to produce exact superposition in every detail renders this raphy comes M. Chassagne, whose method less satisfactory.
apostle in this country is Sir Henry True photography of colors was Trueman Wood. As M. Chassagne has achieved first about six years ago by only revealed a portion of his process, Professor Lippmann, of Paris, as the the results, such as they are, must be result of applying to photography ideas accepted with caution. Yet there that originated in the domain of ab- seems to be no room for fraud. Briefly stract physics. If trains of waves are the discovery is this: that in addition reflected from a polished mirror, each to precipitating in the film a more or reflected wave must meet in turn the less dark deposit of silver in proportion advancing'waves of the train, causing to the relative intensity of illuminathe production of the so-called sta- tion, light is according to its color able tionary waves, with nodal planes to produce a specific physical change spaced out at regular distances apart; by virtue of which each part of the the distance from each node to the photograph is able, when immersed in next being equal to one wave-length. a bath of dye, to absorb the dye just As the waves of light are very minute, in those parts of the picture where the ranging from fifteen to thirty mil. corresponding tint originally fell. lionths of an inch in length, the nodal Thus a red-tiled roof in a landscape, distances will be equally minute. If when photographed by means of propthen the photographic action takes erly prepared films, appears to be caplace either more freely or less freely pable of so affecting that part of the at a node, the result will be, when such film on which its image has fallen that stationary waves are produced in a when the whole photograph is imphotographic film, to cause the deposi- mersed in a solution of some suitable tion of the silver-salts of the film red dye, the dye settles down in that in regular layers of great minute- part of the picture, and not in the parts
Το produce these station where blue sky or green trees have left ary waves, Lippmann used dry their images. If this is true, it is a plates, backed by mercury-mirror. most significant addition to the science When white light falls at the proper of optics. If it is not true, the process angle on a film in which these regularly is only a clever fraud. But admitting deposited layers exist, it is sent back that it is true, the results, surprising as colored light; just as in the phono- as they are as a matter of science, are graph the record carried on the record- disappointing as a matter of art. The ing cylinder can be made to reproduce Chassagne photographs shown at the the original sound, so in Lippmann's Society of Arts lately, look like films the record photographed into the dinary photographs faintly tinted in film in layers of incredible m ness washes of color. That the tinting foland complexity can be made to repro- lows the lines of the photographic figduce the original color. The photo- ure with the utmost precision and graphs which he obtained look like or- detail proves either the extraordinary dinary colorless negatives when the importance of the discovery the light falls casually upon them. But amazing cleverness of the fraud. The when viewed at nearly perpendicular former is the more probable, since incidence, they glitter with a richness neither Sir Henry Wood nor Captain of coloring not to be attained by any Abney is likely to be imposed upon in pigment. Each photograph is a true such a matter. The discovery raises color-picture; but each is an individual afresh a question raised half a century gem admitting of no multiplication of ago by Becquerel by some researches copies. Very few have been yet pro- in which he succeeded in fixing, temduced; and those in existence are corre- porarily, upon photographic plates the spondingly precious.
colors of the spectrum-namely, whether Latest amongst claimants to have it is possible that light of any given solved the problem of color-photog. color may not be able under some cir
cumstances actually to create a pig- whatever his religion, and perhaps ment of its own tint out of a chemical most keenly if he has none. Poetry is precipitation of material taking place not religious unless it recognizes the under its influence. Until, however, religious interpretation of the world, M. Chassagne is in a position to reveal and this constitutes its chief difficulty. the nature of the secret solution with For there is an alternative risk, either which he prepares his photographic that the religious poet will go straight plates, all speculation must be more or to the facts that have roused his emoless wide of the mark. For the pres- tion, and represent them apart from ent, disappointing as his colored photo- their Christian interpretation, or that graphs are, they mark the beginning of the work of reflection involved in ata new step in the photographic art, tending to this will cool his imaginaprovided always that the basis of the tion. There is a danger that his Chrisprocess is, as seems to be the case, a tianity will get the better of his poetry, new step in science.
or his poetry of his Christianity. SILVANUS THOMPSON.
The most successful religious poetry, because the least troubled by this difficulty, is lyrical expression of the soul's delight in God, and in the world of nature regarded as His handiwork. In
the first case, the feelings of admira
From The Spectator. tion, love, hope, and worship that the THE DIFFICULTIES OF RELIGIOUS POETRY. poet must express will be so simple
The purpose of all poetry is to illu. and direct that there is small chance of minate our experience of the world by collision between his instinctive relimeans of passion and imaginative gious emotions, which are to a certain thought. Passion is necessary, because extent Christianized, and his Christian it is only when the mind is at white creed; we find it possible to use to-day, heat under the influence of some pow. with not so very much mental reservaerful emotion that its contents become tion and correction, the religious lyrics so thoroughly fused as to flow readily of the Jews, and with more reservainto a new mould. By calling this new tion, those of other peoples. And in remould of thought imaginative, it is gard to nature the Christian creed is so meant that the elements of experience broad that provided the beauty of nawhich move the poet, and about which ture be ascribed to God, the Christian he desires to move us, are brought into can sympathize both with Cowper, who sudden vividness through association lays the greater stress on God's tranwith some other experience whose scendence, and with Wordsworth, who value is clearly known. Thus when the lays the greater stress on his immaPsalmist says, "My days are gone by nence. When religious lyrics fail, it is like a shadow, and I am withered like usually because emotion has been congrass,” there rises before the mind the sidered a sufficient equipment for the picture of some hot Eastern landscape; sacred poet without thought and imagiand as we look at the grass all dry in nation. This is the common fault of the sun's glare, there passes over it the hymns. The experience they represent shadow of a bird's wing. And by has been fresh felt in passion, but not means of that picture, in which the fresh dipped in thought. A
of poet saw an image of the transitori- genius differs from the rest of ness of human life, his emotion be- chiefly in this, that the simplest thing comes ours. Now this fine verse from he studies, by the branches it puts out, the 102nd Psalm, though it occurs in a the ties it reveals to so many things religious poem, is not itself religious else, is a perpetual fount of interest, poetry; it is a poetical illumination of a and so the tritest facts of nature and fact of human life, its shortness, which grace never cease to be a revelation. every one must recognize to be a fact, But the "new song" which the Chris
tian poet has to sing must be sung not has heard and understood; and his song, only before "the Throne” and “the Liv, a song of natural and inevitable fate, a ing Creatures,” but also before “the song that might have come from MimElders;" that is to say, it must inter- nermus, will echo in the hearts of Enpret anew to the Church the Christian glishmen when the "In Memoriam" interpretation of man's life; and it is lies as dusty on the booksellers' shelves here that the chief difficulty of reli- as the “Essay on Man" does to-day. gious poetry shows itself. The cause Or take an even more pointed instance of the difficulty lies in the fact that from the same poet; read the exquisite *That is not first which is spiritual, but first four stanzas of “The Deserted that which is natural, and afterwards House:"that which is spiritual;" and this is true in more ways than one. The spir- Life and thought have gone away itual interpretation of the world does
Side by side not lie on the surface, and there is a
Leaving doors and windows wide; natural explanation which is always ready to present itself. Take for an and then read the intc lerable appendix, example the phenomenon of death. added to Christianize it-lines that have When the poet is deeply stirred by this neither passion, nor thought, normelfact of death, when his passion is lib- ody, nor rhythm. There is a second erated and the world shaken to and sense, too, in which religious poetry is fro in his imagination, it is almost nec- hampered by the precedence of the essarily the first natural view of death natural over the spiritual. The heyday that possesses him. If he is consider- of the blood in which the passion is ing the thought of death abstractly, or strongest and the imagination most aclooking forward to it as Browning does tive is often a day of revolt against train "Prospice," or reflecting upon it long dition, and especially against that traafterwards as Tennyson in the “In Me- ditional interpretation of the deepest moriam," then he will remember he is facts of life which we call Christianity. a Christian; but at the moment when We need only point to Shelley. That the shock comes it is not the reflective Shelley ranked himself as a servant of mind that is at work, it is the imagina- the truth, and thought he lived at least tion stirred by passion; the phenom- as resolutely as most people by the enon of death lies once more in its highest ideal he knew, but few perhaps naked awfulness before the poet would dispute. But the fact remains freshly as the world lay before Adam, that he is not a Christian poet, but, on compelling him to utter the dread the contrary, that he branded as "imname, and shudderingly he names
it. pious," and stamped in the dust It is pure loss; the flower is shattered, with all the passion of his poet's the wine is spilt; “the silver cord is ture, “the name that is above every loosed, the golden bowl is broken, the name.” And even when there is no pitcher broken at the fountain, the actual revolt against Christianity, it wheel broken at the cistern.” Look at would seem true that, while the main this verse wrung from the greatest poet effort of Christianity is to discover "a of our own day by the death of his soul of goodness” in the world's evil, it friend:
is the sombre aspects of life which ap
peal most keenly to the poetical sensiBreak, break, break,
bility. When Shakespeare tells us that At the foot of thy crags, O sea!
young gentlemen in his day "would be But the tender grace of a day that is dead sad as night only for wantonness," he Will never come back to me.
is passing a criticism upon the minor
poetry of all time; but even greater The sea's voice breaking on its “cold, poets have sometimes felt themselves grey stones" has sung a song of nat- called to be a nerve over which should ural and inevitable fate; and the poet creep “the else unfelt oppressions of