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were not only good husbands and But Charon would not heed, Charon was fathers, but it was the very rarest thing determined to take him. for one of them to inflict either cruelty“Well, Charon, as thou art resolved-as or insult on the children or wives of

thou wilt take me, Turks who, in their turn, had wreaked Come! let us struggle together on this cruel wrongs on the families of the

stony ground.

If thou conquer me, Charon, thou canst Klephts. Indeed, the one or two Greek

take my soul: captains who did forget themselves in

If it is I who conquer thee, leave me and this fashion, found themselves dis

go where thou wilt." graced and deserted by their “palli. And they closed together, and struggled, kars," as the young following from morning until noon. them were called. While these fierce But towards the dining hour, Charon oversongs were, as it were, "singing them

threw the shepherd. selves" off the red heat of indignant and struggling freedom (for the author- husband and wife is touchingly drawn

Then the involuntary separation of ship of most of them is as unknown as

in the that of “John Brown's body lies mouldering in the ground"), sweet playful cradle songs were rising from Thy going away is misery: thy farewell is mother hearts, and pretty caressing

a death: love verses were passing to and fro But thy coming back will be a blessing, all among the young people. It is true tenderness and love. that many even of these domestic sub- Thou goest, and thou leavest me a jar of jects bear witness to the national an- bitter poison. guish by some pathetic turn of inci- I shall drink it at my morning meal, at dent or feeling. Take, for instance,

my evening meal, that of "The Herdsman and Charon."

All the time thou art away, until thou

shalt come again. One feels that the allegorical conflict

That stone which thou shalt tread as thou between the simple rustic and Death's

springest into the boat ferryman is true to the reality of many

I shall go and I shall search for it, and an unexpected conflict and defeat on

cover it with my tears." the wild hillsides.

"I go, and I leave thee my blessing, I

leave thee my faith." A slender shepherd runs down the mountain,

The last song we shall give, “The His cap on one side and his hair a-curl, Recognition," may have a peculiar in-And Charon sees him from the opposite terest, inasmuch as it is believed to be height.

a Cretan song. M. Fauriel, who dis. He descends to the valley, and awaits him covered it in the Cretan dialect, thinks there.

it is very ancient. In it, the long ab“Whence do you come, slim shepherd?” sent husband returns, steals by night

says he. “And where do you go?" I come from my flocks and I go to my

to his house, and at first his trembling home.

wife doubts his identity, and questions I come to look for my bread, and then I re- him:

turn." "And me, shepherd, God has sent me to “Who are you? What do you call yourlook for your soul.”

self? What is the name you go by?" "O let me live still, Charon, I pray thee; “I am he who brought you apples in my let me live.

handkerchief, I have a young wife, and to a young wife Apples and peaches and sweet grapes. I widowhood is bitter!

am he who kissed your red lips." -If she go gently, folks say she seeks a “But before I open to let you in, describe husband,

something in my courtyard." And if she go hardily, they call her in- “At the gate there is an apple tree. In solent.

the yard there is a vine. -And I have little children, whom I And the vine gives a white grape, and the should leave helpless.”

grape gives a good wine,

And whoever drinks that wine is refreshed Here we have him, in his latest apand asks for more."

pearance, not so much "guessing" in "You deceive me, you trickster, somebody his most superior manner “at the riddle

in the neighborhood has told you of existence” as-a much easier and that.

more self-satisfactory thing-criticising Before I open and let you in, describe me

those who have had the temerity to something that is in the house." "In the middle of thy chamber there hangs guess. But does he on his side need to a golden lamp,

guess? That surely is too dubious, too It shines on you as you undress, as you purely conjectural, a word to denote unfasten your buttons."

any process of a superior mind. It ad"You beguile me still, you trickster, mits too many possibilities, any one

somebody in the neighborhood has of which might be right. It is hardly told you that.

the fit term for the mental output of so Before I open the door and let you in, tell me something about myself."

caustic a critic of views past, passing, "You have a mole upon the cheek, another

or about to pass. The man who, as on the shoulder,

witn a wave of the hand or a sweep of And on your bosom shine the stars and the the pen, dismisses so much from the moon!"

region of the credible and reasonable "Run servants, run, and open all the has in a degree ceased to guess.

He doors."

has so defined the terms of the problem And then we know quite well all that that the solution must be of one kind, happened; for is it not written in our and not simply one from amid the own Scotch song “There's nae luck possible multitudes he had dismissed. about the house."

But though "guess" be the fit term for ISABELLA FYVIE MAYO.

him to use of another rather than of himself, yet what he has given us has so much of the old alertness that we read it with pleasure if without satisfaction, or the feeling that we have

been put somehow well on the way to a

From The Speaker. more happy reading of the riddle that GOLDWIN SMITH AND THE RIDDI E OF perplexes us all. EXISTENCE.

Of these essays, the one that gives its Professor Goldwin Smith is an inter- name to the volume is a criticism of esting, as well as a superior, person. Henry Drummond, Benjamin Kidd, He never speaks without giving us the and A. J. Balfour. It is done in Goldinstruction we need. His pen is sharp, win Smith's best manner, which is that his style is caustic with the synthetic of a very caustic exposition of their judgment. He plays the part of “the fundamental positions with the emphabystander" to more things than Cana- sis just slightly changed, or with cerdian politics; he watches the universe tain of their terms a little more highly from the coign of vantage he so hand- colored, just so to bring out the somely occupies and so thoroughly en

innate weakness or the hidden inconjoys. Knowledge in its onward march sistencies

or even gaucheries of their passes before him, and he duly regis- argument or theory. But, on the ters its speed and its progress. whole, this refutation by caustic Changes in belief he marks and analysis does not carry us very far. measures, and records his observations He is indeed right when he says: with a pen which bites like an etcher's “There can be no hope, apparently, of needle, and produces a picture so vivid laying foundations for a rational theas to be the despair of ordinary work- ology in any direction excepting that ers in black and white.

of the study of the universe and of 1 Guesses at the Riddle of Existence, and other humanity as manifestations of the Essays on Kindred Subjects. By Goldwin Smith, supreme power in that spirit of thorD.C.L. New York: Macmillan & Co.

ough-going intellectual honesty of


which Huxley, who has just been taken plaining how nature had come to be. from us, is truly said to have been an It was a purely scientific theory long illustrious example.” We need not dis- before it became a piece of theological cuss the "intellectual honesty” of evidence. Theology in that respect Huxley, or, for that part, of Huxley's stepped into an inheritance created by opponents. That is a quality which it science; and if it profited by its inis easy to deny to some, easy to ascribe heritance, was it to blame, or did the to others, but of which a man should be blame lie with the science that bevery jealous as to the reasons why he queathed it? The Argument from Deascribes it to one man and denies it to sign is known to the Socrates of the another. We should have said that “Memorabilia," but it is not known to Huxley had rather too much pleasure the Hebrew Prophets or to the writers in polemical dialects simply as polem- of the New Testament. And if the ics to be selected as typical of "intel- ology has assimilated evolution, who is lectual honesty." He had inimitable to forbid it doing so? Why should it skill in destructive argument; he had not? Science has been revolutionized rare pleasure in pursuing the men he by the idea; must not theology, if it is to regarded as the legitimate prey of his remain rational, accept the idea that syllogism or his dilemma. We are not lives in the air, that penetrates all quite sure that it would be “intellec minds and organizes all knowledge? tually honest" in a theologian to dis. The adoption of evolution by theology inter the exploded speculations of ought to argue not its impending death earlier biologists-say, men of the pre- but its continued life, its power, as it Darwinian age—in order that he might were, to know the times and the seause them as cudgels for the true be- sons and to expand with the expansion lievers in evolution; and, for our part, of the thought. We can quite allow we have never seen why men should the phantasies of Drummond, the undig up the crudities of earlier divines philosophical deductions of Kidd, the in order to prove that the ideas and be inconclusive dialectics of Balfour, to liefs of later are absurd, go. They play in theology exactly the heterodox, or how such a rather useless same part that the “guesses" at disproceeding should argue "intellectual covery-which we with becoming dighonesty."

nity, the subject being changed, call But, leaving that very personal mat. “hypotheses"-play in science. They ter aside, in what way do the show that theology, like other branches foundations for rational theology, as of knowledge, is more a search after Professor Goldwin Smith explains truth than the actual possession of the them, differ from those of the old nat truth it seeks. ural theology? What was that older But Professor Goldwin Smith is not natural theology save “the study of the contented with touching the riddle of universe and humanity as manifesta existence, so badly "guessed at” by the tions of the supreme power"? It erred men he so soundly drubs; he also proin a great number of ways, but mainly ceeds to discuss the relation between because it shared the erroneous ideas the Church and the Old Testament. It of its day as to the universe, its laws, is indeed a great question-many paand its mode of working. Nothing at tient scholars have worked at it, men one time afforded greater pleasure to of genius have inquired into it; and Huxley than to show how the old though Professor Goldwin Smith be as Argument from Design had perished, able as he is brilliant, it has not been though he never on this point fell into given even to him to deal with it exthe incredible stupidities of Tyndall. haustively or fairly, or-shall we say ? But theology did not create the Argu- --with complete "intellectual honesty” ment from Design; science created it. in an essay of rather less than fifty It grew up not as a way of proving that pages. Many things in this essay surGod existed, but as a method of ex- prise us. In a matter of literature we




readily defer to the professor, but we that Stoicism had in it not a little of are astonished to find that he thinks the Old Testament too; that Marcus that in the Old Testament there is Aurelius in particular embodied a monothing of "humor.” At least the only rality very cognate to the Puritan. exception he makes is "the grotesque But one thing that ought to be rememadventures of Samson among the bered both as regards the Calvinist and Philistines." Humor is not a Semitic the Old Testament is, that persecution quality. It is not a quality of any peo- does not tend to sweeten men; and ple in their intensest moments; still when they have for two or three genit is not absent from the Old Testa erations had to struggle for their life ment. The humor may be very grim, against a brutal power, it says somebut still there is humor in Elijah's chal- thing for the faith they lived by if they lenge to the Priests of Baal. The became fanatics for an idea rather than humor again may be very grim, but haters of their kind. We were not there is humor in Isaiah's account of aware that Paul treated the Fall of the man who makes a god, who pours Adam in Genesis as historical in the gold out of his bag and weighs silver same sense or manner as that in which in a balance, and hires a goldsmith: a too vernacular theology at one time “the smith maketh an axe, and worketh regarded it. The truth is, the Church in the coals, and fashioneth it with stands to the Bible very much as the hammers, and worketh it with his man of science stands to nature. strong arm; yea, he is hungry, and his Changes in the manner of conceiving strength faileth; he drinketh no water, nature mark the life and growth of and is faint;" yet he is equal to the science; changes in the manner of conmaking of the god. But most excellent ceiving religion mark the life and is the humor connected with the car. growth of religion. penter who “taketh an oak and shap- It would be a poor Church that was eth it after the figure of a man, accord- as good in the first as in the nineteenth ing to the beauty of a man, to dwell in century of its existence. It would be the house;" but of part of the tree he a dead religion that lived through a maketh a fire and warmeth himself at single century without feeling intellecthe fire, he baketh bread, and so of the tual change or reflecting the increased same material he makes a fire and a knowledge of its time. An analysis of god. The humor may not be as kindly what was once thought of the Old Tesor genial as that of our modern pro- tament in contrast to what is now fessor; but it is of a kind keen enough thought of it is a cheap sort of arguto please a Swift or a Thackeray. He ment when used to discredit either the tells us that “Judaism never reached Book or the Society that has done so the religious elevation of some chosen much for its exposition. The remarkspirits among the heathen world, such able thing about the criticism of the

Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Old Testament is that it has proceeded Epictetus." It is a curious choice. If so much from the religious mind. It Seneca had been Christian rather has been practically the work of men than a Stoic, we should have heard who have believed and because of their more of the contradictions between his belief, and these men could not but feel creed and his conduct. If Marcus that belief was made more reasonable Aurelius had been a converted rather by the changes they helped to effect. than a pagan emperor, we should have It would be worthier of a great histoheard a deal more of the martyrdoms rian to ask whether, if we are to “study for which he was responsible than of humanity as a manifestation of the the "meditations” that now deserve our supreme power," the Scriptures can be admiration and our praise. We are excluded from the study. Humanity is told that "Scotch Calvinism has in fact not an accident; yet more than any ethically in it not a little of the old other document the Scriptures have *Testament.” We should have thought contributed to the richer life, to the



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happier progress, to the better living of will see set up that Balkan Confederathe race. The incidents of which it is tion concerning which much has easy to make so much--the intolerance, been written? A century later, with the bigotries, the oppressions of the beginning of the second thousand churches—are not the expression of the years of the Christian era, may not the religious character, but of their want of Dream-Empire of the Balkans itself be it. They belong to the age, not the ushered in in "the garden of the world spirit which is working in and through made desolate" by four centuries of the society; and amid the forces that Ottoman oppression? Certainly the have been contributed by the Scrip- imperial idea is not dead in the Penintures to the life of humanity, one of the sula. Every evening, under

the greatest is a point touched, but not shadow of an old willow in Constanti. understood, by Professor Goldwin nople, a lamp is lit over the uncut stone Smith. Has he asked himself what the which marks the tomb of the heroic meaning of moral law as the highest Constantine, the last emperor of the voice of God in religion is? Nothing Greeks. To the Serbs the name of has contributed more to the growth of their Czar Dushan, who, exactly five humanity than the moralizing of reli- hundred years before our queen came gion; and that was a work which the to the throne, subjugated Macedonia moral law of the Old Testament first and Albania, is as familiar as that of began, and which the law of Christ the Bruce to the Scots peasant. Prince came in later to carry on to completion, Ferdinand of Bulgaria in calling his It is time we had done with the nig- infant boy Boris paid a tribute to the gling criticism that cannot see the influence still exerted over his people wood for the trees, and that we looked by the traditions of the ninth century, broadly yet keenly at the forces that in which the "Emperor of the Bulgamost make for the amelioration of rians and despot of the Greeks” occuman; and recognize that these stand re- pied the suburbs of Constantinople lated to the very books which Professor and reigned over the whole country. Goldwin Smith "a bystander" so Turning to tiny Montenegro, need one caustically criticises in detail, yet fails do more than mention the

name of to see in their concrete and corporate Prince Nicholas's drama, “The Embeing and work.

press of the Balkans"? As to the Roumanians, who that is acquainted with the speeches and articles of the politicians and journalists of Bucharest

will deny that the Emperor Trajan is From The Spectator. a name to conjure wiu? THE DREAM-EMPIRE OF THE BALKANS. “This federation of free States, des

The loyalty of the European Turks to tined to fill the gap that will be caused the ruler of the fragment of the Balkan by the dissolution of the Ottoman EmPeninsula still left to the Ottoman Em- pire," wrote Lamartine sixty years ago. pire is strained as it has never been The Turks might never have gained before. The Ethnikè Hetairia's bands their footing in Europe had Serbs, Bulare calling "the children” to arms in garians, and Greeks stood shoulder to Macedonia. Bulgaria is said to be shoulder in the Middle Ages. Can they uniting with Servia and Montenegro, be trusted to act together when their whose princes are already members of next great chance comes? The realizathe Panslavist League-in a minor tion of the Dream-Empire depends less Triple Alliance. Is it any wonder that upon the disposition of Russia and visions of a new empire of the Balkans Austria than upon the temper and are again floating through the minds of strength of the emancipated peoples politicians with imagination and an themselves. With regard to Greece, inclination towards "long views"? the world has had an excellent opporSurely, one hears it said, the year 1900 tunity of late of judging not only the


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