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the earth." And so a great deal of po- is no human heart so hard that a reetry is pessimistic, and therefore un- deeming spark may not be struck from Christian.

it. Take his character of Guido in The greatest poets, however, almost “The Ring and the Book.” The old always consider it to be their function pope has seen that the one remaining to discover an optimism on the further chance for Guido lies in the value of side of this pessimism; and thus, even the love he has known and has despised when they do not name the Christian being flashed upon him by the suddenname, they range themselves under the ness of his fate, and so it comes about. Christian standard. For this enterprise Who can ever forget the cry that a larger canvas is necessary than the breaks from him in the agony of the pure lyric can supply. When it is at realized nearness of the death he had tempted in too short compass either the so callously dealt to others and felt pessimism must be undervalued or himself so secure from, the scream else the poet's passion exhausts itself with which he calls upon all possible over that, and the optimism becomes and impossible saviours, human and dimerely abstract,-becomes gnomic po- vine,etry, which is not poetry at all. It must be recognized that sometimes this

Abate, Cardinal, Christ, Maria, God, “dialectical" work has been effectively and, for climax, the name of his own accomplished “within the sonnet's murdered wife, scanty plot of ground.” A very fine instance is Milton's sonnet on his blind- Pompilia, will you let them murder me? ness, in which the often-quoted line, “They also serve who only stand and wait,” escapes the unimpressiveness usual with gnomic verse by carrying always along with it the passion of

From Nature. what has preceded,--the systole and PATHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS ON ANIdiastole of the poet's heart pleading with his maker. . It is in the wide

There is one aspect of a pathological spaces of the epic, in the drama, with institute which I feel some delicacy in its slow development, its crises, its alluding to, because there are some peocatastrophe, that the vindication of the ple who take strange views with regard spiritual forces of life is most ade- to these matters-exaggerated views. quately undertaken. In Shake. There are people who do not object to spearian drama there is fate-no eating a mutton-chop-people who do fate, at least, of which man is not mas- not even object to shooting a pheasant ter-and no laws but the laws of the with the considerable chance that it spirit. Among our later poets, Brown- may be only wounded and may have to ing has signalized himself by such an die after lingering in pain, unable to endeavor as we are describing. His obtain its proper nutriment-and yet failures are conspicuous enough; for who consider it something monstrous example, it must have struck every to introduce under the skin of a guineareader that in the epilogue to “Dra- pig a little inoculation of some microbe matis Personæ,” where David, Renan, to ascertain its action. Those seem to and the poet epiloguize, the poetic na- me to be most inconsistent views. ture of Browning has thrown all its With regard to all matters in which we passion and imagination into the pessi- are concerned in this world, everything mistic view of Renan, which, as a theo- depends upon the motive. A murderer logian, he is endeavoring to combat; may cut a man's throat to kill him; any but his successes are not less conspicuous. Consider the light he has poured opening of the new pathological and physiologi

1 An address delivered in connection with the on the Christian dogma, that the divine cal laboratories in Queen's College, Belfast, by spirit is a spirit of love, and that there Lord Lister, P. R. S.

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one of you medical students may have of a portion of the brain of a mad dog to cut a man's throat to save his life. under the skin of a healthy animal was The father who chastises his son for liable to cause rabies, and Pasteur had the sake of the good of his morals is a reason to believe that it was principally most humane man; a father who should in the nervous centres that the poison beat his son for the mere sake of in- accumulated. He felt a very strong deflicting pain upon him would be an sire to introduce some of the poison into inhuman monster. And so it is with the the brain of an animal; but he was a necessary experiments upon lower ani- peculiarly humane man. He never mals. If they were made, as some could shoot an animal for sport. He people seem to assume, for the mere was more humane than the great masport of the thing, they would be indeed jority of human beings; and for a long to be deprecated and decried; but if time he could not bring himself to they are made with the wholly noble make the experiment of trephining an object of not only increasing human animal's skull, and introducing some knowledge, but also diminishing human of the poison of rabies into the brain. suffering, then I hold that such investi- He was exceedingly desirous of doing gations are deserving of all praise. it to establish the pathology of the Those little know who lightly speak on disease, but he shrank from it. On one these matters how much self-denial is occasion, when he was absent from required in the prosecution of such re- home, one of his assistants did the exsearches when they are conducted, as periment, and when Pasteur came back indeed they always are, so far as I am ne told him that he had done so. “Oh!" aware, with the object of establishing said Pasteur, “the poor creature! His new truth. The exercise of a little brain has been touched. I am afraid charity might lead those who speak of he will be affected with paralysis.” us as inhuman to reflect that possibly The assistant went into a neighboring we may be as humane as themselves. room and brought in the animal which The profession to which I have the was a dog. It came in frisking about great honor to belong is, I firmly be- and investigating everything in a perlieve, on the average, the most humane fectly natural manner; and Pasteur of all professions. The medical student was exceedingly pleased, and though may be sometimes a rough diamond; he did not like dogs, yet he lavished his but when he comes to have personal affection upon that particular animal charge of patients, and to have the life and petted it; and from that time forth and health of a fellow-creature depend- he felt his scruples need no longer exist. ing upon his individual care, he be- The truth is that the pain inflicted by comes a changed man, and from that this process of trephining is exceedday forth his life becomes a constant ingly slight, and yet the operation is exercise of beneficence. With that sometimes described as being a hidbeneficence there is associated benev- eously painful one. That is a mistake. olence; and, in that practical way, our In point of fact the operation is always profession becomes the most benevolent done now under anæsthetics, so that of all. If our detractors knew this, the animal does not feel it at all; but common sense would enable them to even without that the operation is not see that our profession would not be seriously painful. I look forward to unanimously in favor of these re- the time when there will be an institute searches if they were the iniquitous in connection with this college, where, things which they are sometimes repre- investigations of the kind to which I sented to be. I was reading the other have referred can be carried on, and day a very interesting account of where pathological knowledge of the Pasteur's work on rabies, written by first importance may be promoted. one who was associated with him from Think also of the practical advantages an early period (M. Duclaux). It had of an institution where the materials been established that the introduction can be provided for the treatment of

Let any

diseases on the principles which have of a young wife after her first confinebeen recently established. It appears to ment afflicted with this dreadful puerbe now placed beyond doubt that that peral fever, and doomed under ordinary dreadful disease diphtheria may by the treatment to certain death. The pracantitoxic treatment be reduced in mor- titioner makes an injection of this tality from about thirty per cent. to serum under the skin, with the result about five per cent. if the proper mate- that the lady rapidly recovers, and in a rial is promptly used. It is exceedingly few days is perfectly well. important that in a city like Belfast the man conceive such a case as this, and supply of such material should be all objections to the investigations within easy reach of the practitioner- necessary to bring about such a state that he should not be compelled to send of things must vanish into thin air. So to London for the requisite serum, and soon as our poor selves are directly thus lose much valuable time. Every concerned our objections disappear. If hour that is lost in the treatment of a a tiger threatened to attack a camp, case of this nature is a very serious loss who would care much about what kind indeed. But it is by no means only in of a trap was set for it, or what sufferdiphtheria that such an institute is ing the trap caused the animal, so long likely to confer benefits of this kind. as it was caught? When the matter In the case of the streptococcus, which affects only the welfare of others, inis the cause of erysipelas and kindred cluding generations yet unborn, the disorders, including that very terrible good done does not appeal to the indidisease, puerperal fever, there are very vidual, and the objector sees only the promising indications that the use of horrors of modern scientific investigaantitoxic serum will rescue patients tion; of which horrors, however, he from otherwise hopeless conditions. quickly loses the sense as soon as he Let any one picture to himself the case becomes personally concerned.

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Rome as a Health Resort.-Dr. J. J. to be desired; so that nervous invalids Eyre, one of the foremost living au- and their friends had some excuse for thorities on the climate of Rome, has fighting shy of the Eternal City as a contributed to the Queen a paper en- place of abode for their transitory titled "Rome as Health Resort,” selves. But the “Roman Fever" is now which will be a surprise to some people a thing of the past, owing to the great who have remained under the tradi- sanitary improvements which have tional impression of the unhealthiness taken place during the last fifteen of the city and district. Doctor Eyre years or so, and Rome is now, not only points out that it was recognized some the healthiest city in Italy, but thirty or forty years ago, by eminent pares very favorably as to hygienic authorities on climate, including Sir conditions with the large towns of EuJames Clarke, that the Roman climate rope and America. The sewers are was particularly beneficial in the case well constructed and thoroughly flushed, of persons suffering from consumption the water supply is one of the purest or chronic bronchitis. But at that time and most abundant in the world, and malarial fever was still prevalent, and the cleanliness of the streets is almost the sanitary state of the city left much invariably commented on by visitors.

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Sixth Series, Volume XIV.

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No. 2756– May 1, 1897.

From Beginning,

Vol. COXIII.

CONTENTS.

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290 303

OF

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I. IN KEDAR'S TENTS. By Henry Seton

Merriman. Chaps. IX. and X.,
II. FATHERS OF LITERARY IMPRESSION-
ISM IN ENGLAND,

Quarterly Review,
III. THE BORDER LAW. By Francis Watt, New Review, .
IV. THE LIMITS BIOGRAPHY. Ву
Charles Whibley,

Nineteenth Century,
V. HENRY DRUMMOND. By W. Robertson
Nicoll,

Contemporary Review, .
VI. MONARCH OR MOnk: A LEGEND OF
TOMSK. By J. Y. Simpson,

Blackwood's Magazine, .
VII. THACKERAY'S PHILOSOPHY,

Macmillan's Magazine, .
VIII. THE DEMOCRATIC CULTURE,

Saturday Review,
IX. THE NORTH POLAR PROBLEM. By Şir
Clements Markham,

London Times,

317

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325

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335 339

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342

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR SIX DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post office money order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of THE LIVING AGE Co.

Single copies of THE LIVING AGE, 15 cents.

AMY ROBSART'S SONG.

Short speech he hath for man and beast;

Some fifty words are all his store. From London town my lover came,

Why should his language be increased ? Robin A'Budle was his name;

He hath no need for more.
I was a rose, a rose, said he,
And gathered me from off my tree;
I was a rose, most fair and red,

There is no change he doth desire,
I am a rose whose sweets are shed.

Of far-off lands he hath not heard;
Beside his wife, before the fire,

He sits, and speaks no word.
I would my love from London town
Had never lightly ridden down;
Were there no roses there that he He holds no converse with his kind,
Must come and pluck and shatter me? On birds and beasts his mind is bent;
My leaves are sear that were so green,

He knows the thoughts that stir their My leaves are wet with tears of teen.

mind,

Love, hunger, hate, content.
Would God that I had never met
My lover, that has heart to set

Of kings and wars he doth not hear.
Against my breast so sharp a sword.

He tells the seasons that have been Would God, instead of belted lord,

B; stricken oaks and hunted deer, That I had loved some meaner clay,

And strange fowl he has seen. Who loved me on to Judgment Day.

In church, some muttering he doth make, From London town my lover came,

Well-pleased when hymns harmonious And set a country heart aflame,

rise; Then left it lone to quench or burn

He doth not strive to overtake
Because a queen must serve his turn.

The hurrying litanies.
Nay, but what boots me my disdain?
Would God my love would come again. He hears the music of the wind,

NORA HOPPER. His prayer is brief, and scant his creed;

The shadow, and what lurks behind,

He doth not greatly heed.

ARTHUR CHRISTOPHER BENSON.

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