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an amount of unfriendliness on the part vanished. No man of ordinary sense of Americans which in England has ex- now denies that either polity may, accited at least as much surprise as pain. cording to circumstances, be a legitiThe controversy about Venezuela, the mate and a beneficial form of governmode in which that dispute was sprung ment; each is compatible with order, upon the world by President Cleveland, with freedom and with progress. No the indifference, not to say the hos- writer or theorist exists insane enough tility, of the Senate to the Arbitration even to desire the foundation of a monTreaty are in every one's memory; nor archy at Washington, and few are the is it wise or reasonable to suppose Republicans of America who would that expressions of hostility to England wish to see an elective president seated represent nothing but the recklessness on the throne of Queen Victoria. The of politicians. Politicians are reckless existence of slavery combined with the and unprincipled, but in their rashness visible imminence of the irrepressible and in their self-seeking there is a conflict between North and South was method. They aim at pleasing their con- till past the middle of this century stituents or their party. If an Ameri- fatal to any scheme for strengthening can senator denounces any attempt to the ties which bind together Englishguard against war with England he men and Americans. But slavery is believes his invectives will be ap- now as unknown throughout the United plauded in the state which he repre- States as throughout the British Emsents. He may be mistaken, but he is pire. The memories further of the conassuredly as good a judge of the opin- test between England and her colonies ion of his constituents as can be his have passed away, and what is more English critics. It must therefore be important, we can look upon the strug. supposed that at this moment there are gle in a way different from the way in large bodies of Americans who are un- which it was regarded by our grandder the influence of feelings unfriendly fathers and our fathers. We all of us towards England. It may therefore be now know that George III. and the naargued that for the present, at least, tion who supported George III. were we may well set aside all attempts to not consciously bent on a policy of tyrdraw closer the ties between English- anny. The king, his supporters, and men and Americans. My reply is that his opponents believed, almost without in matters of permanent policy we must exception, that the independence of the distinguish carefully between the colonies involved the ruin of Englaud. passing feeling of the moment and This was an error, but in judging men's the true tendencies of

the time. actions we must allow for their deluMonths years count for little sions. The Englishmen, moreover, who in the annals of great followed the policy of their king, held tion, and if we look at the lasting ten- as we now know, with truth, that durdencies of the age we shall conclude ing the earlier part of the War of Inthat the time is opportune for the for- dependence, England was supported by mation of a common citizenship. a large amount of colonial loyalty. The

Both England and America are at mistake of the English Tories was that present strong and prosperous. On they engaged in a conflict wherein sucneither side could it now be alleged cess was impossible and victory would that a step towards union was made by have been a disaster. But their mothe one country or the other because it tives were not mean or in themselves needed aid or protection. The moral blameworthy. They resembled greatly obstacles again, which in past times the motives which actuated the polhave kept the two branches of the En- icy of Lincoln. He believed, and glish people apart, have been swept in his

with truth, that the away by the current of events. The rebellion could not be suppressed fancied opposition between a republic and the unity of the country be preand a constitutional monarchy has served. That he saw facts far more





truly than did the Englishmen who against recourse to arms. The Arbitracontinued year after year the conflict tion Treaty, whether it pass through with the colonies, is certain, but Ameri- the Senate or not, is still a sign of the can patriotism need not hesitate to al- influence exerted by the friends of low that the sentiments which actuated peace. The approval of such a treaty the northern states of America during by the ministers of the queen and of the War of Secession were not alto- the president is of itself a declaration gether unlike the sentiments which ac- that the moral feeling of the whole Entuated Englishmen and their king dur- glish people condemns armed conflict ing the War of Independence. In En- between England and the United gland, on the other hand, we can now States much as it would condemn a see that the American colonies pursued civil war. By a singularly happy cointhe path dictated to them both by duty cidence the leaders of every party in and by expediency. Separation of one England have given pledges of friendkind or another was inevitable, and in liness towards America. The treaty many ways it was well for both coun- which closed every question connected tries that separation was not much with the ill-starred Alabama was the longer delayed. But patriots on both work of a Liberal ministry, but was carsides the Atlantic may legitimately re- ried through with the aid of a leading gret the terms on which the separation Conservative statesman. The last two took place; and even as things stand the references to arbitration have been needless war of 1813 must be to any sanctioned by the whole nation, and Englishman a more reasonable sub- the attempt, whether it succeed at the ject for regret than the inevitable con- moment or not, to form a permanent test between the mother country and arbitration court, will remain one of the colonies. Let us further note that Lord Salisbury's lasting claims to the despite the displays of unfriendliness gratitude of his country. Look at the which have recently startled English- matter from whichever side you will, men, the permanent tendency of events and it will become plain to a reasonable is clearly in favor of the maintenance and calm observer that the permanent of peace between England and Amer- set of events tends strongly towards ica. Any one will see that this is so

peace. who calmly surveys the thirty years Nor is it possible to omit one circumand more which have elapsed since the stance which specially favors the atclose of the War of Secession. On tempt to form a civil union of the three successive occasions the govern- whole English

The personal ments of England and of America character, no less than the political achave, with the full approval of their tion of the queen throughout her reign, people, referred national disputes to ar- has in every part of the United States bitration. If the transactions with re- surrounded the name of Victoria with gard to Venezuela have an ugly aspect, popularity, with respect, and, one they still, if their effect is to be fairly might almost say, with reverence. To understood, must be looked at as a us in England, used as we have been whole. Now, when President Cleve, during the last sixty years to the perland's language seemed, whatever its fectly smooth working of constitutional intention, to threaten war, it soon be- government, the private character of came apparent to the most bellicose of the sovereign seems, erroneously I bepoliticians that the moral sentiment of lieve, to be a matter of little public mothe United States no less than of En- ment. Amongst Americans there pregland was offended by the idea of an vails a different, and probably a truer, appeal to arms. There is no need to notion. They attach, at any rate, underrate the hostile feeling of some great value to the display of domestic considerable number of Americans; virtues in high places. Americans, too, but it is of great importance not to un- believe, and not without reason, that derrate the weight of the protest the queen rendered to the United


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States a service of inestimable value at of the future. Under the federal rethe very crisis of their fortunes. The public of America an attempt has been modifications suggested by Prince Al- made to develop the popular and dembert, and insisted upon by the queen in ocratic side of English ideas, and, the language of the despatches de above all, to form society which manding the surrender of Sliddell and should be free from all the political and Mason, were all intended to save the moral confusions originating in feudaldignity of the republic. They certainly ism. That English constitutionalism facilitated the yielding to demands or that English republicanism will which, though just would otherwise ultimately turn out a complete success have been made in too imperious is more than any prophet will have the tone.' Whoever realizes the immediate boldness to predict. It is well, howresults in 1861 of a war between En- ever, that both the experiment of degland and America will feel that both veloping English ideas on conservative countries owe much to the intervention lines and the experiment of developing of the crown, and that it is right that the same ideas on democratic lines Americans should feel, as they should be tried. For a fair trial of doubtedly do feel, the greatness of their each experiment the political indepenobligation to the queen. Isopolity, it is dence of the United States was certain, could hardly be proclaimed essential condition, but, as I have alunder happier auspices than under the ready insisted, the political indepenreign of Queen Victoria, and the union dence of America, as of England, is in of the two branches of the English peo no way affected by my proposal. The ple in the bonds of common citizen- evils of a separation which was neces. ship would be far more difficult if the sary, and even beneficial, were first the occupant of the English throne should temporary hostility of kindred peoples ever happen to be a sovereign who had meant to live on terms of friendliness, no special claims on American regard. and next the dissolution of a cominon

The word “union” is, indeed, hardly citizenship which ought to have been the right description of a policy which carefully preserved. These evils would aims not so much at the union as to the be removed by a system of isopolity reunion of the English people. Its ob- which would depend for its very existject is nothing less than to preserve all ence on the permanence of peace, and the good and to undo all the evil which would make every member of the Enhas flowed from the severance between glish people a citizen of every country England and her colonies. The na- belonging to any branch of the English tional independence of the United people. Nor are the ideas which underStates has been a benefit to mankind. lie the proposal for a common citizen. It is well that the two divisions of the ship in reality novel. No sooner was English people should have developed the war between England and her colEnglish ideas of good government in onies over than even the men who had two different forms. Under the consti- struggled most manfully or most obsti. tutional monarchy of England we have nately to maintain English sovereignty, retained the conservative aspect of En- perceived that political severance ought glish institutions; we have shown that to be counteracted by a moral it is possible that ancient forms may unity. Let Englishmen of to-day read be so developed and modified as to suit with care the words of George III. admodern times, and that much of what dressed to the first representative of is good in obsolete institutions may be the United States accredited to the quietly carried over to a new society crown. It is the most striking king's which meets the wants of to-day, and speech on record:may, it is to be hoped, meet the wants

I was the last (said George III.] to con1 See Martin's “Life of the Prince Consort," sent to the separation; but the separation

having been made, and having become in


pp. 421-426.


evitable, I have always said, as I say now, its ultimate form. But one kind of inthat I would be the first to meet the friend- terest the British public do seem to feel ship of the United States as an indepen- in regard to painters, an interest andent power. The moment I see such alogous to that which they feel in resentiments and language as yours prevail

, gard to royal personages. The puband a disposition to give to this country licity of the exhibition catalogue, like the preference, that moment I shall say, let the circumstances of language, religion, that of the court circular, gives to those and blood have their natural and full whose names are mentioned in it a poeffect.

sition of notoriety, unaccompanied by A. V. DICEY.

any further information about them, which piques the many-headed curiosity. The dear public would like to know what the artist eats and drinks,

whether he swears at his models, how From The Edinburgh Review. his house is furnished, and any other PAINTERS BEHIND THE SCENES.1 details they can get at about his private There was perhaps never any pe- life. Hence the popularity, in second-rate riod when attendance at picture exhi- magazines, of “illustrated interviews" bitions was so fashionable an amuse- with artists, with photographs of their ment as it is in the present day. Pri- dining-room, drawing-room, and studio, vate views of exhibitions, large and the latter probably introducing the figsmall, keep recurring in London all the ure of the artist "at work on his celeyear round, except during the dead sea- brated picture,” etc. Hence the publison of autumn, and always cation, on thick paper and with large crowded; and if we may say of one margins, of somebody's record of his half at least of the large private-view doings “In Bohemia with Du Maurier,” audiences, "veniunt spectentur ut in which the practical jokes of the aripsæ," it must be admitted that at the tist and his comrades, the nicknames Royal Academy, the specially hall- they called each other, and the caricamarked emporium of Art, the attend- tures they drew of each other, are solance during the first two or three emnly put on record. The fun, if not weeks of the paying days are as large very refined, was innocent enough in it. as those at the private view. To the self; the crime lies in publishing it. majority of these visitors the painters Hence, again, the publication of the of the works which they crowd “Reminiscences" of living artists, which look at year after year but appear to be certain of sale

in the catalogue; nor do that one can only praise the reticence they ever care, so far

and self-denial

those popular judge, to learn what behind artists who have not made the production of this or that picture, of this contrivance for capturing what was its motive in the mind of the the pence of the public. The litartist, what were the difficulties he erary or artistic value of the reminishad to contend with in bringing it into cences may be infinitesimal—that is of

no consequence; the people have been 11. Life and Letters of Frederick Walker in the habit of seeing an artist's picA.R.A. By J. G. Marks. London: 1896.

tures on the walls for many years, and 2. Ford Madox Brown: a Record of his Life and Work. By Ford M. Hueffer. London: 1896.

they want their curiosity gratified by 3. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: his Family Letters. hearing him talk, no matter how or on With a memoir by W. M. Rossetti. London: 1895.

what subject. 4. Jean François Millet : his Life and Letters. For those who take their pictures By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Henry Ady). London:

more seriously, and in respect of those 5. Pen and Pencil Sketches. By Henry Stacy

pictures which can be taken seriously, Marks, R.A., London: 1894.

there is an interest of another kind in 6. My Autobiography and Reminiscenoes. By knowing something about the painter, W. P. Frith, R.A. Second edition. London: 1887. his turn of mind, his manner of re




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garding nature and art, and more espe- sense, the autobiography of Mr. Frith, cially the circumstances which led him which some ten years ago became, not to treat any particular subject, and his undeservedly, in a sense, the book of own feeling with regard to it. It is the season; not undeservedly, fo: true that the pursuit of this investiga- it is well written and contains 1 tion may lead to a painful amount of great deal that is really what is called disillusion; to know too ing and interesting; a great many much of what is behind a picture does not much finer artists could not have proalways tend to raise one's intellectual duced half so readable a book. But we estimate of painting and painters. It is refer to it here as a salient example or curious to find sometimes (in the case confession of that mere superficial and of landscape especially), in reference business view of painting to which we perhaps to a picture which seems to have referred. Mr. Frith's frankness is have a good deal of poetic feeling in it, amusing, almost cynical. He laughs at how very matter-of-fact a business it the whole thing, and at himself into has been to the painter of it, and that the bargain. He seems to have been what has been to the outsider an ap- perfectly conscious that he had no seripeal to his sentiment has been to the ous aim in painting, and content that artist an experiment in the use of pig- every one should know it; he almost ments to produce a certain effect; curi- writes himself down a humbug. His ous to think that a work, into the mak- election as associate of the Academy ing of which no sentiment has gone, seems to have been a kind of "fluke," can evoke sentiment; but it certainly is and surprised no one more than himso in many cases. It is strange, again, self-or so he gives us to understand. to find how very poor an order of in- Even the curiously scrambling course tellectual perception in other respects of instruction at the atelier of the ecmay co-exist with the power to produce centric Mr. Sass bored him; “perspecpictures which have high intellectual tive bewildered me, and to this day I interest, as if the painter's intellect "know little or nothing about that went all into the picture and found ex- dreadful science, and anatomy and I pression in no other way.' In short, parted after a very short and early acthere is a great deal of hollowness in quaintance;" and he goes on to say that the pretensions often set up as to the in the kind of art he has practised very high claims of the artist on society, and little anatomy is required, a dictum his position as a kind of superior be which can only be accepted in a sense ing. A great deal of the painting of which the author of the observation the day is really only a kind of busi- would probably find rather objectionness, requiring more adroitness, pains- able. A few pages further on, indeed, taking, and application (let that always in the course of some sensible remarks be admitted) than most other busi- in regard to the "well-meaning ODnesses. There are painters no doubt, jectors” to female models, observing some living and some whose biogra- that many artists draw every figure phies are before us, to whom painting was an art to be gone into in a serious 2 He is perhaps in better company than he is spirit and with high aims. There are aware of here. We have heard the confession

from much more distinguished artists that they some, on the other hand, to whom it

could not tell how to put a building in perspesseems to be a kind of joke, wherewith tive; one very eminent artist admitted that he they amuse themselves and mystify or had to get a model made of the interior of a col. befool the public.

umned temple before he could tell how to get the We are not going at this date, of columns in their right place; yet it is a very simcourse, to review, in the ordinary ple matter, much easier than foreshortening an

arm. Perspective, in fact, is a science; foreshorti This, as every one knows, may be said with ening is an art. If painters do not understand equal or even greater truth about musicians. perspective, it is only because they have not taken Some of the greatest composers have been men of the trouble, as any one can learn it even witbout very little intellectual culture.

being an artist.

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