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national character but the military, deeds at Plevna and Sir Charles Dilke's naval, and economic resources of the declaration that it is not inferior to our State. Servia, the only Belkan prin- own furnish a sufficient indication of cipality without a seaport, is smaller its merits. even than Greece (area, five thousand With regard to unappropriated Tursquare miles less than that of Scot key, it comprises Albania (or rather land), but lords it in point of area over three Albanias, the Orthodox, the the Serb Montenegro, which is but half Catholic, and the Mussulman, which the size of Wales. In spite of heavy add yet another language to the Balkan taxes Servia is in straits for money. Babel), Macedonia, and the Adrianople Although possessing, like the brave district, and is probably the finest terrihighlanders of the Black Mountain, a tory from the point of view of scenery native ruler, the country has found its and of agricultural and mineral wealth monarchy burdensome in more ways (still undeveloped, of course) which the than one. Great politicians and news- Moslems have possessed in Europe. paper readers, the fidgety Servians fail The idea of the Confederationists has to impress their visitors as favorably been to create more autonomous States as the Bulgarians. As to the Servian (one of them conceivably Turkish), prearmy, it has hardly lived down the viously perhaps, cutting off certain memory of its humiliating defeat at the slices of country for the benefit of hands of Prince Alexander. Bulgaria Servia, Bulgaria, and Greece. But if (area, that of Scotland and Wales), "rectification of frontiers” once began, which shares with Roumania and what where would it stop? And how could remains of Turkey in Europe the Black a territory like Macedonia, containing Sea front, has always had friends in such a mixed population, form itself this country, and its affairs are well into a principality? At present the known. It is much less given to show rayahs of that part of Turkey yet to be than its northern neighbor; the prog- liberated are a prey to brigands, beys, ress which its young men from Robert and Greek ecclesiastics, the two latter College have achieved is real. In re working hand in hand. As to those gard to the language, a Bulgarian and whom Carlyle called "the peaceful a Servian understand each other, and Mongol inhabitants” their lot is such an educated Sofiote can read Tolstoi in compared with that of their fellowthe original without learning Russian. Mahommedans in Greece, Bulgaria, The largest and the least mountainous and elsewhere in the North (in Bosnia of the Balkan States is Roumania, be- and the Herzegovina, which were in a tween which and Bulgaria flows the pitiable state eighteen years since, a Danube. Alone among the peoples of paternal government even keeps the the most easterly of the Mediterranean number of lawyers down to sixteen!) peninsulas, two out of three of which that many of them are now probably are Latin, it uses a Latin dialect; and inclined to view the southern extension unlike Bulgaria and Servia, which are of the Christian States with resignapeasant States, it is blessed with an tion. To effect a modus vivendi with the aristocracy. In point of fact, absentee- local Turks may prove less difficult ism-along with the Jewish question, than to reconcile Greek, Bulgarian and is one of the government's greatest Servian territorial claims, and Russian difficulties. Agriculturally, Roumania and Austrian interests. Concerning might be one of the richest countries in Constantinople, is its acquisition by Europe; M. de Laveleye's judgment, Greece, Bulgaria, or Servia really re"the Roumain is brilliant, intelligent, garded as a serious question in Athens, less given to work than to spend, with Sofia, or Belgrade? Is it not to the out foresight, always ready to run into Ægean, rather than to the Bosphorus, debt to gratify the whim of the mo- that Servia and Bulgaria, and Greece ment"-points to the source of weak- as well, despite "the great Hellenic ness. As to the Roumanian army, its idea," direct their eyes? However this



may be, why should Russia-with her way in which the Planar has joined new "Secret Treaty" too-consent to hands with the sultans in oppressing forego her claims? If the Russian the peoples and Churches of the peninclaims did not exist, would Europe re- sula which employed other languages frain from insisting on making Con- than Greek. No doubt, too, we have stantinople a free and neutral port failed to give an adequate notion of the under Senate? With regard to way in which different

and Austria and Salonica, no one seems to creeds are inextricably mingled in have considered the matter in the light Macedonia and elsewhere.

We may of its probably coming up for settle- also have insufficiently emphasized the ment at a time when the firm hand of attractions which Constantinople pos. the Emperor Francis Joseph will be no sesses for Russia, the reality of her inlonger guiding the destinies of the dual terests there, and the extent of the inkingdom, when Magyar protests fluence which, taught by experience, against further additions being made she is likely to exert, first, over Bulto the Slav population of the empire garia (now that Stambouloff is gone), may have weight, and when it might and, second, through Servia and Montebe thought a wise defensive measure to negro. Moreover, no allowance has form a strong and friendly Servia by been made for the unexpected, which helping her down to the sea, as well as is always happening in the Balkans. by handing over to her those Orthodox And leave can hardly be taken of the portions of Bosnia and the Herzego. Dream-Empire without a word about vina, the peoples of which now draw its emperor. Who should he be? The their inspiration from Belgrade and Servian princely stock is hardly likely Cettinje. On this last point Mr. Thom- to produce the man; Montenegro is only son, in his fresh and interesting book a Duchy in the Confederation; it is imon “The Outgoing Turk” (Heinemann), probable that Bulgaria would accept quotes appositely Gibbon's remark on the rule of the Greek royal house, or the Emperor Aurelian's abandonment that Greece would approve of a Bulgaof Dacia: "His manly judgment con- rian czar. Roumania is left. The vinced him of the solid advantages, Italians and the Germans found their and taught him to despise the seeming emperor in their "farthest north." disgrace of thus contracting the Would the peoples of the Balkans, if frontiers of the monarchy.” Should the Federation were ever constituted, the Austrians (and the Jews, who are do the same? in great strength in Salonica!) not press their claims, there is saying to whom the city will fall. The Bulgarians (whose pretensions in Macedonia were of course fully acknowledged in

From The Saturday Review.

“THOSE WHO LOVE ALLAH!" the abrogated Treaty of San Stefano)

Junes Effendi, divisional may prove to have the strongest backing.

mander, it seems, in the Turkish army But it is a far cry from this squabon the Thessalian frontier,

not bling over the division of a territory known to fame until the beginning of which is so far from being available for this war. It has fallen to him, howdistribution that at the moment it is ever, to crystallize into a few words, being held down by the full strength shouted aloud above the din of battle, of the Turkish army, to the coming into the great fact which once again being of the Dream-Empire of the fronts Christian Europe—the existence Balkans. And how many thorny ques. in unimpaired strength and spirit of tions have been calmly ignored in this the Turkish fighting man. article! Not a word upon the religious The incident which led Junes Effendi question, upon the bitter feelings enter to make his little speech to the men of tained against Greece on account of the his division is contained in the ac.








counts of the fighting in the Malouna the Turks, through the ruined village, Pass telegraphed to London by the cor- up the Russian slope. A terrific infanrespondents of Reuter's Agency and of try tire opens upon them. It is clearly the Daily Mail. Here it is, as given in impossible for them to advance up to the Daily Mail:"

the earthworks; but, clinging to the hill "For thirty-six hours the Turks in two steadfast lines, they hold their fought, without sleep, food, or drink. ground. And when night fell they Soldiers could not be

severely were still on the hillside. We could tested. And yet they responded cheer- see the flashes of their rifles the fully to every call of their officers. now dark background, making a belt Towards evening two battalions of of fire along the slope. An aide-deJunes Effendi's division, dusty, faint camp is sent to fetch them back. “We ing, and battle-worn, were ordered to are all right,' said the officer in comcharge the Greeks with the bayonet. mand. "We can hold on here all night.' Junes Effendi knew his

He A more peremptory summons was stepped forward and shouted to them, sent, and at last they came back. 'I "Those who love Allah will advance have never seen such devoted braragainst the infidel!' With irresistible ery,' said Valentine Baker to the enthusiasm the men dashed forward. writer; ‘anything could be done with They swept down the hill in order. such troops if those who handle them Even the mule-drivers and the men of knew how to do it.' The battle of the baggage-train joined them in a Cherkovna was a defeat for the Turk; wild frenzy of patriotism"--and car- but it afforded ample proof of the unried the position at the point of the daunted valor of the Turkish private bayonet.

soldier." Just twenty years ago the writer of That was in 1877, when for so many this article, then also

corre months the Turks withstood the whole spondent, was standing at the edge of power of Russia and Roumania. No

Bulgarian hillside watching the one who was present with the Turkish varying fortunes of a desperate battle armies during that stupendous -the last which was fought by Me- paign can ever lose the impression hemet Ali's army in the attempt to re- there formed that the Turkish soldier lieve Plevna-and he wrote of what he –Nizam, Redif, Mustafuz-is a saw as follows:

fighting man of the first order. Those "From a spur of the ridge we had a who thus knew him smiled, therefore, complete view of the battle-field. The when, not long ago, the Turkish army bare hill opposite, held by the Rus on the frontier of Thessaly

desians, lay immediately before us, and scribed as being "ragged, badly shod, we could see their gunners blazing and ill fed.” Ragged? But beneath away from six earthworks. Suddenly the rags are healthy bodies and limbs, there is a movement in the hollow be- untouched by disease, hardened by hind our central battery; the two col- strict and austere abstemiousness, umns massed there, who have been so strengthened by a lifetime passed in patient under the ricochet fire of the the open air. Badly shod? What of Russians, advance steadily. As they that if with feet wrapped in strips of reach the top of the slope the bugle linen, and shod with rough sandals, the sounds, the columns open out and the man can march thirty miles day whole line with a fierce shout of 'Al- without getting footsore? Ill fed? lah! Allah! disappears over the brow. But can a man be said to be ill fed We ride forward to watch. A tremen- when he has what he wants, what he dous salvo of artillery greets the ad- is accustomed to—a handful of rice or vancing Turks; the side of the slope is beans, and a bit of bread, with a scrap shattered and torn by bursting shells, of meat added, if possible? On such and we see scores of gallant men roll- fare, with water for his drink, the ing down dead or wounded. Down go Turkish soldier will march and fight













for months together, content with his Junes Effendi knew how to let slip his rags and his rations, and not clamor- dogs of war. ing for pay. Was not Valentine Baker It is interesting to observe that, to right in saying that such men, well led, judge from the reports of the would do anything? That

the spondents with the Turkish army, the great want in the Turkish army of Turkish army in the field is behaving 1877–leaders. With the exception of itself properly in the moment of vicOsman of Plevna, there was hardly a tory. We have not heard of any mursingle general on the Turkish side dering of the wounded or mutilation of worthy to command such magnificent the dead. Is it the influence of the material. This cry for leaders for the German instructors of the Turks that Turks was echoed, years after, by Mr. has eradicated the strong propensity to S. Lane-Poole when he wrote: “There commit these barbarities? I think not. are some who believe in a great Mo- The propensity is there, must be there, hammedan revival with the Sultan still. The slaying of

enemy, Khalif at the head-a second epoch of wounded or not, and especially of Saracen prowess and a return to the Christian enemy, is a pleasure to good days when Turks were simple, Oriental; the mutilation of his body is sober, honest; men who fought like no atrocity. Originally the heads of lions. There is plenty of such stuff in the slain were cut off by the victors for the people still; but where are their the convenience of counting. The leaders?” The question finds more modern Osmanli has simply inherited ready answer now than it did twenty the habit from his ancestors. It is peryears ago. There are leaders for tue fectly natural to him to cut off the Turks now, thanks to the creator of head of a dead enemy. Strange, therethe modern Turkish army, His Im fore, does it seem to us who saw the perial Majesty the German emperor, hideous deeds of 1877 to read in the who has done more for the “Moham- papers of to-day that the Turks after medan revival” than any other man. their victories in the Malouna Pass Captain Lebrun Renaud of the French “treated the Greek dead with reverarmy, who

has made the military ence, and laid them in the shade." We power of Turkey a study, says of it:

can hardly believe our eyes as we read “Every day the Ottoman army is mak- it. ing serious progress; it is recruited

Here by way of contrast is an with regularity; it is well armed; its tract, from a stained and battered notemaneuvres are based upon correct book of 1877, under the date "Kararules;

railways enable its hassan, September:"rapid mobilization; it is in

“During the assault on the village of condition to meet eventualities from Karahassan Nedjib Pasha, who comwithout."

manded the main attack, was standing “Eventualities from without”-in beneath a tree. His victorious battalplain English, the possible partition of ions were raging through the streets, the Turkish Empire. None know bet- maddened by the desperate defence ter than the German officers who have offered by the Russians. Suddenly one assisted in the reorganization of the of the soldiers ran out of the ranks Turkish army since 1880–Koehler and holding aloft the head of Russian Kamphoevener, Von Hobe, Ristow, impaled on his bayonet. Schilgen, and Von de Goetz--how 'God is great, pasha! he shouted, splendid is the fighting material which making straight for Nedjib. “Behold is the mainstay of the Turkish Empire; the head of an infidel!' those ragged Nizams and Redifs who

“Then, lowering his rifle, he drew the go into battle mocking at death, curs- head off against his foot and left it ing the Giaour, and breathing the name there on the ground in front of his of God. “Those who love Allah will commander as a war offering. Nedjib, advance to the attack of the infidel!''

a humane and enlightened man, turned





away with an angry exclamation of on high, and with a fierce cry of ‘Aldisgust; whereupon the soldier, nowise lah! Allah! went on like a madman abashed, promptly ran his bayonet down the blazing street." through the head again, brandished it





How Russia Amuses Itself.-If I too; but it is played very languidly and were asked to state what a Russian unscientifically. schoolboy does with his spare time Well do I remember a scene at the after working hours are over, I should custom-house some years-a good many be much puzzled what to say.

years, I fear-ago! I was a schoolboy Unfortunately young Russia has not at the time, and had arrived from Enthe faintest glimmering of knowledge gland in order to spend the of the practice or even of the existence holidays in Russia. Among my of such things as football, cricket, fives, impedimenta a box of croquet rackets, golf, athletic sports, hockey, or paraphernalia which I had been comany other of the numerous pastimes missioned to bring out for an English which play so important a part in the resident. At that time the game was life of every schoolboy in this merry as yet unknown to the country, and the land of England. Therefore there is no custom-house authorities opening question, for him, of staying behind at the box retreated in horror and alarm the school premises after working when they beheld its awe-inspiring hours, in order to take part in any contents. Instruments of assault, game. He goes home; that much is cer- bombs, mysterious weapons of every tain; most of his time is loafed away, kind were contained in that awful box that, too, is beyond question. He may not one of them would go near it! skate a little perhaps, in the winter, if Amid exclamations of warning and he happens to live near a skating horror I drew forth one of the bombs ground, but he will not go far for it; and placed it upon the ground; then a and in the summer, which is holiday second; to the accompaniment of cries time for him from June till September, of terror and consternation I took from he walks up and down the village the case a terrible weapon (known to street, clothed in white calico garments, croquet players as a mallet), and to the or plays cup and ball in the garden; inexpressible alarm of all present I fishes a little, perhaps, in the river or commenced a little exhibition game of pond if there happen to be one, and croquet upon the floor of the customlazies his time away without exertion. house in order to demonstrate the uses Of late years “lorteneece," as lawn- of the various implements. As the tennis is called in the czar's country, hoops could not well be utilized on the has been slightly attempted; but it is wooden boards these innocent articles not really liked; too many balls are lost, were gravely suspected. I believe the and the rules of the game have never officials took them to be boomerangs of yet been thoroughly grasped. A quar- a novel and peculiar description, and tet of men will occasionally rig up their the whole box was consequently denet which they raise to about the tained for further and fuller investigaheight of a foot and a half, and play a tion. I believe they sunk it in deep species of battledore and shuttle-cock water and sent down a scientifically over it until the balls disappear; but it disposed diver to inspect it in safety. is scarcely tennis. As a matter of fact My friends got their croquet set a Russian generally rushes at the ball eventually, but the balls bore marks and misses it; on the rare occasions of careful testing; those officials had when he strikes the object, he does so felt sure they were bombs, and had with so much energy that the ball, un- done their very best to convict them of less stopped by the adversary's eye, or containing dynamite.-F. Wishaw in his partner's, disappears forever into Chambers's Journal. “the blue." Croquet is a mild favorite,

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