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Thus Frederick Conyngham, riding rose and fell in a straight line across the northward alone, seemed to be but a tableland without tree or hedge, and pilot to all those persons, into whose Madrid seemed to belong to another lives he had suddenly stepped as from a world, for the horizon, which was disside issue, for they were one and all tant enough, bore no sign of cathedral making ready to follow him to the spire or castled height. colder plains of Castile, where existence Conyngham turned in his saddle to was full of strife and ambition, of war look back, and there, not a mile away, and those inner wheels that ever jar the form of a hurrying horseman broke and grind where politicians contend to the bare line of the dusty road. There gether for the mastery of a moment. was something weird and disturbing in

As he rode on, Conyngham left a this figure, a suggestion of pursuit in message from time to time for his self- every line, for this was not Concepcion appointed servant. At the offices of the Vara. Conyngham would have known diligencias in various towns on the him at once. This was one wearing a great road from Cordova to Madrid he better coat; indeed, Concepcion preleft word for Concepcion Vara to follow, ferred to face life and the chances of the should the spirit of travel be still upon road in shirt-sleeves. him, knowing that at these places, Conyngham sat in his saddle awaiting where travellers were ever passing, the the newcomer. To meet on such a road tittle-tattle of the road was the in Spain without pausing to exchange a tongue of every hostler and stable help. salutation would be a gratuitous insult; And truly enough there followed one to ride in solitude within hail of another who made careful inquiries as to the traveller were to excite or betray the movements of the Englishman, and deepest distrust. It was characteristic heard his messages with a grim smile; of Conyngham that he already waved but this was not Concepcion Vara. his hand in salutation, and was pre

It was late one evening when Conyng- pared to hail the newcomer as the jolliham, who had quitted Toledo in the est companion in the world. morning, began to hunger for the sight Esteban Larralde, seeing the salutaof the towers and steeples of Madrid. tion, gave a short laugh, and jerked the He had ridden all day through the bare reins of his tired horse. He himself country of Cervantes, where to this day wore a weary look, as if the flight be Spain rears her wittiest men and plain- had in hand were an uphill one. He est women. The sun had just set be- had long recognized Conyngham; inhind the distant hills of old Castile, and deed, the chase had been one of little from the east, over Aranjuez, where the excitement, but rather an exercise of great river cuts Spain in two parts, patience and dogged perseverance. He from its centre to the sea, a grey cloud raised his hat to indicate that the En-a very shade of night-was slowly glishman's gay salutations were perrising. The aspect of the brown plains ceired, and pulled the wide brim. well was dismal, and on the horizon the roll- forward again. ing, unbroken land seemed to melt "He will change his attitude when it away into eternity and infinite space. becomes apparent who I am,” he mut

Conyngham reined in and looked tered. around him. So far as eye could reach But Conyngham's first word would no house arose to testify to the presence appear to suggest that Esteban Larof man. No laborer toiled home to his ralde was a much less impressive person lonely hut, for in this country of many than he considered himself. wars and interminable strife it has, “Why, it's the devout lover!” he since the days of Nebuchadnezzar, been cried. “Señor Larralde, you rememthe custom of the people to congregate ber me-Algeciras—and your pink lovein villages and small townships, where letter. Deuced fishy love-letter that. a common danger secured some protec. Nearly got me into a devil of a row, I tion against a lawless foe. The road can tell you. How are you-eh?"

And the Englishman rode forward ognize the necessity of quarrelling, but with a jolly laugh and his hand held proposed to do so as light-heartedly as out. Larralde took it without en- possible. They were both on horseback thusiasm. It was rather difficult to pick in the middle of the road, Larralde a a picturesque quarrel with such a per- few paces in the direction of Madrid. son as this. Moreover, the true con- Conyngham indicated the road with spirator never believes in another man's an inviting wave of the hand. honesty.

“Will you go on?” he asked. "Who would have expected to meet Larralde sat looking at him with glityou here?" went on Conyngham jovi- tering eyes and said nothing. ally.

“Then I will continue my journey," "It is not as surprising as you think.” said the Englishman, touching his horse "Ah!"

lightly with the spur. The horse moved There was no mistaking Larralde's on and passed within a yard of the manner, and the Englishman's gay, blue other. At this moment Larralde rose eyes hardened suddenly and rather sur- in his stirrups and flung himself on one prisingly.

side. "No; I have followed you. I want Conyngham gave a sharp cry of pain that letter."

and threw back his head. Larralde had "Well, as it happens, Señor Larralde, stabbed him in the back. I have not got your letter, and if I had The Englishman swayed in the sadI am not quite sure that I would give it dle, as if trying to balance himself; his to you.

Your conduct in the matter legs bent back from the knee in the has not been over nice; and to tell the sharpness of a biting pain. The heavy truth, I don't think much of a man who stirrups swung free. Then, slowly, Cogets strangers and women to do his nyngham toppled forward and rolled out dirty work for him."

0the saddle, falling on to the road Larralde stroked his moustache with with a thud. a half-furtive air of contempt.

Larralde watched him with a white "I should have given the confounded face and staring eyes. Then he looked letter to the alcalde of Ronda if it had quickly round over the darkening landnot been that a lady would have suf- scape. There was no one in sight. This fered for it, and let you take your was one of the waste places of the chance, Señor Larralde.”

world. Larralde seemed to remember Larralde shrugged his shoulders. the Eye that seeth even there, and

"You would not have given it to the crossed himself as he slipped from the alcalde of Ronda,” he said in a sneer- saddle to the ground. He was shaking ing voice, “because you want it your all over. His face was ashen, for it is a self. You require it in order to make terrible thing to kill a man and be left your peace with Estella Vincente.” alone with him. "We are not going to talk of Señorita Conyngham's eyes

closed. Vincente," said Conyngham quietly. There was blood on his lips. With "You say you followed me because you hands that shook like leaves Esteban wanted that letter. It is not in my pos- Larralde searched the Englishman, session. I left it in the house of Colo- found nothing, and cursed his ill-fornel Monreal at Xeres. If you are tune. Then he stood upright, and in going on to Madrid, I think I will sit the dim light his face shone as if he had down here and have a cigarette. If, on dipped it in water. He crept into the the other hand, you propose resting saddle, and rode on toward Madrid. here, I shall proceed, as it is getting It was quite dark when Conyngham late."

recovered consciousness. In turning Conyngham looked at his companion him over to search his pockets Larralde with a nod and a smile, which was not had perhaps, unwittingly, saved his life in the least friendly and at the same by placing him in a position that time quite cheerful. He seemed to rec- checked the internal hemorrhage.

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PART I.

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What served to bring back the English- difficult subjects of inquiry. Such, preman's wandering senses was the rum- eminently, are the problems presented bling of heavy wheels and the crack of by the nature and history of organic a great whip, as a cart laden with hay life. I propose, therefore, in this paper and drawn by six mules approached to accept Mr. Spencer's method, and to him from the direction of Toledo. examine what light can come from it

The driver of the team was an old on this most intricate of all subjects. soldier, as indeed were most of the Cas- The leading idea of Mr. Spencer's artilians at this time, and knew how to ticle is to assert and insist upon a wide handle wounded men. With great care distinction between the “natural selecand a multitude of oaths he lifted Co- tion" theory of Darwin and the general nyngham on to his cart and proceeded theory of what Mr. Spencer calls “orwith him to Madrid.

ganic evolution." He insists and reiterates that even if Darwin's special theory of natural selection were disproved and abandoned, the more geueral doctrine of organic evolution

would remain unshaken. I entirely From The Nineteenth Century. agree in this discrimination between MR. HERBERT SPENCER AND LORD SALIS- two quite separate conceptions. But I BURY ON EVOLUTION.

must demand a farther advance on the

same lines—an advance which Mr. SpenMr. Herbert Spencer contributed to cer has not made, and which does not this review in November, 1895, appear to bave occurred to him as rearticle entitled "Lord Salisbury on quired. Not only is Darwin's special Evolution.” The occasion of it arose theory of natural selection quite sepaout of the brief and passing, but pun- rable from the more general theory of gent, comments on the Darwinian the organic évolution, but also Mr. Spenory, which formed part of Lord cer's special version and understandSalisbury's presidential address to the ing of organic evolution is quite British Association at Oxford in 1891. separable from the general doctrine of In so far as that article is merely a development, with which, nevertheless, reply to Lord Salisbury, it is not my in- it is habitually confounded. It is quite tention here to come between the dis- as true that even if Mr. Spencer's thetinguished disputants. But, like every- ory of organic evolution were disproved thing from Mr. Spencer's pen, it is full and abandoned, the general doctrine of of highly significant matter the development would remain unshaken, whole subject to which it relates. It as it is true that organic evolution takes a much larger view of the prob- would survive the demolition of the lems of biology than is generally taken, Darwinian theory of natural selection. and it deals with them by a method The great importance of these diswhich is excellent, so far as he goes, criminations lies in this—that both the and which we can all take up and fol- narrow theory of Darwin, and also the low farther than the point at which he wider idea of organic evolution, have stops. Nor is his paper less instructive derived an adventitious strength and because he does stop in the application popularity from elements of conception of his method just where it ought to be which are not their own-elements of most continuously and rigorously ap- conception, that is to say, which are plied. The method of Mr. Spencer is to not peculiar to them, but common to insist on a clear definition of the words them and to a much larger conceptionand phrases used in our biological data a much wider doctrine—which has a and speculations. No method could be much more indisputable place and more admirable than this. It is one for rank in the facts of nature, and in the which I have myself a great predilec- universal recognition of the human tion, and have continually used in all mind.

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Let us, therefore, unravel this entan- the last thirty years about developglement of separable ideas much more ment, that nobody had ever known or completely than Mr. Spencer has done dwelt upon this universal fact until in the article before us. And for this Lamarck and Darwin had discovered purpose let us begin at the bottom- it. But all their theories, and, indeed, with the one fundamental conception all possible theories which may sup. which underlies all the theories and plant or supplement them, are nothing speculations that litter the ground be- but guesses at the details of the procfore us. That conception is simply rep- esses through which causation works resented by the old familiar word, and its way from innumerable small beginthe old familiar idea-development. It nings to innumerable great and compliis the conception of the whole world, cated results. Every one of these in us and around us, being a world full guesses may be wrong in whole, or in of changes, which to-day leave nothing essential parts, but the universal facts exactly as it was yesterday, and which of development in nature remain will not allow to-morrow to be exactly certain and as obvious as before. as to-day. It is the conception of some It is a bad thing, at least for a time, things always coming to be, and of when the undoubtedness of great cther things always ceasing to be–in general conception such as this-of the endless sequences of cause and of ef- continuity of causation and of the fect. It has this great advantage—that gradual accumulation of its effectsit is not a mere doctrine nor a theory, gets hooked on (as it were) in the minds nor an hypothesis, but a visible and un- of theorists to their own little fragdoubted fact. Nobody can deny or mentary fancies as to particular modes dispute it. Nowhere has it been more of operation. But it is a worse thing profoundly expressed and described, in still when this spurious and accidental its deepest meanings and significance, affiliation becomes so established in the than in the words of that great meta- popular mind that men are afraid not physician-whoever he may be--who to accept the fancies lest they should be wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews, when thought to impugn admitted and he describes the universe as a system thoritative truths. Yet this is exactly in which "the things which

what has happened with the Darwinwere not made of things that do ap- ian theory. The very word developpear.” That is to say, that all its phe- ment was captured by the Darwinian nomena are due to causes which lie school as if it belonged to them alone, behind them, and which belong to the and the old familiar idea was identified Invisible. Nor can we even conceive of with theories with which it had no necits being otherwise. The causes

of essary connection whatever. Developthings—whatever these may be--are the ment is nowhere more conspicuous sources out of which all things come, than in the history of human invenor are developed. What these causes tions; the gun, the watch, the steamare has been the great quest, and the engine, have all passed through many great incentive to inquiry, since human stages of development, every step in thought began. But there never has which is historically known. So it is been any doubt, or any failure, on the with human social and political institupart of man to grasp the universal fact tions, when they are at all advanced. that there is a natural sequence among But this kind and conception of develall things, leading from what has been opment has nothing whatever to do to what is, and to what is to be with the purely physical conceptions Whether he could apprehend or not the involved in the Darwinian theory. The processes out of which these changes idea, for example, of one suggestion arise, he has always recognized the ex- arising out of another in the construcistence of such processes as a fact. tive mind of man, is a kind of developOne might almost

suppose from ment absolutely different from the much of the talk we have had during idea of one specific kind of organic

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structure being born of quite another that it will remain secure even if Darform of structure without the directing winism should be abandoned. Both agency of any mind at all. Our full these theories are equally hypotheses persuasion of the perfect continuity of as to the particular processes through causation does not compel us to accept, which development has held its way in even for a moment, the idea of any that department of nature which particular cause which may be obvi- know as organic life. But it is quite ously incompetent, far less such as may possible to hold, and even to be certain, be conspicuously fantastic. Nor-and that development has taken place in this is often forgotten-does the most organic forms, without accepting either perfect continuity of causes involve, as Darwin's or Mr. Spencer's explanation a necessary consequence, any similar of the process. They both rest—as we continuity in their visible effects. shall see-upon one and the same funThese effects may be sudden and vio- damental assumption; and they are both lent, although the previous working open to one and the same fundamental has been slow and even infinitesimally objection-viz., the incompetence of gradual. In short, the general idea of them both to account for, or to explain, development is a conception which re- all the plienomena, or more even than mains untouched whether we believe, a fraction of the facts, with which they or do not believe, in hypotheses which profess to deal. profess to explain its steps.

In order to make this plain we have Mr. Spencer, then, adopts an excel- only to look closely to the peculiarities lent method when he insists upon dis- of the Darwinian theory, and ascertain criminations such as these between exactly how much of it, or how little very different things jumbled together of it, is common to the theory which and concealed under loose popular Mr. Spencer distinguishes by the more phrases. But, unfortunately, he fails general title of organic evolution. Darto pursue this method far enough. win's theory can be put into a few very There is great need of the farther ap- simple propositions—such as these: All plication of it to his own language. He organisms have offspring. These offtells us that Darwinism is to be care. spring have an innate and universal fully distinguished from what he calls tendency to variation from the parent "Organic evolution." Darwinism he form. These variations are indetermidefines in the phrases of its author. nate-taking place in all directions. But organic evolution he does not de- Among the offspring thus varying, and fine so as to bring out the special sense between them and other contemporary in which he himself always uses it. organisms, there is a perpetual compeOn the contrary he employs words to tition and struggle for existence. The define organic evolution which system- variations which happen to be advanatically confound it with the general tageous in this struggle_from some idea of development, whilst concealing accidental better fitting into surroundthis confusion under a change of name. ing conditions—will have the benefit of The substitution of the word evolution that advantage in the struggle. They for the simpler word development has, will conquer and prevail; whilst other in this point of view, an unmistakable variations, less advantageous, will be significance. I do not know of any shouldered out-will die and disappear. real difference between the two words, Thus step by step, Darwin imagined, except that the word development is more and more advantageous varieties older and more familiar, whilst evolu- would be continually produced, and tion is more modern, and has been more would be perpetuated by hereditary completely captured and appropriated transmission. By this process, proby a particular school. But Darwin's longed through ages of unknown duratheory is quite as distinctly and as def- tion, he thought it was possible to acinitely a theory of organic evolution as count for the origin of the millions of the theory of which Mr. Spencer boasto specific forms which now constitute the

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