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among the great Spanish prose-writers and most costly books and manuof the present day; some of his histori- scripts. cal articles for instance, the descrip. Don Praxedes Mateo Sagasta, the tion of the battle of Rocroy-are mod- leader of the Liberal party who, since els. Cánovas is also an admirable par- the Restoration, has alternated with liamentary speaker, and a charming Cánovas in the direction of the gor. conversationalist whose language is ernment, is older than his rival. But, characterized by grace, intellect, and in spite of his seventy years, he, too, wit, terseness of expression and depths rejoices in the full vigor of his intelof thought.

lectual faculties. Impartiality de Cánovas, who is now more than mands the acknowledgment of the to hear Cánovas' speeches loses a great great skill with which Sagasta, who pleasure and a rare advantage.

sprang from the Revolution, has Cánovas, who is now more thau adapted his party to the Restoration sixty years old, has retained the full and the Regency, and later succeeded freshness of his rich mental powers. in rendering himself almost indispeuHis head is massive, his face, though sable to a government for whose overthe features are not regular, is pleas- throw he formerly labored. Sagasta ing and expressive, and the gleam of has many political foes, but scarcely a his thick, silver-white hair lends it single personal one. His disposition is special brilliancy. Cánovas' voice is affable, amiable, and frank, his manas well preserved as his hair-fresh, ner is kind and cordial, his good-natur: clear, and resonant, it sounds like a and integrity are proverbial. He was youth's. In matters of dress, he dis- born in La Rioja; his profession is plays a philosophical indifference. It civil engineering. While he lacks the is said that he once sent one of his sec- taste for literature and learning which retaries to his tailor to try on a suit, Cánovas possesses in so marked a de. instead of going himself. Notwith gree, he has, on the other hand, great standing this indifference to the arts of knowledge of human nature and the toilet, Cánovas was always a spe- understands the art of directing large cial favorite of the fair sex, and hail bodies of people and making himself the good fortune to win the love of one popular with them. Endowed by naof the most beautiful and admired la- ture with unusual oratorical talent, he dies at court, Señorita de Osma, and perfectly comprehends how to repremake her his wife. Señora de Cáno- sent his cause in Parliament and steer vas' dark, brilliant complexion has the skilfully past threatening cliffs. Нов delicacy which we are accustomed to thoroughly Sagasta was equal to the admire in Creole women. Her charac- demands which the political situation ter, her purity of morals her extensive of Spain imposed upon him, is shown knowledge, her great social tact, and by the fact that he won over to his her choice literary taste render her ap. party a large number of men of noble parently created to be the life-com- birth. Among those who joined Sapanion of a man whom we cannot im- gasta were the bearers of the historic agine united to a

who held names of De Fernan Nuñez, Samames, aloof from his aspirations. La Huerta, Medina Coeli, and Alba. During the the superb palace, surrounded by a first years of the Regency Sagasta was leafy park, where the Cánovas live, is extremely popular, and it was at this the resort of the most talented and time that the ladies of Bilbao received prominent representatives of learning him with kisses of the hand and gifts and of the nobility; at the entertain- of flowers. ments which are given here, the con- At present, since the skirmish in Meversation relates to literature more lilla and the disturbances in Madrid, than to politics. One of the principal his star seems to be declining, for the objects of interest at La Huerta is the system of government represented by great library, which contains the rarest him, which is expressed by the French



motto: “Laisser faire, laisser alles," beard, and features agitated and transhas not proved practicable under exist- figured by passion, suggests an Araing circumstances. There is no lack of bian prophet or a dervish. able men in Sagasta's party-one need We must recognize the perseverance cite only the names of de Moret, Ga- which these two Republican leaders mazo and Maura-but it is entirely de- display in remaining at the head of a ficient in a well-planned, accurately party whose following is daily dimindefined programme of government, ishing. Both are authors of merit; Pí carried out with energy and persever- y Margall is a scholar and a historian, ance. If everything in Spain had pur- Salmerón writes philosophical studies, sued its normal course, Sagasta's sys- to which so few people in Spain devote tem of government would perhaps themselves. have been suitable but, in the pres- As for the Marquis de Cerralbo, the ence of conflicts, the discovery was champion for years of the Pretender's made that a strong power with a defi- cause, he can boast of having given the nite aim was necessary. In dress and strong and apparently indestructible style of living Sagasta affects an ex- Carlist party, which formerly had aggerated simplicity. Hence, a few purely military organization, a strucyears ago, it was reported in Madrid ture adapted to periods of repose and that the members of the Liberal party peace. If we turn from the French intended to join in presenting their Legitimists, the adherents of

the leader with a new hat, as the one he Stuarts in England, and the partisans wore could scarcely fulfil its purpose. of Dom Miguel in Portugal, we shall Like Cánovas, he has never sought to find that history affords no second exobtain titles of nobility for himself or ample of persistence which can equal the members of his family. Vanity that of the Carlists, who have awaited has no place in the character of Sa- the coming of their Messiah for more gasta who, when he has retired froni than seventy-five years. This party the premiership, regards himself as has cost Spain three civil wars, God only a plain citizen. His constitution grant that a fourth may not follow. is not strong; his complexion shows Cerralbo's party leadership is adthat he has a bilious temperament and versely criticised in no quarter, Don the accident which he met with a few Carlos's choice could have fallen upon years ago—a fracture of the leg-seems no worthier person. The Marquis de to have considerably impaired his Cerralbo, who possesses marked orastrength.

torical talent and has the reputation of The two leaders of the Republican being an excellent archeologist, beparty-Pí y Margall and Salmerón- longs to the oldest nobility of Spain, is are the greatest contrasts imaginable. a millionaire, a good Christian and a Pí y Margall is called el hombre de hielo model courtier. (the man of ice) and Salmerón might The leader of the Carlist parliamenbe named el hombre de fuego (the man tary minority which, a short time ago, of fire). Pi's speeches, delivered in a resolved to take no farther share in the quiet, indifferent tone, are exactly the sessions of the Cortes, is Vasquez de opposite of Salmerón's, who utters ev- Mella, a fiery, tireless speaker, who, at erything with emphasis and Southern the time of the election of the Cortes, vehemence. The difference in their during his journeys through

the physical traits is equally great; Pí y Basque provinces, Navarre, and CataMargall is an old man with snow- lonia, often spoke three times a daywhite hair, a fresh complexion, and a morning, afternoon and evening. mysterious smile; one might imagine Don Francisco Silvela, the leader of him to be the work of a Byzantine the malcontents in the Conservative sculptor or an astrologer of the Middle party, is distinguished by the elegance Ages. Salmerón, in the prime of life, and accuracy of his style, and has also dark-skinned, with coal-black eyes and been engaged in literary pursuits.



I fear that these political silhouettes Ced, has been numbered among the may appear somewhat monotonous, members of the Republican party. since the history of great orators con- At the head of the malcontents of stantly repeats itself. But this can- the Carlist party, who call themselves not be changed; for in Spain success in Integristas, stands Don Ramón Nocepolitics is dependent upon success as a dal, an ambitious dreamer, who for speaker and author. Political life de- many years has renounced allegiance velops in the Cortes, and there—as in to Don Carlos de Bourbon, and refused former days among the Greeks and to support his pretensions to the SpanRomans—the victory belongs to the ish throne. Instead he has proclaimed best orator. Parliamentary habitués, himself a sort of monarch and summus and literary amateurs, rarely miss a pontifer, and by the diffusion of his session if they know that one of the political ideas, which far surpass the great Knights of the Tongue will claims made by the Traditionalists, speak. Each has his special qualities, has roused to fanaticism the poor his special style, his special mode of mountaineers of the Basque provinces delivery, which cannot escape the lis- and Navarre. To these people, who teners. Cánovas's discourse is de- give him unlimited confidence and imtailed, resolute, overpowering, but not plicit faith, he preaches, a second John wholly free from sensitiveness, Knox-only with the difference that he which is especially noticeable in lan- himself does not believe in the truth guage otherwise so virile; Sagasta is as of his words—that Liberalism is the crafty and persuasive Ulysses; greatest evil on earth, a far greater Romero Robledos is impetuous, win- sin than murder, robbery, and adulning and convincing his auditors; Sil- tery. vela is Machiavellian, a master of par- In spite of the enthusiasm of these liamentary tactics, who also under- fanatical people, Nocedal has been unstands how to use heavy artillery able to obtain a seat in the last legislaagainst his opponents; Salmerón is en- tures. There can be no doubt that his ergetic, almost aggressive in his mode hopes and expectations have vanished of speech; Nocedal wily, a combina- into nothingness, and that he will tion of layman and theologian. neither succeed in establishing an ad

The politicians of Spain, much as solute monarchy in Spain under Maria they may resemble each other, when Christina, nor in becoming himself seen from the distance, on closer in- president of the theocratic republic spection leave nothing to be desired in with the Inquisition and what belongs point of diversity.

to it in its train. In the Federalist Republican party, It is said that he aspires to become Pí y Margall has for an opponent the president of the Cortes, whose present Marquis de Santa Marta, at the head presiding officer, Don Alexandro Pidal, of the revolutionary group. He is a has understood, as no other politician grandee of Spain and descends from has done, how to reconcile the Catholic an ancient family, to which also be- ideas so deeply rooted in the hearts of longed that Guzman el Bueno, who the Spanish people, with the inevitable surpassed William Tell by throwing consequences

of the vicissitudes the Moors over the wall a knife which, since the beginning of the ninewith which to kill his son, instead teenth century, have permitted Spain of surrendering to them the city no peace. Pope Leo XII. has repeat. whose defence had been entrusted to edly expressed his appreciation of the him.

successful exertions of Pidal, the Such contrasts--a grandee of Spain founder of the Unión católica party, leader of a party contending against to the great indignation of the ultra the monarchy-are not rare in this integristical adherents of Nocedal, country. Another nobleman, the Mar. who would have been best pleased to quis de Albaida, a descendant of the see Pidal and his followers on the scaf





fold, clad in sambenito- and coroza ?? but daily writes articles for Spanish and expected, at the very least, that they foreign papers and periodicals. This would receive the anathema as heretics. reveals most plainly the thorough in

Don Emilio Castelar has been inten- tegrity and unselfishness of this tionally left until the last. The sil- The pattern of a good son and brother, houette of this man who has retired he also clings to his friends with loyal from politics, or to express it more cor- affection. He who fêted and rectly, the conspicuous figure of this overwhelmed with applause by all Eufamous statesman is known through- rope does not know what self-conceit out all Europe. With him a brief pe- and pride are. riod of brilliant, artistic eloquence was His residence contains an immense inaugurated, and with his exit it came quantity of gifts and offerings from to an end. His voice, which has done his admirers; paintings, statues, furniso much for the creation of modern ture, table ware, to say nothing of gasSpain, is silent. Therefore I will not tronomical dainties,

rish and speak of the orator, and only briefly of choice sweets which the nuns in the the politician Castelar, of whom the provinces, especially, send him. words uttered by another famous He travels a great deal and somestatesman and poet, the Vicomte de times retires into the country to comChateaubriand, might be fitly spoken: plete greater literary labors *The Restoration believed me its foe, quickly and be able to rest for a time and it has been overthrown; I must from the wearing life in Madrid. His share its fate. During the years which great genius reveals itself in conversaare still allotted to me, I will seek no tion which can be compared only with new adventures.” Only Chateaubriand Cánovas's. To listen to a colloquy besays of the Restoration what Castelar tween these two old friends and politiwould say of the Republic; Chateau- cal antagonists is a pleasure worthy of briand meant the Restoration based on Attic days, and I scarcely believe that the new ideas of libertyCastelar even at the famous dinners toward the would allude to the Spanish republic close of the eighteenth century, shortly based upon the ancient traditions. If, before the French Revolution, the talk as many fear, the events and vicissi- could have been wittier or more inteltudes of fate should some day again lectual. bring Spain into the same situation in I will add the following item to Caswhich she found herself twenty-five telar's biography: Just before his years ago, when the Republic was pro- birth a gypsy is said to have prophclaimed, all friends of order would in- esied to his mother that the son whom stantly turn their eyes to Emilio Cas. she would soon give to the world was telar, the more so because he resolved destined to be one of the great men of to resign his popularity and his posi- the earth, and perhaps some day, tion as a party leader, and retire into would become pope. private life, rather than to render the Castelar has not entered the service already difficult situation of his native of the church, but all who have land still more complicated by remain- heard him agree that never did he ing.

speak with

fervor or greater Castelar, who has been the supreme earnestness, than when his themes head of the government and, endowed were religious observances, the Virgin with unrestricted power, has held in Mary, and the magnificent Spanish his hands the destiny of bleeding and cathedrals. Every Sunday in Madrid, trembling Spain, lives plainly in sec- so little disposed to religion and devoond story apartments, keeps car- tion Emilio Castelar can be seeni, riage and horses, works arduously, and prayer-book in hand, wending bis way

to church. 1 A sort of scapulary worn by those condemned by the Inquisition.

EMILIA PARDO BAZAN. Translated for : Cap of persons sentenced to death.

The Living Age by Mary J. Safford.






fluous for our present purpose.

Now From The Spectator.

tell me-considering that you want THE MARRIAGE MARKET.

your daughter to marry-would you We once ventured to assert in these like her to marry a rich man or a poor pages that the day before the end of one?-a plain answer, please.”—“Oh, the world two subjects would be sure well, if I knew neither of the men, I to be under universal discussion,-one suppose I should say a rich one. I've was “the degeneracy of manners dur- seen so much unhappiness come from ing the last thirty years," and the other poverty, and Agnes, though you “the badness of modern servants." We wouldn't think it to look at her, is so depicted, that is, man's last word on very careless about money,-she has mankind as “The younger generation twelve pairs of shoes, all quite smart, don't know how to behave" and and bought two more pairs last week; "Where will you find any servants like and what she would do as a poor man's the old ones?" We ought to have wife I can't conceive. Oh, I beg your added a third,—the complaint that the pardon. · Yes, certainly I should feel fashionable world is nothing but a mar- more happy if she married a rich man." riage market in which unfortunate "Very well," our female Socrates would girls are exposed for sale to the high- continue, "we have arrived far. est bidder by their cruel, heartless, and You want your daughter to marry avaricious mothers.

It was

grave rich man. Exactly. Now, I suppose oversight to have left out that ex- you will admit that when people tremely hardy perennial among com- desire a certain thing, and are ansplaints, ancient and modern. There ious it should happen, they take never was an age in which the mar certain steps to carry out their object, riage market accusation was not made-do, in fact, what they can to bring again and again, and there probably about the fulfilment of their desire. never will be one. It would be prepos- Even wild animals do so, do they not? terous to expect otherwise. As long as How much more a reasoning being like marriage remains one of the most im- you, Mrs. Bowling? We may assume, portant, if not the most important, then, that you take steps to bring event in life, and so long as men and about the marrying of your daughter, women prefer being rich to being poor, which you desire, and also of her marso long parents will be accused of sell- riage to a rich man. Now, as to these ing their daughters and of opening a steps. I should like to ask you marriage exchange in their drawing whether you did not persuade Mr. Bow. rooms. It is easy enough to see how ling to leave Bowling Hall last winter the accusation arises. A female Soc- and take a large house in Eaton Place rates would not have the slightest dif- and give three dances, because you said ficulty in proving out of her own there were no young men in Fallop. mouth, to the mother of a marriageable shire, and that it not fair on girl that she anxious that her Agnes, and that the poor child would daughter should marry a rich man, and never make a nice marriage unless you that she took her daughter out to balls did, since, in spite of her good looks and parties, etc.,-put her in che shop and your position, nobody married window, in fact-in order to get her a really well except they made friends in husband. “Do you wish your daughter London; and did you not add that the to marry ?” would be the first question idea of a girl with her looks and birth of the Socratic spinster.-"Yes, I do," marrying a country solicitor like Mr. would be the reply. “Tom and I have, Tebbs or a doctor like young Brown on the whole, been very happy, and I was utterly preposterous ?"_"Well, sup. don't think old maids are ever


I did, it "That is enough, thank you! please an- -"Please, please, I did not want you swer my questions plainly and don't to explain, only to admit the fact that give any reasons, they are quite super- you did give parties in order that Agnes






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