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Ah, tell him I'm seeking still
Over the hills and far away.
NORA HOPPER. mournful chime, Where flowers are fading over new
made graves; But go where human effort steadfast
standsComfort the weak hearts, help the willing hands.
TO THE WOOD-ROBIN.
The wooing air is jubilant with song,
And blossoms swell
The dusky dell,
Where Silence, late supreme, foregoes her Uphold the righteous will, the high de
wonted spell. sire. Let morning suns on deeds of duty fall
Ah, whence, in sylvan solitudes remote, These be your tears and my memorial.
Hast learned the lore
The woodlands o'er;
the quickening shower?
Some Changes in Social Life During the Queen's Reign. 499 From The Nineteenth Century.
insisted upon his sons dining with him SOME CHANGES IN SOCIAL LIFE DURING in pantaloons and black silk stockings. THE QUEEN'S REIGN.
A folding chapeau bras, for opera bats I do not contemplate touching on the had not been invented, was always carscientific progress, the literary achieve. ried under the arm, for nobody but an ments, or other higher matters of the apothecary or a solicitor would have Victorian epoch, but the recollections dreamt of leaving his hat in the hall of one who saw the Coronation process of the house where he was calling or sion from Lord Carrington's house in dining. Whitehall, which exists no more, and White gloves were always worn by who, when six years old, ran a race men at a party, but those who dined with the great Duke of Wellington of course took them off, and Dicky from Walmer Church to the castle, Doyle used to say that it endowed them may afford amusement to those of a wita conscious superiority, which younger generation, who may be inter prevented the desired amalgamation ested in noting the changes that have between those who had dined and crept almost imperceptibly into our those who had come in in the evening social life.
to form a tail to a dinner. Men wore On one occasion, when present with a their hair much longer in those days contemporary at a pretty little play at than now, falling over their collars, and the Princess's Theatre, called "Sweet their whiskers drooped, hearts," I remarked to my friend on the bostrakized, according to the fancy of out-of-date costume of the hero, and the wearer. But no
unless an wondered why he was so dressed. officer in H.M. cavalry, ever ventured “Cast your mind back," he said, “only in pre-Crimean days to wear a beard to 1850, or thereabouts, and you will or moustache. The Duke of Newcastle find that was the way you and I used was the first man of any note who to dress at that time." And it was wore a beard; and Lady Morley used true. A pair of dove-colored trousers to say the advantage of it was that you with two fluted stripes down the sides, could tell all the courses he had eaten and buttoned under the foot with broad at dinner in consequence. straps of the same material; the boots, I will not attempt to deal with the of course,
wellingtons, which ever-changing fashions of female atwere sine quâ non with a man of tire, which in the queen's reign have fashion in those days; a coat so high in varied from the poke bonnet and the the collar that the back of the hat spoon bonnet, the white cotton stockrested on it. Indeed, every hat had a ings and the sandalled shoes, through crescent of cloth on the back of the the cage period to the pretty fashions. brim to prevent the rubbing of the of the present day. A vision arises bebeaver, or imitation beaver, of which fore me of what we considered the sethe hat was made, for silk hats were ductive beauty of ringlets, the side: not then invented. The scarf, never combs and plaits, then the hair parted folded less than twice round the neck, in the middle and plastered tightly over like a waterfall, bulged out from a the forehead and ears, then the hateful double-breasted waistcoat, cut very chignons, then the hair torn rudely low, and was ornamented with two from the forehead, then the fringes "by pins joined with a gold chain. In the hot irons falsely curled or plaited very evening we wore a blue coat with tight tight at night." sleeves and brass buttons, and a waist- In the early days of her Majesty's coat of flowered or, brocaded silk. reign peers drove down to the House of Black trousers, fastened by straps Lords in full dress, with their orders under patent leather pumps, had just and ribbons, and bishops wore episcothen achieved a final victory over light pal wigs; Bishop Blomfield, who died colored kerseymeres or nankin panta- in 1857, being the last to do so. Lord loons. As lately as 1862 Lord Derby Strafford recollected seeing his uncle,
the famous George Byng, M.P. for white pipe-clayed cross-belts, large Middlesex, going down to the House white woollen epaulettes, and in sumof Commons dressed in tights and black mer white duck trousers. A black boy silk stockings; and Disraeli tells us how in scarlet pantaloons with a gold kickLord George Bentinck on one occasion ing strap, playing the cymbals, accomattended in boots and breeches, his red panied the Guards' bands. They were coat partially hidden under what was of course armed with the old musket called a surtout. Hessian boots were called “Brown Bess," and were cleanly common; the last man to wear them shaved. Then the tunic was adopted was Mr. Stephenson, a commissioner of as the Infantry uniform. The MetroExcise, well known in London society, politan police, with their tall hats and who wore them to the day of his death swallow-tail coats, had been organized in 1858. It was not till 1867 that mem- before the queen's accession, but it was bers came down, to the horror of Mr. for many years after the old watchmen, Speaker Denison, in pot hats and shoot with their rattles and drab great-coats, ing coats. And now, in 1897, Cabinet existed in provincial towns, and made ministers ride to their parliamentary night hideous by screaming out the duties on bicycles in anything but full hour and the state of the weather. dress. In a charming sporting book Parish beadles, as depicted in "Oliver published in 1837 I find all the sports. Twist,” still flourished in their large men dressed in blue or brown frock cocked hats, their gold embroidered coats and high hats.
coats, and plush breeches. As all the pictures of the coronation Orders, decorations, and medals were show, the Life Guards wore bearskins very few. The Peninsular medal was on their heads, till these were super- issued in the year 1849, and then only seded by the Roman helmet with red to officers, thirty-five years after the horsehair tails over their necks. At a campaign had closed. When medals dinner party once an argument arose were first issued to private soldiers, it as to whether the Blues did or did not was denounced in the House of Lords wear pigtails at the Battle of Waterloo. prostitution of public honors. One elderly gentleman said they did, Queen Victoria has in her reign enand quoted himself as a good authority, larged or instituted no less than fourbecause as an Eton boy he had seen teen orders. Of course the old orders that famous regiment reviewed at of the Garter, the Thistle, and the St. Windsor by the king on their departure Patrick have existed from early times. for Dover. Another of the guests said The former was beloved by Lord Melhe ought to know, because he was a bourne, because, he said, “there was no midshipman on board the transport damned merit connected with it." The which conveyed them across the Chan- Order of the Bath has been changed nel, and he was positive that they did from one grade to three, and the Statnot wear them. The argument grew so utes were extended, and Volunteers are warm that the host wisely turned the now eligible for the honor. The Order conversation; but, being interested in of St. Michael and St. George, origithe question, he went the following day nally a Maltese Order, has been ento an old friend of his who had served larged during the present reign. in the Blues at Waterloo, and told him 1. The Victoria Cross, of the dispute that had arisen the pre- 2. The Star of India, vious evening at his table. “Both your 3. The Victoria and Albert. friends were right,” he said. "We 4. The Empire of India, were reviewed at Windsor by the king 5. The Albert Medal, on our departure with our pigtails on, 6. The Nurses' Medal, and at Dover we had them cut off be- 7. The Distinguished Service Order, fore our embarkation."
8. The Jubilee Medal, The Foot Guards wore swallow. 9. The Victorian Order, tailed red coats with white facings, are all the creations of this reign.
Decorations and stars and medals have cumbed to the aggressive inroads of become very common, and the value swells and mashers. But, ah! those set on them has naturally decreased. dear dandies of my boyhood, with their There are now twenty-seven medals. triple waistcoats, their tightened There is one for every campaign. Our waists, their many-folded neckcloths, commander-in-chief is a Knight of St. and their wristbands turned back over Patrick, a G. C. B., a G. C. M. G., has the their coat sleeves—all have departed; Legion of Honor, the Medjidieh, the the most beautiful, genial, and witty of Turkish medal, the Osmanlieh, the them all, Alfred Montgomery, who was bronze Star of Egypt, and seven in the queen's household at the time of medals, and, according to the present her accession, passed away only the fashion, wears them at official parties. other day. How fresh seems to me the On such occasions I do not remember memory of his kindness, from the time the Duke of Wellington wearing any when I first saw him as secretary to order but that of the Garter or the Lord Wellesley at Kingston House, Golden Fleece.
seated at breakfast at 11 o'clock in a The late Lord.Clanwilliam was one brocaded dressing-gown and slippers day struck by seeing a civilian deco- of marvellous work and design, to the rated with a ribbon and star, and last days of his life! How often he and asked who he was. No one could tell Lord Adolphus Fitzclarence took me to him, until at last he ascertained the the play and gave me oyster suppers wearer was our ambassador at Paris. after it! How often he drove “Then,” said Lord Clanwilliam, “if all through the park in his cabriolet with a man gains in diplomacy is that no- its high-stepping horse, the tiny tiger body should know him on his return, I hanging on by his arms behind! All shall resign my diplomatic career"- are gone now, and it does not do to look and he did.
back too earnestly on the past; the Before the queen came to the throne sunlight on it is apt to make one's eyes macaronis and bucks had vanished, water. In those days, and down until and dapper men had made way for the fifties, the Italian Opera House, dandies.
which at the queen's accession was
called "Her Majesty's," was in its Dandies, to make a greater show,
glory. The pit, which occupied the Wore coats stuffed out with pads and floor of the house, gave access to the puffing.
boxes, and was appropriately called But is not this quite à propos ?
“The Fops' Alley." Here Rubini, For what's a goose without its stuffing?
Mario and Grisi, Lablache, and later on Grantley Berkeley till his death Cruvelli, Sontag, Alboni and Jenny boasted of his pugilism, and in the Lind, delighted audiences as fashionfifties he delighted in wearing two or able as those which now again fill the three different colored satin waistcoats grand tier of Covent Garden; and the and three or four gaudy silk neckcloths ballet with Cerito, Taglioni, Fanny round his throat. And as late as 1842, Ellsler and Rosati, adorned an art Lord Malmesbury tells us, Mr. Everett which, alas! has now degenerated into wore a green coat at a dinner party at a taste for vulgar breakdowns and Lord Stanley's. At this time Lord tarara-boom-de-ayes. The theatres Cantalupe, Count D'Orsay, Lord Adol- were at this time few and the prices phus Fitzclarence, and Sir George low; impecunious young men of fashWombwell were essentially dandies ion in my early days used to take adand arbitrators of dress and fashion; vantage of half price and the dress Charles Greville and Frederick Byng, circle, for stalls had not then destroyed who was always called the “Poodle,” the pit, to hear the Keans, the Keeleys, were the police and the terror of the and Buckstone, while Rachel and young men and the fashionable clubs. Ristori satisfied the lovers of tragedy. Now the reign of the dandies has suc- Vauxhall, with its thousands of little. oil lamps, was at its zenith, to be suc. Now the fashion has disappeared, exceeded by Cremorne, and then by cept at dinner, and there has sprung up various reputable and dull entertain- an odious habit of indiscriminate handments at South Kensington. At this shaking morning and evening, in seatime there was no public place or club son and out of season, and another where a lady could dine, and I recollect fashion, worthy of a table d'hôte, of asa most respectable peer of the realm signing to each guest the place where who, on expressing a wish to dine in he is to sit at dinner. I wonder why the coffee-room of the hotel in which the bolder spirits of the younger and he was staying with his wife, was told impecunious generation have not risen by his landlord that he must get a in revolt against this interference with third person to join their party!
individual liberty of choice which used The glory of Crockford's had de- to be theirs. parted before I came to London in 1851, Lady Granville once remarked that, and a restaurant doomed to failure had in her younger days, nobody in polite taken its place. But St. James's was society ever mentioned their poverty full of fashionable “Hells,” the Cocoa or their digestion, and now they had Tree Club being the best known. It become the principal topics of converwas here that one Sunday morning the sation; and if society was then vigiwitty Lord Alvanley saw two mutes lant in ignoring all allusion to money standing at the door. “Is it true,” he and to commerce, we have now gone said to them, “that the devil is dead? far in the contrary direction. Everybecause, if so, I need not go to church body quotes the prices of stocks and this morning.” For in those and even shares, and I have lived to see the day later days, pageantry pursued even when a youthful scion of a noble and the dead-mutes standing at the dead distinguished house produced from his man's door for a week, hearses with pocket at dinner a sample bundle of black plumes of feathers, black silks to show how cheaply they could cloaks and gloves, and long hat. be bought at his establishment. streamers of silk or crape, according to Wine circulars with peers' coronets the relation of the mourner to the de- pursue me weekly; and I can buy my ceased, and hatchments — properly coal at 258. a ton from wagons ornaspelled achievements—hung over the mented with a marquis's coronet. door for a year.
Almack's flourished, where it was Mr. Banderet, the old proprietor said that fashion, not rank or money, of Brooks's Club, recollected when the gave the entrée. Society was so small packs of cards used there were reck- that Lady Palmerston used to write in oned by scores a night. Now cards are her own hand all invitations to her parnot called for at all, except sometimes ties, and Lord Anglesey used to have in on the occasion of a rubber at the meet- his house in Burlington Gardens a ings of the Fox Club which are held slate, where anybody who wished to there. In the early forties, long whist dine might write down his name; and with ten points to a game was still so circumscribed was the fashionable played; and now I am told that even world that there was always in each short whist is being supplanted at the season one lady who was recognized Portland and Tufts Clubs by Bridge by society as par excellence the beauty whist, écarté, and bézique.
of the year. The polka had just been Early in the reign, people at large introduced, about 1843, and Augustus country house parties used to go in to Lumley and William Blackburn arbreakfast arm-in-arm, and no lady ever ranged the days of all the fashionable walked with her husband except bras parties and balls in London, and prosous bras. Friends always walked arm- vided lists of all the eligible young in-arm, and the country neighbor al- men in that small and exclusive ring. ways made his entry into a party arm- Lady Blessington's salon at Gore in-arm with his wife and daughter. House, where D'Orsay, the "Cupidon