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JUNE 12, 1897.

READINGS FROM AMERICAN MAGAZINES.

and perfect in July, August, and SepFrom Lippincott's Magazine.

tember. MIDSUMMER BUTTERFLIES.

The Troilus appears about the midThe wings of the Asterias are black, dle of June, and resembles the Asterias with broad bands of yellow spots ex- very closely while in the winged state. tending from the front edge of the fore The Papilio Troilys is never very nuwing to the back part of the hind wing, merous, and will probably be overand with a row of yellow spots on the looked unless one is particularly observ. margin. The hind wings are tailed, art. It has one row of yellow dots and between the band of yellow and on the margin of both the fore and the the row of yellow spots on the margin hind wings, and the green on the hind are seven blue spots.

wings is shaded into the tint of the Although the Asterias are quite com- wing, instead of being in distinct spots mon in May and June, they are far like the blue in the Asterias. The difmore numerous in July, and can then ference between the two butterflies is be found hovering over beds of pars- so slight that it is impossible to disley and sweet-scented phlox. They de- tinguish one from the other when they posit their eggs on these plants, and it are on the wing. Along the roadsides, is there that the caterpillars feed. hovering over beds of nodding trillium Other butterflies found occasionally in and wake-robin and wild geraniums, May are the Semicolon, Comma, and over the white flowers of the blackMilberti, all belonging to the genus berry vines, and the delicate white Vanessa. The Semicolon is so called blossom of the shad-flower, and among from the shape of the golden spot on the clumps of lilac-bushes, may be seen the under side of each hind wing. The swarms of the little red and brown butwings are tawny orange, shaded very terflies which are generally classed todark near the body. They are thickly gether under the name of Lycenians. spotted with brown, and expand about The small red variety is one of the two and a half inches, having a regu- prettiest of the group, and is very comlar line of brown spots on the margins. mon. It is often found fluttering over The Comma is not quite so large, and the grass in any sunny spot, and is is rarely found expanding more than called the copper butterfly, or Lycana twoinches. The wings are dull orange, Americana. The brown variety, Lyshaded on the margin with a purple cæna Epixanthe, is somewhat rare, and tint. They are spotted with brown, is usually found near damp meadows and along the margin have a row of and lowlands, apparently delighting buff-colored spots. The Milberti is

more in green grass and sunshine than about the same size as the Comma, but in flowers. more showy. The wings are of a rich There is a beautiful blue speck of a velvety black, and there is a broad butterfly which haunts the brier-fields orange band extending across both pair and old pasture walls where the high of wings near the margin. On the hind blueberry-bush and sweet viburnum wings there is a row of blue crescent- love to linger. It is one of the most shaped spots between this band and delicate of all the small butterflies, but the edge. Although these varieties of has a ludicrously ponderous name, the Vanessa are often seen flying about Polyommatus Pseudargiolus. However, in May, they are far more numerous its common name, Azure-blue-butterfly,

VOL. XIV. 735

LIVING AGE.

is more appropriate, as, when it is flut- tion, differing from the Disippe in being tering over flowers in the sunshine, it clothed in blue-black instead of a gorlooks like a tiny speck of bright blue geous orange and black. satin. A near relative is the Lucia, a The genus Argynnis is almost invalittle smaller, and of a more purplish riably ornamented with silver markblack; another is the Comyntas, with ings; among the varieties are the violet-blue wings having black dots on Idalia, with a row of silvery crescentthe margin of the hind ones. The Co- shaped spots just within the black marmyntas lives in dry woods, and does gin on the under side of the wings, not appear before July. Several other found in grass-fields and among bushes small butterflies which appear at the by the roadside all through July and same time belong to the genus Thecla, August; the Aphrodite, with the same readily distinguished by the peculiar silvery crescents, and with taway manner in which their hind wings are orange wings shaded very dark near tailed. Their color is a dull brown of the body, found about meadow-lands; various shades, marked in some of the the Myrina, similar to the last, but varieties with specks of white or blue. having black lines on the hind wings;

July is the gala-time of butterflies. and the Bellona, whose chief distincMost of them have just left the chrys- tion is that it lacks the silvery spots. alis, and their wings are perfect and Other July butterflies are the Ne very fresh in color. All the sunny litæa Pharos, very small, and with places are bright with them, yellow wings of dusky orange; the black and and red and white and brown, and white Cynthia Huntera, expanding great gorgeous fellows in rich velvet- about two and a half inches, very like dresses of blue-black, orange, pretty and very common; the Cynthia green, and

maroon. Some of them Cardui, more commonly called Thistle Lave their wings scalloped, some butterfly, because it loves the flowers fringed, and some plain; and they are of the thistle and because its caterpilornamented with brilliant borders and lar lives on the leaves of that plant; fawn-colored spots and rows of silver and the Cynthia Atalanta a little larger crescents. The Asterias are there, tlre than the other two, and with almost Troilus, the dusky-orange Melitæa, and black wings. the silver-spotted Idalia. They circle From “ A Year of Butterflies." By Frank H. about the flowers, fly across from field to field, and rise swiftly into the air; little ones and big ones, common ones and rare ones, but all bright and airy and joyous,-a midsummer carnival of

From The Atlantic Monthly. butterflies.

OVER-CIVILIZATION. The largest butterfly we have is the

It is easy to see how the instinct of Archippus. It is not so gaudy as some, pugnacity is or may be weakened in but is yet very showy. The wings are the process of civilization; but it is not tawny orange, beautifully bordered quite so easy to recognize the subtle with black dotted with white, and are way in which the instinct of pity, also, crossed by fine black veins, with sev

is weakened or perverted by the same eral yellow and white spots extending process. We have all felt the instinct up to the front border of the fore of pity. If we hear the cry of a drownwings. A butterfly that is almost ex- ing man, we have an impulse to jump actly like the Archippus, except for a

in after him, or at least to throw him band across the hind wing above the a rope. If our neighbor is ill or be border, is the Nymphalis Disippe. It is reaved, our hearts go out toward him, found on the wing from the middle of as we say. Nature speaks in us. Upon July until October, and deposits its this primeval instinct is based all pity, eggs on poplars and willows. Another all charity, all benevolence, all self-sacvariety of the Nymphalis is the Ephes- rifice; and this instinct, too, we share

Sweet.

a

not only with the savage, but also with ward if he does not do it. He springs the very beasts of. the field. “The to the child's aid because he cannot moral sense,” Darwin remarks, “is help it; because he has an impulse to fundamentally identical with the so- do so, just as he would have an imcial instincts.” And then he goes on to pulse to save his own life. But let us say: "The social instincts, which no suppose that the man who stands by doubt were acquired by man, as by the is of a different character,—not so close lower animals, for the good of the com- to nature, although he may be a better munity, will from the first have given man, more conscientious, a more valto him some wish to aid his fellows uable member of society. He, too, and some feeling of sympathy. Such feels the impulse of pity, the instinct to impulses have served him at a very save the child; but in him this impulse early period as a rude rule of right and is not so strong; the selfish considerawrong.” In other words, Darwin bases tions that arise in his mind combat not only benevolence, but the moral with it, and while he is struggling to sense itself, upon the instinct of pity. perform his duty the moment flashes

Of course, one does not mean that the by, the child is run over; all that can instinct of pity is precisely the same in now be done is to take the victim to the brute or in the savage that it is in a hospital, and that he will do, even civilized man. There is far more pity at much personal inconvenience. among civilized than among savage I do not intend to assert that the one people. The instinct gains as well as is exclusively a savage, and the other loses from civilization. It must remain exclusively civilized type. Both a capricious, uncertain thing until, in kinds of men undoubtedly exist in barthe process of civilization, it acquires barous tribes, both kinds exist in civilthe strength of a principle, of a rule of ization; but the tendency of civilizalife, of a conscious duty. This is the tion, or of what we call civilization, is first effect of civilization. But the sec- to produce the man who stands still in ond effect-the effect, that is, which the moment of peril to another,-the results when the intellect overbalances man who is far from nature, who has the feelings-is to dwarf and stifle the lost something of primeval instinct. healthy instinct of pity; to make a man An illustration might be found in the cold, calculating, and therefore an in- case of General Gordou, whom the Enefficient, though it may be a conscien- glish government left to perish in the tious person. The point is this: when city of Khartoum. This, indeed, is an it is a question of duty towards one's apt illustration, because the dangerous neighbor, the first impulse, the natural situation of Gordon appealed to all impulse, is a good one,-nature tells us three of those main primeval instincts to befriend him. But then

which I have mentioned, namely, the wakes up, selfish considerations pre- instincts of pity or benevolence, of pugsent themselves to the mind, and per- nacity, and of pride, England was haps the natural impulse is overborne. moved to go to Gordon's assistance,

Let us suppose that there is an acci- first, out of pity for him; secondly, out dent in the street, and a child is about of anger against his enemies; and to be run over. A man is standing by, thirdly, out of wounded pride, because who might be described as close to na- it was a British citizen whose life was ture. Without a moment's reflection, threatened. The members of the Libhe dashes into the street to save the eral government felt these impulses, child's life at the risk of his own, of course, as other Englishmen felt There is no time for reflection; he can- them, but they were precisely in the not stop to think that it is his duty to situation of Rousseau's philosopher, save the child, or that the Humane whose impulse to do a generous act Society may award him a medal for it; was stifled by the selfish motives which he has not even time to consider that occurred to his mind, and in this case, he may be ashamed of himself after- also, the selfish dictates of reason got

reason

the upper hand of the primeval in- eral interest, a story worth repeating, stinct. Gladstone and his Cabinet with the omitted names and added defound many reasons for leaving Gor- tails. It-the story, not the clippingdon to his fate. He had got himself dated back to 1851, when the late Saminto the scrape, they said, and they uel McLean, of Brooklyn, widely were not responsible for the result; if known as a racy raconteur of a long a rescue were attempted, it might not lifetime's experiences (just previous to be in time; an expedition would cost his death at seventy-four he had a large sum of money, and might in- crossed the Atlantic for the ninetyvolve England in a war, and so on. ninth time), was visiting London with In short, the government did nothing, his bride, who was Miss Chapman, of until they were compelled at last by Hartford, Conn. It was the year in popular clamor to do something, and which the Crystal Palace was opened, then the expedition under Lord Wolse- an opening graced with the presence ley was dispatched-but too late. of royalties, great personages, and ce

If now the question of going to Gor- lebrities generally; but only holders of don's rescue or of leaving him in the season tickets, costing £50 each, were hands of his enemies had been sub- admitted. The price seemed a little too mitted, not to the Liberal government, steep for Mr. McLean, as he had seen but to the hedgers and ditchers of En- pretty much everybody at one time or gland, to the farmers or sailors,-to any another but he wanted Mrs. McLean to body of men close to nature in the go. So he bought a season ticket for sense that I have indicated,--can it be her and sent her with some English doubted what the result would have friends. Mrs. McLean was a short been? But such men, it might be ob- slight woman, and when she reached jected, would be thoughtless; they the Crystal Palace on the day of the would not count the cost. That is pre- opening, the crowd completely hemned cisely their merit,--they would not her in. She could not catch a glimpse count the cost even if they had to pay of a single royalty or celebrity. Tears it themselves, in money or in blood. of chagrin sprang to her eyes as she England has become what she is partly realized her disappointment and the by not counting the cost, by venturing price of it. A "distinguished looking upon forlorn hopes, by carving out her Englishman,” as she afterward de own path with what seemed at the time scribed him, who stood beside her, to be a reckless disregard of other na- grasped the situation at a glance, and tions. It was a different spirit which saying, "Permit me, madam," he closed left Gordon to his fate, and which, his hands around her waist, and lifted later, held in check the army and navy her, as he would a child, above the of Great Britain while the Turks butch- crowd, holding her there as long as he ered the Armenians and ravished their could, and pointing out the queen, the women.

prince consort, and the other royalties From “On Being Civilized Too Much.” By Henry ard celebrities. After he had set her Childs Merwin.

down and rested himself, he raised her again, and then a third time. When she thanked him, he said simply: "I am always glad to do a

favor for American." all that From The Bookman. summer she tried in vain to identify A REMINISCENCE.

her "distinguished Englishman," but In turning the leaves of a scrap-book finally came home without learning the other day-do any but those who who he was. Years afterward in Plyhave professional use for them now

mouth Church, when the lecturer of keep scrap-books, or write in diaries ?– the evening entered with Henry Ward the eye lighted on an old newspaper Beecher, she turned to her husband clipping, one that told a story of gen- and exclaimed, “That's my English

an

a

man!" It was Thackeray, whom she same time, never relaxing its hold on met later and entertained at her home, the ferule of order and common sense. recalling the incident to their mutual Curious, in a measure, as to the cussatisfaction. Who but the creator of toms and condition of foreign nations, Colonel Newcome could have dared to open to art, philosophy, and science attempt so unconventional a kindness; quite as freely as to literature, conor have done it with a quick tact and stantly faithful to liberal principles in delicacy that gave no offence?

politics, without ever systematically From “ Chronicle and Clipping." keeping the voice of any party away

from its platform, it yet retained its personal opinion, which was as much opposed to revolutionary doctrines as

to the arbitrary undertakings of absoFrom McClure's Magazine. lute governments. These are high THE FOUNDER OF THE REVUE DES DEUX claims to glory, and the fact of having MONDES.

begun this long and brilliant career The preponderance maintained by without material resources, by the sole the Revue for more than half a century, power of one man's will, certainly does in a country said to be the home of ca

not lessen them. price and inconstancy, is nothing short The prolific period immediately folof miraculous, and this preponderance lowing the Revolution of 1830, among is far from declining. The most va- the many works pertaining to all ried forms of talent are as eager as branches of human imagination and inever to ask for its lofty consecration. telligence called forth, produced this "The Revue is the real title-giver, after powerful political and literary focus. all,” said Sainte-Beuve, a short time Its creator, however, was neither before his death. This is the Revue's writer nor a politician. François Buposition as regards authors; as for the loz, a contemporary of the magnificent public, all serious-minded people read efflorescence of the romantic era, saw the Revue, and those who are not se- what good could be gained by setting rious-minded, but wish to seem to have all the scattered brilliant minds in a general information, never fail to read single cluster, which would somewhat it also.

resemble the English reviews, espeBicycling, if one may believe the pub- cially the Edinburgh Review, with the adlishers, has done much harm to the ditional advantage of more frequent book-trade since its recent introduc- periods of publication, and a wider, tion; still, it has not yet succeeded in

more elastic, more varied scope. This hurting the Revue des Deux Mondes. A dream had nothing in common with a few spiteful attacks, a few coarse in- financial speculation, although Buloz sults, from a handful of "barbarians,"

was successful in this direction as as François Buloz used to call them, well; he aimed higher, as his faithful have only served to increase its pres- friend and collaborator, Mr. de Matige, by proving that it cannot be ap- zade, has so well explained in the touchproached except by those who are en- ing and respectful pages he has dedtitled to do so, and that the unsuccess- icated to Buloz's memory-he aimed at ful ones revenge themselves as best appealing to the highest intellectual they can. All this does not alter the culture everywhere, at reaching the difact that the part taken by the Revue recting classes, at offering them an acever since its foundation in 1831, has credited organ which would carry the been most important. It would be im- French tongue and ideas to the repossible to mention any movement of motest limits of the earth. For, above public thought, any social problem, all else, François Buloz was а раany new idea, that it has not signalled triot, and one can say that the reverses and discussed, always bearing the ban- of 1870 killed him just as surely as if ner of liberty firmly aloft, yet, at the he had been struck by a bullet on the

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