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truly than did the Englishmen who against recourse to arms. The Arbitracontinued year after year the conflict tion Treaty, whether it pass through with the colonies, is certain, but Ameri- the Senate or not, is still a sign of the can patriotism need not hesitate to al- influence exerted by the friends of low that the sentiments which actuated peace. The approval of such a treaty the northern states of America during by the ministers of the queen and of the War of Secession were not alto- the president is of itself a declaration gether unlike the sentiments which ac- that the moral feeling of the whole Entuated Englishmen and their king dur- glish people condemns armed conflict ing the War of Independence. In En- between England and the United gland, on the other hand, we can now States much as it would condemn a see that the American colonies pursued civil war. By a singularly happy cointhe path dictated to them both by duty cidence the leaders of every party in and by expediency. Separation of one England have given pledges of friendkind or another was inevitable, and in liness towards America. The treaty many ways it was well for both coun- which closed every question connected tries that separation was not much with the ill-starred Alabama was the longer delayed. But patriots on both work of a Liberal ministry, but was carsides the Atlantic may legitimately re- ried through with the aid of a leading gret the terms on which the separation Conservative statesman. The last two took place; and even as things stand the references to arbitration have been needless war of 1813 must be to any sanctioned by the whole nation, and Englishman a more reasonable sub- the attempt, whether it succeed at the ject for regret than the inevitable con- moment or not, to form a permanent test between the mother country and arbitration court, will remain one of the colonies. Let us further note that Lord Salisbury's lasting claims to the despite the displays of unfriendliness gratitude of his country. Look at the which have recently startled English- matter from whichever side you will, men, the permanent tendency of events and it will become plain to a reasonable is clearly in favor of the maintenance and calm observer that the permanent of peace between England and Amer- set of events tends strongly towards ica. Any one will see that this is so peace. who calmly surveys the thirty years Nor is it possible to omit one circumand more which have elapsed since the stance which specially favors the atclose of the War of Secession. On tempt to form a civil union of the three successive occasions the govern- whole English race. The personal ments of England and of America character, no less than the political achave, with the full approval of their tion of the queen throughout her reign, people, referred national disputes to ar- has in every part of the United States bitration. If the transactions with re- surrounded the name of Victoria with gard to Venezuela have an ugly aspect, popularity, with respect, and, one they still, if their effect is to be fairly might almost say, with reverence. To understood, must be looked at as a us in England, used as we have been whole. Now, when President Cleve, during the last sixty years to the perland's language seemed, whatever its fectly smooth working of constitutional intention, to threaten war, it soon be government, the private character of came apparent to the most bellicose of the sovereign seems, erroneously I bepoliticians that the moral sentiment of lieve, to be a matter of little public mothe United States no less than of En- ment. Amongst Americans there pregland was offended by the idea of an vails a different, and probably a truer, appeal to arms. There is no need to notion. They attach, at any rate, underrate the hostile feeling of some great value to the display of domestic considerable number of Americans; virtues in high places. Americans, too, but it is of great importance not to un- believe, and not without reason, that derrate the weight of the protest the queen rendered to the United

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States a service of inestimable value at of the future. Under the federal rethe very crisis of their fortunes. The public of America an attempt has been modifications suggested by Prince Al- made to develop the popular and dembert, and insisted upon by the queen in ocratic side of English ideas, and, the language of the despatches de above all, to form a society which manding the surrender of Sliddell and should be free from all the political and Mason, were all intended to save the moral confusions originating in feudaldignity of the republic. They certainly ism. That English constitutionalism facilitated the yielding to demands or that English republicanism will which, though justwould otherwise ultimately turn out a complete success have been made in a too imperious is more than any prophet will have the tone. Whoever realizes the immediate boldness to predict. It is well, botresults in 1861 of a war between En- ever, that both the experiment of degland and America will feel that both veloping English ideas on conservative countries owe much to the intervention lines and the experiment of developing of the crown, and that it is right that the same ideas on democratic lines Americans should feel, they un- should be tried. For a fair trial of doubtedly do feel, the greatness of their each experiment the political indepenobligation to the queen. Isopolity, it is dence of the United States was an certain, could hardly be proclaimed essential condition, but, as I have alunder happier auspices than under the ready insisted, the political indepenreign of Queen Victoria, and the union dence of America, as of England, is in of the two branches of the English peo- no way affected by my proposal. The ple in the bonds of common citizen- evils of a separation which was necesship would be far more difficult if the sary, and even beneficial, were first the occupant of the English throne should temporary hostility of kindred peoples ever happen to be a sovereign who had meant to live on terms of friendliness, no special claims on American regard. and next the dissolution of a common

The word “union” is, indeed, hardly citizenship which ought to have been the right description of a policy which carefully preserved. These evils would aims not so much at the union as to the be removed by a system of isopolity reunion of the English people. Its ob- which would depend for its very existject is nothing less than to preserve all ence on the permanence of peace, and the good and to undo all the evil which would make every member of the Enhas flowed from the severance between glish people a citizen of every country England and her colonies. The na- belonging to any branch of the English tional independence of the United people. Nor are the ideas which underStates has been a benefit to mankind. lie the proposal for a common citizen. It is well that the two divisions of the ship in reality novel. No sooner was English people should have developed the war between England and her colEnglish ideas of good government in onies over than even the men who had two different forms. Under the consti- struggled most manfully or most obsti: tutional monarchy of England we have nately to maintain English sovereignty, retained the conservative aspect of En- perceived that political severance ought glish institutions; we have shown that to be counteracted by a new moral it is possible that ancient forms may unity. Let Englishmen of to-day read be so developed and modified as to suit with care the words of George III. admodern times, and that much of what dressed to the first representative of is good in obsolete institutions may be the United States accredited to the quietly carried over to a new society crown. It is the most striking king's which meets the wants of to-day, and speech on record:may, it is to be hoped, meet the wants

I was the last (said George III.) to con1 See Martin's “Life of the Prince Consort," sent to the separation; but the separation pp. 421-426.

having been made, and having become in

son

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evitable, I have always said, as I say now, its ultimate form. But one kind of inthat I would be the first to meet the friend- terest the British public do seem to feel ship of the United States as an indepen- in regard to painters, an interest an. dent power. The moment I see such alogous to that which they feel in resentiments and language as yours prevail, gard to royal personages. The puband a disposition to give to this country licity of the exhibition catalogue, like the preference, that moment I shall say, let the circumstances of language, religion, that of the court circular, gives to those and blood have their natural and full whose names are mentioned in it a poeffect.

sition of notoriety, unaccompanied by A. V. DICEY.

any further information about them, which piques the many-headed curiosity. The dear public would like to know what the artist eats and drinks,

whether he swears at his models, how From The Edinburgh Review. his house is furnished, and any other PAINTERS BEHIND THE SCENES.1 details they can get at about his private There was perhaps never any pe- life. Hence the popularity, in second-rate riod when attendance at picture exhi- magazines, of “illustrated interviews" bitions was so fashionable an amuse- with artists, with photographs of their ment as it is in the present day. Pri- dining-room, drawing-room, and studio, vate views of exhibitions, large and the latter probably introducing the fig. small, keep recurring in London all the ure of the artist "at work on his celeyear round, except during the dead sea- brated picture,” etc. Hence the publiof autumn, and

always cation, on thick paper and with large crowded; and if we may say of one margins, of somebody's record of his half at least of the large private-view doings “In Bohemia with Du Maurier," audiences, "veniunt spectentur ut in which the practical jokes of the aripsæ,” it must be admitted that at the tist and his comrades, the nicknames Royal Academy, the specially hall- they called each other, and the caricamarked emporium of Art, the attend- tures they drew of each other, are solance during the first two or three emnly put on record. The fun, if not weeks of the paying days are as large very refined, was innocent enough in itas those at the private view. To the self; the crime lies in publishing it. majority of these visitors the painters Hence, again, the publication of the of the works which they crowd to "Reminiscences” of living artists, which look at year after year but appear to be SO certain of sale names in the catalogue;

do that one can only praise the reticence they ever care, so far

and self-denial of those popular judge, to learn what was behind artists who have not made the production of this or that picture, of this contrivance for capturing what was its motive in the mind of the the pence of the public. The litartist, what were the difficulties he erary or artistic value of the reminishad to contend with in bringing it into cences may be infinitesimal-that is of

no consequence; the people have been 11. Life and Letters of Frederick Walker in the habit of seeing an artist's picA.R.A. By J. G. Marks. London: 1896.

tures on the walls for many years, and 2. Ford Madox Brown: a Record of his Life and Work. By Ford M. Hueffer. London: 1896.

they want their curiosity gratified by 3. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: his Family Letters. hearing him talk, no matter how or on With a memoir by W. M. Rossetti. London: 1895. what subject.

4. Jean François Millet: his Life and Letters. For those who take their pictures By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Henry Ady). London:

more seriously, and in respect of those 5. Pen and Pencil Sketches. By Henry Stacy there is an interest of another kind in

pictures which can be taken seriously, Marks, R.A., London: 1894.

6. My Autobiography and Reminiscences. By knowing something about the painter, W. P. Frith, R.A. Second edition. London: 1887. his turn of mind, his manner of re

VOL. XIV. 732

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LIVING AGE.

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garding nature and art, and more espe- sense, the autobiography of Mr. Frith, cially the circumstances which led him which some ten years ago became, not to treat any particular subject, and his undeservedly, in a sense, the book of own feeling with regard to it. It is the season; not undeservedly, for true that the pursuit of this investiga- it is well written and contains i tion may lead to a painful amount of great deal that is really amuswhat is called disillusion; to know too ing and interesting; great many much of what is behind a picture does not much finer artists could not have proalways tend to raise one's intellectual duced half so readable a book. But we estimate of painting and painters. It is refer to it here as a salient example or curious to find sometimes (in the case confession of that mere superficial and of landscape especially), in reference business view of painting to which we perhaps to a picture which seems to have referred. Mr. Frith's frankness is have a good deal of poetic feeling in it, amusing, almost cynical. He laughs at how very matter-of-fact a business it the whole thing, and at himself into has been to the painter of it, and that the bargain. He seems to have been what has been to the outsider an ap- perfectly conscious that he had no seripeal to his sentiment has been to the ous aim in painting, and content that artist an experiment in the use of pig- every one should know it; he almost ments to produce a certain effect; curi- writes himself down a humbug. His ous to think that a work, into the mak- election as associate of the Academy ing of which no sentiment has gone, seems to have been a kind of "fluke," can evoke sentiment; but it certainly is and surprised no one more than himso in many cases. It is strange, again, self-or so he gives us to understand. to find how very poor an order of in- Even the curiously scrambling course tellectual perception in other respects of instruction at the atelier of the ecmay co-exist with the power to produce centric Mr. Sass bored him; “perspecpictures which have high intellectual tive bewildered me, and this day I interest, as if the painter's intellect "know little or nothing about that went all into the picture and found ex- dreadful science,” and anatomy and I pression in no other way. In short, parted after a very short and early acthere is a great deal of hollowness in quaintance;" and he goes on to say that the pretensions often set up as to the in the kind of art he has practised very high claims of the artist on society, and little anatomy is required, a dictum his position as a kind of superior be- which can only be accepted in a sense ing. A great deal of the painting of which the author of the observation the day is really only a kind of busi- would probably find rather objectionness, requiring more adroitness, pains- able. A few pages further on, indeed, taking, and application (let that always in the course of some sensible remarks be admitted) than most other busi- in regard to the “well-meaning Odnesses. There are painters no doubt, jectors" to female models, observing some living and some whose biogra- that many artists draw every figure phies are before us, to whom painting was an art to be gone into in a serious 2 He is perhaps in better company than he is spirit and with high aims. There are aware of here. We have heard the confession some, on the other hand, to whom it from much more distinguished artists that they

could not tell how to put a building in perspesseems to be a kind of joke, wherewith tive; one very eminent artist admitted that be they amuse themselves and mystify or

had to get a model made of the interior of a colbefool the public.

umned temple before he could tell how to get the We are not going at this date, of columns in their right place; yet it is a very simcourse, to review, in the ordinary ple matter, much easier than foreshortening an

arm. Perspective, in fact, is a science; foreshort1 This, as every one knows, may be said with ening is an art. If painters do not understand equal or even greater truth about musicians. perspective, it is only because they have not taken Some of the greatest composers have been men of the trouble, as any one can learn it even without very little intellectual culture.

being an artist.

we

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naked before they clothe it, he adds, “I Mr. Marks is a painter of a different did so for years, and ought "to do so calibre from Mr. Frith. Within his now;" the meaning of which frank ad own lines he is a perfect executant, mission is, presume, that the never careless or superficial, and in his painter had at last got the length of his art at all events he has evinced a keen public's foot, and discovered that the sense of humor, a quality which Mr. qualities they looked for in his pictures Frith has never been within measurmight be provided without any such able distance of. Under what ill-adthorough figure-designing. the vised misapprehension did he underother hand, he worked very hard and take to dip his reputation in the inkconscientiously at providing the public bottle? He exonerates his friends: with the kind of art they wanted. The "Whatever else may be said of this autobiography shows, indeed, con- work, I can confidently declare that it tinual history of painting pursued with was neither written with the remotest no higher aim than to find and work idea of supplying a want long felt, nor out subjects which would be popular undertaken at the solicitation of enthuwith the masses; but no trouble was siastic friends.” Was the ignis fatuus spared in such preliminary study as the vision of a publisher's cheque? Or was necessary to turn the thing out

was it merely the motive which Burns well, and a great deal of hard work lay ingenuously confessesbehind the “Derby Day" and "Ramsgate Sands." The former is a picture Some rhyme a neebor's name to lash, which, however vulgar in the artistic Some rhyme (vain thought!) for needfu’ sense, justifies its existence. The

cash, “Derby," as a national function, mer

Some rhyme to court the kintra clash,

7 ited being put on record in painting. For me, an aim I never fash

An' raise a din; Mr. Frith was just the painter cut out

I rhyme for fun. for the subject, and he unquestionably spared no pains to do his best with it. This last seems the most probable exBut in mentioning, with a satisfaction planation; the book is a joke, but the which may be either real or cynical, result goes to prove that an artist may the repeated occasions on which a rail be really humorous on canvas and yet had to be put in front of his picture at degenerate into a very commonplace the Academy to protect it from the joker in print. Worse than that, he has crowd (an honor which befell him three sacrificed along with himself a greater or four times), he does not seem to be painter, Frederick Walker, who, with quite alive to the fact that these rail- no sense of humor at all in his paintings testified not so much to the great- ings, which are almost uniformly grave ness of his works as to the littleness and even melancholy in sentiment (artistically) of the average Academy (“The Bathers” is an exception cersightseers. He had supplied the crowd tainly), seems to have leaned in private with the kind of picture they most de life towards a kind of larking in which lighted in, and been at some trouble to the reader finds very little wit. One gratify their taste; and he had his re- page in Mr. Marks's book is headed ward. Sometimes, however, the "Walker's Sense of Humor.” What tional taste was too much even for Mr. Walker's and Mr. Marks's sense of Frith. He writhed under the terrible humor amounted to may be gathered title, "Sherry, Sir?” appended by some from the following account of their dealer to the engraving of what is amusement on the occasion of a hollreally a pretty enough little work of its day up the river:kind, and once petitioned for it to be re.

Once fairly out of Waterloo Station, we moved, but was met by the reply, proceeded to get ourselves up as if we "Why, sir, it is just the title that sells had been severely injured in some football it.” There is a Nemesis in wait for ar- or cricket match, or other athletic sport. tists who cultivate the mob.

When we alighted at Walton, one had a

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