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Dante's picture," but it was a design tish descent. There is not much doubt that haunted him for many years. that his forbears were of Border origin, Originally it had been his idea to join and two of his lost plays certainly dealt forces with Southey; but gradually the with Scottish subjects, “The Scot's thought of collaboration died out and Tragedy” and “Robert the Second, the scheme developed into one for a King of Scots;" on the other hand there history of England from 1775 to be ex- is the statement that the objection hibited in a series of letters. That taken to “Eastward Ho" by those in some part of this work was actually authority was that it contained "somewritten we are informed in one of thing against the Scots.” Landor's political pamphlets entitled assume, however, that on the whole his "Letters of a Conservative,” in which attitude towards the Scottish people he speaks of his original intention as would have been more complimentary being well known many distin- than that of his namesake of the eighguished men; the title which he in- teenth century. Besides this play be tended to give the work being bestowed had it in his heart to write an epic to on the pamphlet instead. In those celebrate the heroes of his own time, letters he had attempted, he says, “to and another to perform a similar kind trace and to expose the faults and office for the famous women of the fallacies of every administration from same age; but neither of these projects the beginning of the year 1775;" but came to anything. they were all thrown into the fire. Elizabethan writers seem to have Landor, like Collins, was in the habit been quite conscious of the greatness of putting his compositions in the fire of their own time, and were anxious when anything happened to excite his to leave no doubtful record of it temper, which, as we know, was very behind them. Many years before easily excited. As early as 1811, when the idea of his "Heroologia” had come Longman rejected his “Count Julian,” to Jonson there was a young writer he committed his new tragedy of exercising his satirical pen on the “Ferranti and Giulio” to the flames, people he saw around him. This led with a vow that no verse of his should him incidentally to a defence of plays thereafter be committed to anything and, in the course of a spirited attack else. Fortunately his resentment did upon the actor's enemies, Nash takes not last very long; but at times it would occasion to commend the English break out again, and the destruction of practitioners in that profession, espemore manuscripts would be necessary cially the subsequent founder of Dulto appease it.

wich College, famous Ned Allen. “If Much that Ben Jonson wrote went I ever write anything in Latin (as I also into the fire, but not with his will. hope one day I shall),” he says, “not a In his poem

the burning of his man of any desert here amongst us but library Jonson gives a list of the lost I will have up. Tarleton, Ned Allen, manuscripts, one of which was the knell, Bentley shall be made known to narrative of his journey into Scotland. France, Spain, and Italy and not a part While he was in that country he in- that they surmounted in more than formed Drummond of his intention to other but I will there note and set down write such an account, and at the same

with the manner of their habits and time spoke of a “fisher or pastoral” attire." Unfortunately Nash died beplay that was engaging his thoughts, fore he could carry out his intention. the scene of which was to be laid near Had he achieved his desire our scanty Loch Lomond. Both these works are. knowledge of the Elizabethan stage missing; the former is known to have would have received a valuable supplebeen burned, the second was probably ment, though if he had persevered in never written. It would have been a

his design to use Latin for his purpose particularly interesting play in view his book would have lost a great charm of the dramatist's problematical Scot- in the eyes of those who are able to ad



mire the virility and flexibility of Nash's to the historian of our early drama may idiomatic style. But there was another be imagined when we remember that work alluded to more than once by the Heywood was writing for the theatres writers of that age whose manuscript, as early as the first performance of could it be found, would be worth its “The Merchant of Venice," and comweight in gold to the New Shake- posed his last civic pageant when the speare Society. The author was Long Parliament was sitting, that his Thomas Heywood, one of the most experience was that of actor, playprolific writers record, who con wright, and sharer in the company, fessed to have written, either wholly that he was a graduate of Cambridge, on in part, no less than two hundred and above all that he had lived on terms and twenty plays, and whose other of comparative intimacy with all the labors, epic, satiric, historical, didactic, men that have made that age the most would in themselves have earned for glorious in the annals of our literature. any man the title of voluminous. The And in spite of Browning we should work he proposed to himself was John- be glad to have the memoirs of those son's task in the following century, men written by an associate. As it is, only it was more inclusive in its plan. however, Shakespeare can still smile at The design was in his mind for many our curiosity,-curiosity not necessarily years in spite of the incessant fluency idle or vulgar. of his pen. As an instance of the speed of his composition his “Nine Books of We ask and ask: thou smilest and art still. Various History Concerning Women" may be adduced, a folio of nearly five Other men of genius have made hundred pages, which, he declares, was resolutions and formed projects, but conceived, begun, executed, and few have let the world into the secrets printed in seventeen weeks. Evi- of their studies so habitually or so dently he found that his "Lives of the ingenuously as Coleridge. A poem Poets" required greater labor and more planned was to him as good as a poem careful handling than the work about written, and as real. The question of women, for as early as 1614 we get a presentation was a subordinate one to hint of his intention; again in 1624 he him, but to us it is an all-important speaks of his resolution, and eleven matter; and it is not altogether selfish years later he alludes to it in his to complain that he kept so much of "Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels” as the fruit of his imagination to himself, a work “which hereafter I hope by denying us the pleasure of a share in God's assistance to commit to the the feast. Almost

as he public view; namely, the lives of all reached Germany he set about a histhe poets foreign and modern, from tory of German poetry which was to the first before Homer to the norissimi occupy two quarto volumes; he also and last, of what nation or language contemplated a complete translation of soever." Seeing that Heywood was Lessing and Wieland, and was particualive in 1648, if not later, it seems that larly anxious about a life of the former this work should be regarded as a lost poet. Later on he intended a life of book rather than as an unwritten one, Wallenstein to be prefixed to his transbut the result to posterity is the same. lations from Schiller, but it was abanMost likely he was still struggling with doned either because of the reason he his mass of materials when the troub- himself alleges, or because of his lous times of the Civil War came upon habitually “sloth-jaundiced" temperahim. The theatres were closed; actors ment. His friends all bewailed this and playwrights were sunk in poverty characteristic. "To rely on and disgrace, and information concern- whole quartos!" says Southey quoting ing poets by a player and dramatist his friend's promise, “dear Coleridge. was at a serious discount. What the the smile that comes with that thought recovery of his manuscript would mean is a very melancholy one. Cottle de



you for his errand he avowed it.


clared that he remembered the poet

From Good Words, reading from his note-book the titles of THE PATRIOT SONGS OF GREECE. no less than eighteen separate works The interposition of Greece in the which he had made up his mind to troubles of Crete carries one's thoughts write, and not one of which ever saw back to that stormy period, between the light. The work which advanced 1770 and 1830, which closed with the most nearly to completion was, accord- recognition of the independence of the ing to the same authority, “Transla- kingdom of Greece. It was a time rich tions of the Modern Latin Poets" in in story and song--a Homeric time in two volumes octavo, of which Coleridge the country of Homer; and it is singuhad really proceeded so far as to print lar how little it is remembered in this a prospectus. It is easy to follow country or rather how little many of Cottle's lead and make fun of poor its most picturesque episodes have ever Coleridge for inconsistencies and dis- been known. crepancies which all can see; but if Perhaps the best possible way to enany one is disposed to condemn him, list the sympathy and interest of the let him read this passage from his general reader in this past time is to "Table Talk,” in which the dreamer give few renderings of some of the pleads extenuation with all the sensi- popular songs of that epoch-songs tive eloquence that at all times charac- which yet linger in remote corners of terized him, and then perhaps the Greece, where there are still aged judgment will not be so harsh.

grandfathers who remember the

heroes of some of the later ballads. There are two sides to every question.

We must explain, to begin with, that If thou hast genius and poverty to thy lot, this long protracted conflict between dwell on the foolish, perplexing, impru- Greece and Turkey was mainly a dent, dangerous, and even immoral, con

guerilla warfare, carried on by Greek duct of promise-breach in small things, of Highlanders dwelling on the mountains want of punctuality, of procrastination in to which their forefathers had been all its shapes and disguises. . . . But if

driven as thy fate should be different, shouldst thou

to well-nigh impregnable

These possess competence, health and ease of fortresses.

were called mind, and then be thyself called upon to “Klephts," and from time to time their judge such faults in another so gifted-0! numbers

augmented by the then, upon the other view of the question, people of the plains, as tyranny besay, Am I in ease and comfort, and dare I

came too bitter, or taxation too extorwonder that he, poor fellow, acted so and

tionate, so? Dare I accuse him? Ought I not to

It may be noted that these songs-as shadow forth to myself that, glad and luxuriating in a short escape from anxiety, is always the case with songs which his mind over-promised for itself; that, spring, simple and strong, from the want combating with his eager desire to heart of people—are dramatic in produce things worthy of fame, he form, and waste no words either in dreamed of the nobler when he should "description" or "sentiment." They have been producing the meaner, and so

have been intended for sympathetic had the meaner obtruded on his moral

and comprehending ears, on which being, when the nobler was making full way on his intellectual. . . . Take him in every phrase would tell for its full his whole-his head, his heart, his wishes, value. his innocence of all selfish crime, and, a

One of the oldest of these ballads rehundred years hence, what will be the re- counts how certain Moslem rulers, de. sult? The good-were it but a single vol- siring the death of a leading “Klepht," ume that made truth more visible, and sought to compass it by guile, sending goodness more lovely, and pleasure at once

on the errand a Moslem who had been more akin to virtue and, self-doubled,

on friendly terms with the Greek. But more pleasurable! And the evil-while he lived, it injured none but himself; and the Moslem's heart failed him at the where is it now? In his grave. Follow treachery, and though he did not refuse it not thither.




Three birds are seated on the heights And take him and hang him before his above the outpost of the Klephts:

door, and take his little son, One looks towards Armyros, the other to And take all his wealth, and take care you the way of Valtos;

do not lose a pin." And the third, the gentlest, bewails her. In the middle of the night, the messenger self, and cries:

left the port and sailed to Achelos. "Passers-by, what has become of Christos He flew like a bird; he went like an arrow.

Milionis, for we see him not on the Michalis Bey, as soon as he saw him, adhills?”

vanced to meet him. "Bird,” they answer, “they have told us "Be welcome, my lord," he said. “Be he has crossed Arcania;

seated with us at breakfast." He has entered Arta and has taken pris- "I do not come to eat; I do not come to oners the Cadi and two agas.

drink. I come to do the Sultan's The Pasha has heard of this, and is griev- will." ously incensed;

And he threw his rope, and threw it round He calls two of his council and he says, the neck of Michalis.

'if you would do yourselves good, And so he took him and hung him before If you would have honors, go and kill his door.

Christos-this Captain Milionis, And then he sought for his little son and For the Sultan has ordered it; he has sent carried him off. his firman.''

And put him in the ship with all the treasThe fatal day came--and oh, would it had ure of his father.

not been he! Soliman is sent to
search for Christos.

Was it any wonder that another song He goes, and he meets him in Armyros,

-one of many-declared by the mouth and they embrace as old friends

of a famous “Klepht" and his warshould.

riors:All night they drink together, till day

draws near, and as the dawn breaks
they rise to part.

Never heed that the passes belong to the

Turks. Then Soliman cries to the Captain Mi

lionis: "Christos, the Sultan wants Never care that they are full of Albanians: thee and so do his agas."

Sterghios as long as he lives, will make no "As long as Christos lives, he will never

note of the pachas; give himself up to the Turks."

So long as there is snow on these mounAnd they ran, and aimed their guns at

tains, we will never submit to the each other: they fired again and

Turks. again.

Rather will we lodge in the lair of the And they fell, both together, slain, upon

wolves. the spot.

Let slaves live in the cities and on the

plains, beside the Infidels: Another old song relates to the fate But the cities of the brave men are in the of a wealthy Greek living in peace and solitudes of the mountain tops. security.

Rather than live with the Turks we will

live with the wild beasts. I will tell you a story that will make you wonder.

Two quaint ballads tell the story of There certain Greek named

a husband and wife. The tale of the Kyritsos Michalis. He possessed great riches and was held wife's deliverance is significant of

something in the Greek mind which in much honor. And he lived quietly in his own house, and dignifies animal life and draws it into

there was no malice in his heart. loving unison with the human-a trait But somebody wrote a letter to the divan, which we recognize in the works of the a mischievous letter

greatest Greek poets of antiquity, and And it said he troubled his neighborhood which appears on their ancient monuand was secretly plotting.

mental sculpture, where the household As soon as the Sultan heard this, he got very angry and called to an official, dog, cat, bird, or rabbit, is always de

picted, along with the family, making saying,

But we "Go quickly to Achelos—to the dwelling of last adieux to the departed. Michalis,

must hasten to give




Quick! Take my gold pieces and my sil

ver hauberk, “What misfortune has happened to the Take my sword, too, this famous sword, wife of Liakos?"

and cut off my head, “Five Albanians have taken her prisoner That the Turks may not cut it off and and ten others question her.

carry it to the Pacha, and set it on 'O Liakena, wilt thou not be married?

his palace, Wilt thou not take a Turk for thy When mine enemies would see it and re. spouse?

joice, and my friends would see it 'I would rather see my blood redden the

and be sad, earth, than that a Turk should kiss And my mother also would see it and the my eyes.'"

sight would kill her with sorrow." And Liakos, her spouse, looked on from a hill top.

There are many snatches of song And he drew to him his black horse and he which tell us how the heroines of Souli whispered to him:

"fought like men,” with a babe on one "Canst thou not, my horse, canst thou not save thy mistress?"

arm and a gun in the other hand, and “Yes, I can, my master, I can deliver my an apron full of cartridges. The cour

mistress, and she will feed me the age of one Souliote woman turned the more."

fortune of a desperate battle. And he flew off, and he saved his mistress, But possibly none of the songs tell

and he brought her back to the door their grim story with more restrained of his master's dwelling.

energy and internal fire than the folThe story is told as if the horse did it lowing:all himself, because the Klepht knew

An awful sound is heard-bullets fall like he could not have done it without the

rain. horse!

Is it a marriage that they celebrate? Is The next song we take tells of

it a day of rejoicing? Liakos' death, and every line is redo- Nay, it is not a marriage that they celelent with the terrors of the time.

brate, neither is it a festival,

It is Despo who defends herself, with her THE DEATH OF LIAKOS.

daughters and daughters-in-law. Liakos! the mountains of Agrapha and The enemy have surrounded her in the their waters and their woods weep

tower of Dimoulas. for thee,

"Wife of George," they cry, "lay down And thine adopted son weeps for thee, and your arms. You are not now in thy followers weep for thee;

Souli. But did I not say

to thee once, twice, Here you are the slave of the pasha and thrice, ey, five times,

the prisoner of his troops." "Submit thyself to the pacha, Liakos, sub- And she answers “Souli may have surmit thyself to the vizier!”.

rendered, Kiapha may have become “So long as Liakos lives," said he, “he Turk, submits not to viziers!

But Despo has not. Nor will Despo ever For vizier, Liakos has his sword; he has have the Turks for masters." his gun for pacha.”

She seized a torch in her hands, called her But the Turks prepared for him an am

daughters, and her daughters-in-law, buscade in a blind pass,

"Never be slaves to the Turks, my girls, And Liakos was thirsty and he went for- but follow your mother." ward sword in hand.

She set fire to the powder and every He stooped down to drink to refresh him

thing vanished away. self and they shot three times, First, in the back, and second, in the body,

And all the while these poor people, and third, and deadliest, in the condemned to live in this horror, with breast.

all that was wild and fierce in them His mouth filled with blood and his lips drawn to the surface and developed, with the poison of death.

were really a gentle, kindly race, who And his tongue murmured words. It mur

were devoted to their church, and loved mured and said, "Where are you, my brave boys? Son of the village dance, and the neighborly my soul, where are you?

gossip. The fiercest of the Klephts


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