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And I long for the choir of skylarks, for

the coo of the mating dove, What if your heritage be

For the liquid note of the throstle's throat, The huddled trees along the smoky ways;

or the songs of the land I love; At a street's end the stretch of lilac sea; The vender, swart but free, Crying his yellow wares across the haze? For the hum of the mighty cities, for the

faces which come and pass, Your verse awaits you there;

For the voice of Spring when streamlets For Love is Love though Latin swords be sing, and the murmur of life in the rust;

grass; The keen Greek driven from gossiping mall and square;

For the sweet, sweet breath of the beanAnd Care is still but Care

fields, the scent of the fresh-turned Though Homer and his seven towns are

sod, dust.

For arms which wait by my cottage gate.

and the bells which cry to God. Inus Beauty lasts, and, lo! Now Proserpine is barred from Enna's

I am

man, and the world is mighty. hills,

Should I die thus alone outcast, The flower she plucked yet makes an April Would my soul in the end find the soul of show,

a friend, and win to its love at last? Sets some town sill a-glow,

CLIVE PHILLIPPS-WOLLEY. And yours the Vision of the Darodils.

Pall Mall Magazine.

Victoria, B. C. The Old-World folk knew not More surge-like sounds than urban win

ters bring Up from the wharves at dusk to every

spot; And no Sicilian plot,

More fire than heaps our tulips in the

In the merry month of May,

In a morne by breake of day,
Forth I walked by the wood-side,
Whenas May was in his pride:
There I spied all alone
Phillida and Corydon.

Much ado, there was, God wot,

He would love and she would not. Green-grey is the sea of sage-brush, grey- She said never man was true, green as a winter sea,

He said, None was false to you, Grey-green are the hemlock and cedar,

He said, he had loved her long, and grey is the heart in me,

She said, Love should have no wrong,

Corydon would kiss her then. The forests are armies of giants, dumb She said, Maids must kiss no men, giants. Here no birds sing,

Till they did for good and all: Here dance no lights with the shadows;

Then she made the shepherd call no ivies or clematis cling.

All the heavens to witnesse truth,

Never loved a truer youth. The mountains

haunted, silent.

Thus with many a pretty oath,
Words die on the lips unsaid;

Yea and nay, and faith and troth,
The wolf is grown fearless with hunger;

Such as silly shepherds use
Hunger wheels on wide wings over-

When they will not love abuse

Love which had beene long deluded,

Was with kisses sweet concluded. I crawl towards the far horizon: an atom

And Phillida with garlands gay, drifting through space,

Was made the lady of the May. Past the bones and the buffalo wallows, by the trails of a vanished race.




From The Nineteenth Century. ley, or any other man acquainted with “THE INTEGRITY OF THE OTTOMAN EM- the history of the Eastern question; for, PIRE” AS A DIPLOMATIC FORMULA.

as I desire to show in these pages, “the

integrity of the Ottoman Empire” is a Lord Salisbury's admirers, and they phrase which has borne many different are to be found in both parties, have meanings, and which may fairly be used long been constrained to admit that, by an English statesman without giving with all his great qualities, he suffers just cause of offence to anybody. But from one curious infirmity. It has pur- it is one thing to use this phrase in the sued him from the very beginning of his sense in which it is nowadays emdistinguished public career, and it will ployed by most diplomatists, and quite apparently cling to him to his latest day. another thing to refer to it as the prinIt is the infirmity which, nearly thirty ciple upon which British policy rests, years ago, was described by Mr. Disraeli the very foundation-stone, as it were, in the House of Commons with that of that policy, and of our duties and biting sarcasm which he loved to em- purposes in the East. British policy, pioy against friends as well as foes. in the belief of the great majority of the Stated in less severe language than Mr. people of these islands, ought to rest, Disraeli's, Lord Salisbury's weakness and does rest at this moment, upon the may be described as his habit of using maintenance and advancement of hurash and dangerous phrases. Its latest man freedom throughout Europe; and, illustration was found in his astounding as everybody recognizes the fact that reply to Lord Kimberley two weeks ago, the rule of the sultan of Turkey is a when he referred him to the statement standing menace to all freedom, it is of M. Hanotaux in the French Chamber difficult to reconcile Lord walisbury's as containing an exposition of the policy acceptance of the statement of the of her Majesty's government. It is very French ministers with the popular conprobable that when Lord Salisbury ception of our national policy. gave this unprecedented answer to a But did the prime minister really inquestion addressed to him by his pred- tend to convey the meaning which Lord ecessor in the office of foreign secre- Kimberley has read into his words, and tary, he had not even read the full text is the phrase upon which the latter fasof the speeches in the French Chamber, tened, thoughtless and ill advised and based himself upon nothing more though it undoubtedly was, as misthan the telegraphic summaries in the chievous as many of Lord Salisbury's English newspapers. But even these critics profess to believe. summaries should have put Lord Salig- To both these questions the answer bury on his guard against the indiscre- ought, I think, to be in the negative. tion into which he fell. The principal No mistake can be greater than that statement which made by M. which we shall make if we try to strain Hanotaux and M. Méline was that the the language of the prime minister in policy of France “rested upon the integ- order to find in it some excuse for faultrity of the Ottoman Empire;” and it finding. Men are naturally of course was to this statement that Lord Salis- prone to put the less rather than the bury committed himself by his answer more favorable interpretation upon the to Lord Kimberley.

public utterances of their political oppoIt is not surprising that many Lib- nents. But the temptation to do ihis erals, including Lord Kimberly himself, is one that we are bound to resist with should have been stirred by amazement all our strength at moments like the and indignation when they received this present, when the prime minister explicit declaration as to the character stands not for a party only, but for the of the policy of their country in eastern nation as a whole, and when he has it Europe. A reference to "the integrity in his power, no matter what may be of the Ottoman Empire” ought not in the wishes of his opponents, to commit itself to have disturbed Lord Kimber the country to engagements of the most


serious and, it may be, of the most justly had ten years or twenty years disastrous kind. At such times the ago used language so absolutely opduty of a patriotic opposition is not to posed to that which is now adopted as imagine causes of offence on the part the shibboleth of the ardent spirits who of the prime minister, but to make quite have been leading the present agitation sure that real cause of offence exists in favor of the Greeks. But even ten before offence is taken. To some years is a space of time sufficient to Liberals at all events (who are not less justify a man in changing his opinions truly Liberals because they have not on many questions; and considering been able to join in the movement of that ten years ago Mr. Gladstone was "the Forward Party" and similar the minister who used towards Greece bodies) it seems that this sound doc- the very measures of coercion against trine has been forgotten by many of which he now declaims so eloquently, it their friends during the present crisis. may be unwise to trust in the present Lord Salisbury has been accused of fol- crisis to his utterances of 1886 on the lowing a "dishonoring policy," when no subject of the integrity of Turkey. It proof that he has done so has been will be simpler and more satisfactory forthcoming; and the government has to cite his declarations in the letter to been severely censured for its acts when the Duke of Westminster which deals we are still without any clear informa with the existing crisis anu is dated so tion respecting the nature of those acts. recently as the 13th of March, 1897. Tnis, surely, is inconsistent alike with Deploring the fact that what he calls patriotism, common sense, and fair “the rent and ragged catchword of “the play. If Lord Salisbury really meant integrity of the Ottoman Empire all that some persons assume by his should still be flaunted before our eyes,” references to "the integrity of the Otto- he proceeds:man Empire,” it will no doubt be impossible to deny that the censures which Has it, then, a meaning? Yes, and it have been heaped upon him by many had a different meaning in almost every

decade of the century now expiring. In Liberals are well deserved. But I contend that a reference to the facts and to the first quarter of that century it meant

that Turkey, though her system was the best authorities must suffice to poisoned and effete, still occupied in right show that when the English govern- of actual sovereignty the whole southment uses this phrase it does so in a

eastern corner of Europe, appointed by the sense which is far from justifying the Almighty to be one of its choicest portions. angry protests that have been raised in In 1830 it meant that this baleful sormany of our Liberal newspapers, and ereignty had been abridged by the exon all our Liberal platforms.

cision of Greece from Turkish territory. The first and greatest of the authori- In 1860 it meant that the Danubian ties who can be cited to dispose of the Principalities, now forming the kingdom

of Roumania, had obtained an emancipaallegation that "the integrity of the

tion virtually (as it is now formally) comOttoman Empire” means the mainte

plete. In 1878 it meant that Bosnia, with nance of the rule of the sultan wherever Herzegovina, had bid farewell to all active that integrity is respected, is Mr. Glad

concern with Turkey, that Servia was enstone. Good service has been done in larged, and that northern Bulgaria was the present crisis by the untiring per- free. In 1880 it meant that Montenegro tinacity with which the Daily News has had crowned its glorious battle of four presented its readers with copious ex- hundred years by achieving the acknowltracts from the utterances of Mr. Glad- edgment of its independence and obtainstone in former years on the subject of ing a great accession of territory, and that the concert of Europe and the integrity 1886 it meant that southern Bulgaria had

Thessaly was added to free Greece. In of the Ottoman Empire. Some of my been permitted to associate itself with its fellow-Liberals must have been more

northern sisters. What is the upshot of than a little surprised when they found all this? That eighteen millions of human that the leader whom they revere so beings, who a century ago, peopling a large part of the Turkish Empire, were subject facts mentioned above, innumerable to its once paralyzing and degrading passages from the writings and yoke, are now as free from it as if they speeches of eminent members of both were inhabitants of these Islands, and that political parties, living and dead, to Greece, Roumania, Servia, Montenegro, show that the adoption of this phrase and Bulgaria stand before us as five liv- does not mean that the man using it ing witnesses, that, even in this world, the

thinks of bolstering up the blood-stained reign of wrong is not eternal.

rule of the sultan, or has in his mind And all these triumphs for the great any intention, however remote, of keepcause of freedom have been won undering within the power of that tyrant a cover of the phrase "the integrity of the single human being who is able to Ottoman Empire!" Surely it is made escape from it. But, after all, Mr. Gladclear, upon no less an authority than stone is most deservedly the one suthat of Mr. Gladstone, that the use of preme authority on this question, and this phrase does not by any means im- his description of the practical effect of ply that the hateful rule of the sultan is the phrase "the integrity of the Ottoto be maintained along with the “in- man Empire” ought to be conclusive. tegrity” of the empire. But Mr. Glad- It ought certainly to prevent such a misstone might have gone further if he conception of the use of the words by had been pleased to do so. In October, Lord Salisbury as that which unhap1881, I myself heard the herald in the pily seems to prevail at present in the porch of the palace of the bey of Tunis minds of many of my fellow-Liberals. proclaiming the fact that Tunis was "The integrity of the Ottoman Emand would forever remain a portion of pire” is I take it, a formula which is the Ottoman Empire. Yet at that very accepted by the diplomatic world as a moment a French army was occupying convenient fiction under cover of which Tunis, and the bey was no better than a deeds may be done that would hardly prisoner in the hands of M. Roustan. be possible if it were to be dispensed Tunis, as everybody knows, is now vir- with. In itself it means no more than tually a French province; yet it is quite is meant by the Norman-French phrase, possible that the old proclamation is familiar to frequenters of the House of still made at sunset from the marble Lords, which converts acts of Parliasteps of the palace, and that the faith- ment into the law of the realm, and ful still believe that they are in some which does so avowedly because “the mysterious fashion connected with the queen wills it.” We do not live under caliph. “The integrity of the Ottoman an autocratic government because this Empire” has not prevented Cyprus from very autocratic phrase must be used bebeing administered by officials of the

fore the decisions of Parliament can British crown, and did not enable the become law; and when men talk about sultan to carry out his intrigues against the “integrity of the Ottoman Empire" British supremacy at Cairo. In short, they do not, by doing so, commit themthe fact remains beyond dispute that selves to the maintenance of the sulwhilst this phrase has been in the tan's rule. mouths of European statesmen and But why use a formula which means diplomatists during many decades, the nothing, and which is therefore calwork of reducing the power of the sul- culated to mislead? I imagine that the tan and the geographical extent of his

a swer to this question is that when rule-“consolidating" that rule it was the Great Powers use it they seek to called by the ingenious Lord Beacons- convey to each other their resolve not field-has gone on almost without inter- to enter upon a sudden scramble for the mission, and certainly without any spoils of the Turkish Empire in which hindrance whatever from the employ- each will consider nothing beyond his ment of this formula.

own selfish interests. It is intended, in It would be easy to cite in support of other words, to attest the existence of a Mr. Gladstone's authority and of the self-denying ordinance. We have seen

how much has been done to reduce the incidents of the hour, especially as they sultan's empire in the past under cover are presented to us in the public press, of this phrase; and there is no reason increase the excitement, and probably why the phrase should not remain until cause us to vacillate in our own judgthat empire itself has vanished from the ment. In the midst of the hurly-burly sight of men. But if it does remain, it produced by the highly colored rumors will mean that the final destruction of transmitted by correspondents who are this colossal iniquity has been accom- probably themselves partisans, and plished under the sanction of European who, under the influence of prejudice, law, and with the aid of that concert often create impressions very far reof the Great Powers to which Mr. Glad- moved from the truth, and, to say the stone alludes as “an instrument inde- least, not diminished by the cominents scribably valuable where it can be made of rival editors or the heated and unavailable for purposes of good." The satisfactory discussions in Parliament, petty formula which is despised by it is not easy for level-headed men to some, and to which others attach a maintain a perfectly reasonable attigrotesquely exaggerated significance, is tude. after all the slender tie that holds to- Yet there seldom has been a crisis gether the concert of Europe, and pre at which this was more necessary. It vents, or at least delays, the dreaded is appalling to think of the consestruggle, not among the rightful heirs quences which might result from one of the sick man, but among his jealous false step on either side. The tendency and covetous neighbors, for his in- is to look too exclusively at the possiheritance. This being the case, it is bilities of some unguarded word or surely a mistake to aggravate the sus- deed lighting the flames of war and inpicions with which this country is con- volving all the peoples of Europe iu stantly regarded by her Continental untold misery. This danger cannot rivals, by allowing the latter to suppose easily be exaggerated, but it would be that we are trying to shake ourselves folly to allow it to blind us to the peril loose from the slight verbal restraint which is probably more remote, but which diplomacy has imposed upon the certainly ought not to be left out of selfish ambitions of the Great Powers. account, of purchasing present immuWe shall not be less free to hate the nity at the cost of even more wideblood-stained tyranny of the sultan, spread and even more terrible evil in and to put forth every effort to save his the future. victims, whether they are to be found The Turkish power is a curse to huin Crete or in Asia Minor, if we abide manity which must sooner or later be by this particular figment of diplomacy, removed. If it be possible, it must than we should be if we were to cast surely be much wiser, in view espeit aside, and in doing so were to con- cially of the many vexed and thorny vert the sullen suspicions of our rivals questions which must be raised by its into open hostility.

overthrow, to bring that removal about WENYSS REID.

by a process of sapping and mining

rather than by a direct and violent II.

attack. But in the adoption of It is not often that a public question this indirect method there is need for arises on which there is so much need constant watchfulness and care, lest for the exercise of self-restraint as that something be done which may serve to with which we are at present con- strengthen the system whose ultimate fronted in the East. Our sentiment all destruction is demanded in the interpoints in one direction, but no sooner ests of humanity and progress. do we allow it to shape our policy than It is reassuring to think that the rereason suggests practical difficulties sponsible leaders of political parties in which compel us to pause and recon- this country are agreed as to the true sider our decision. Besides this, the objective of British policy. Lord Salis

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