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person, who knew that heathen gods tinued by Kingsley, who "went to and goddesses ought never to be left out Froude for history," fed by Mr. Arber of an heroic poem, and that decency re

with his reprints of Markham and of quired him to call Sir Richard "Thetis Raleigh's Report, and completed by paramour.” Then Sir William Monson, Tennyson's "Ballad of the Fleet.” Sir of the “Naval Tracts,” could see nothing Richard Grenville again became a hero, in the Grenville's fate more worthy of but strangely altered. He reappeared remark than this:-that it “truly veri- in Froude as “a godly and gallant genfied" "the old saying, that a wilful man

tleman, who had never turned his back is the cause of his own woe.” Monson upon an enemy, and was remarkable in was the forerunner of the modern naval that remarkable time for his constancy officer. “Now, Mr. O'Farrall," said and daring.” He makes a sufficiently O'Brien, “I only wish to point out to romantic figure in "Westward Ho!" and you that I trust neither I, nor any one

in the "Ballad of the Fleet" he “makes in this ship, cares a fig about the whiz- his gesture" in an imposing way. zing of a shot or two about our ears, Tennyson's men and women rarely do when there is anything to be gained by more than make a gesture. But this it, either for ourselves or for our coun

new Sir Richard, who is only "goodly try; but I do care a great deal about and gallant,” or has been too obviously losing even the leg or the arm, much influenced by Mr. Maurice, working more the life, of any of my men, when through Mr. Kingsley, is, though meritothere's no occasion for it; so in future, rious, not credible. He who lectures recollect it's no disgrace to keep out of so wisely in "Westward Ho!" on elethe way of a battery, when all the ad- mentary morals, and who says in the vantage is on their side.” That is the "Ballad of the Fleet”voice of the modern naval officer, and of But I've ninety men and more that are common sense. Cochrane listened to it

lying sick ashore, when in 1805, and in these same waters I should count myself the coward, if I round the Azores, he saved the Pallas left them, my Lord Howard, from a French squadron by running, To the Inquisition dogs, and the devildoms and also by a miracle of cool seaman

of Spain, ship. There was not a little of Gren- is too mild and too modern for the part ville in Cochrane, but if he had repeated the real man played in the world. If Grenville's defiance he would have been Grenville's aim had been to save his a pure madman, doing that for which the men, he would have cut his mainsail, code of honor of his time held no ex- and cast about, and trusted to the sailcuse. The difficulty has been to see ing of the ship. It was his clear duty; that both men were right in their time. and, if that was his purpose, he was Southey, who ought to have known fool and madman when “he utterly rebetter, for he had translated “Amadis fused to turn from the enemy

perof Gaul," and "Palmerin of England," suading his company that he would was puzzled by Grenville. Southey has pass through the two squadrons in deput it in print that Sir Richard “cannot spite of them, and enforce those of be justified for entering into the action Seville to give him way.” in which he lost his life;" but Southey If we want to understand how he added that “he supported it so bravely came to do what he did, and yet was that he raised the character of the neither fool nor madman, we must look British Navy, and thereby well entitled at the man in his own place. First, himself to the place which he contin- then, Sir Richard Grenville belonged to ues to hold in its annals."

a race to which a good fight and its own An act of madness redeemed by valor, honor were far more than the lives of but an example to be avoided-that was men--much more than their own, and the judgment of common sense on the incomparably more than their follow"fight about the Isles of Azores." Then ers. He was the son of Sir Roger Grencame a reaction, begun by Froude, con- ville, who was lost in the Mary Rose at

LIVING AGE. VOL. XIV. 743

Spithead during the French invasion of right to sacrifice the lives of his follow1545, and the grandson of Sir Richard ers if he could thereby earn honor for Grenville, who was Marshal of Calais himself and his house. Their honor was to Henry VIII. Through those two, to die with their lord. and a long line of gentlemen of Corn- The little known of him, and of his wall and Devon, he claimed to go back actions before 1591, goes to show that to Rolf the Ganger, and through him this was his code. He was born about and another long line of Norse jarls to 1540, and in 1566 applied for leave to go Odin. One does not ask a gentleman to abroad to fight against the Turks in prove a pedigree like that by charter Hungary. It has been said that he and seisin. The Grenvilles justified fought at Lepanto in 1571; but in 1570 their Norse blood by their characters. and in the following year he was memThe race did not end, nor even culmi- ber of Parliament in England, and we nate, in Sir Richard of the Revenge. He cannot believe in Lepanto, though one was the grandfather of Sir Bevil Gren- would wish to believe if one could. For ville, who headed the western rising for his religion, we know that in 1570 he the king in the Civil War, and fell fight- made a declaration of his submission to ing against the Parliament at Lans- the Act for Uniformity of Common downe. Sir Bevil Grenville, again, was Prayer and Service. He filled the office grandfather to the Grace Grenville who of sheriff, and, in fact, played his part was mother of the great Carteret of the as a country gentleman. He went be eighteenth century-the wit, scholar, yond it, and entered the life of advenstatesman, and magnificent great noble. ture of his time when he joined Sir It was a race of chiefs and fighting men Humphrey Gilbert in his colonizing which kept its quality of aristocratic schemes. There was kinship between valor, and its passionate individuality, Grenville and the Gilberts and Raacross centuries. The Norse nobles leighs. He made two voyages to the who would not submit to Harold Fair. West Indies and Virginia in 1585 and hair, would have understood Carteret 1586, landing in the Spanish islands to thoroughly. They drank mead out of levy contributions, taking prizes, and horns, and listened to the Skalds. He showing the Spaniards the unpleasant drank burgundy, and quoted Homer. side of their maxim: that there was But these are trifles, and in essentials no peace beyond the Line. Once he they were much the same stamp of took a prize by boarding her on a raft man. Sir Richard, who stood nearer made of cases, which sank immediately the Middle Ages, and amid the equally after he and his men had reached the sudden and wonderful expansion of deck. The colonists, whom he carried character, passion, and faculty in the to Virginia, and his fellow-adventurers whole people which marks the great with Raleigh took a view of him which queen's reign, had a chance of keeping is worth considering, Froude in hand. even closer to the original Viking type. Ralph Lane complained to Waisingham We must not expect to find him such a that he was “of an intolerable pride, man as Monson in his age, or many ex- and an insatiable ambition." and that cellent officers since, who have been he, Lane, desired to be freed from the abundantly brave, but cool, sensible, place in which Grenville was “to carry looking to the good that was to be got any authority in chief.” Linschoten, for self or country by fighting, and by who was at the Azores when the fight "good" meaning the practical, material took place, heard probably that he was advantages. He was a noble in a wider “of nature cruel, so that his own people than the technical English sense; one hated him for his tyranny and feared whose blood was purer than others, him much.” Linschoten tells strange who inherited with it the claim to lead, tales of his ways: "He was of so hard the obligation to set an example, the a complection, that as he continued disposition to prefer death in battle, among the Spanish captains while they and the firm conviction that it was his were at dinner or supper with him, he

wwuld carouse three or four glasses of her council. With such a man ambition wine, and in a bravery take the glasses might direct itself towards making a between his teeth and crush them in splendid end. pieces and swallow them down, so that In 1591 Grenville, who had never yet oftentimes the blood ran out of his held an important command for the mouth, without any harm at all unto queen, was chosen to go as vicehim." It can be done; but one does not admiral to Lord Thomas Howard on a see the Sir Richard Grenville of "West- voyage to the Isles.

These voyages ward Ho!" doing this act on drunken were common both with the queen's “bravery." Yet, if we do not believe ships and with private adventurers, and Linschoten for this, why is he to be very often the two combined. The obaccepted as a witness for the last ject was to wait for the Spanish treasspeech, which yet is too like life, too ure ships, which put in at the Azores much beyond the Dutchman's power for water and stores on the way home. of invention, to be rejected ? It may In 1590 an English squadron had shock the faith of some who imagine cruised round the Azores to no purpose, him consumed by horror of the "devil- and had returned without a prize. doms of Spain" to hear of Grenville's Philip had not recovered from the loss dinners and suppers with Spanish cap- of the Armada, and had been contains; but nothing is more probable. strained to order his ships not to sail In the intervals of fighting, noble ene- from America, for he knew that the mies could and did meet and hunt to English would be in wait, and he could gether, and carouse. Grenville was on afford no protection. It was a disaspleasant terms enough with the Span- trous necessity; since it went far to stop iards in his voyage of 1585—between his supplies, and it exposed his ships to one piece of plunder and another. The the ravages of the "teredo," the boring Spanish hidalgo and the English gen- worm of tropical seas. So by 1591 he tleman had more in common with each could wait no longer for his treasure, other than either had with the plebeians and he had reconstructed a squadron in on his own side. When Götz of the Iron Spain. Still, he ordered the convoyHand, being then about to fall upon a the flota–to come late: partly because caravan, saw the wolves come out of he hoped that the ships of Lord Thomas the wood and begin to worry the sheep, Howard would be constrained to return he stood up in his stirrups and shouted, home by want of provisions, partly beGood luck to us all, gentlemen!" The cause he wanted tirue to complete the brave Götz had a share of the saving squadron which was to meet the conquality of humor. It has been denied voy and see it safe back to Spain. But to such as cannot feel happy with a Lord Thomas was kept well supplied fighting man, till they have diluted him with provisions from home by means to the point at which he becomes fit to of victuallers. These were armed, and be presented to a young ladies' board- very capable of taking prizes, but not a ing-school.

match for a heavy galleon; most of What, then, we know of Sir Richard them being of from ninety to one hunGrenville is this: that he was proud to dred and twenty tons. Meanwhile, ana degree which some found intolerable, other English squadron, belonging to ambitious, fierce, of a heavy hand on the Earl of Cumberland and other adhis subordinates, and of a soaring valor. venturers, was prowling on the coast In 1591 he was about fifty, and his am- of Spain. So in August the position bition had not been satisfied, for he was was this. The flota was on its way not among the great men about the home, having left the Gulf of Florida, queen. One whose voice was sure to be and having stood to the north till it was always for war would have no friend on the fortieth parallel, well out of the in Burleigh, and Elizabeth, though she easterly trade winds, and above the might like him well enough as courtier Sargasso Sea. It was badly bored by and captain, would keep him aloof from the worm; in need of docking-which it

could not get in the West Indies; over- had never expected to have to deal with laden with accumulations of merchan- a fighting fleet from Spain. Of the dise. It had already suffered heavy ships with him four were of the second loss from storms. And now it was roll- rank of the queen's vessels-his own ing along before the westerly winds of flagship, the Defiance, the Revenge, the the North Atlantic; as helpless a mass Bonaventure, commanded by Captain of booty as any admiral could wish to Crosse, the Lion, of which George Fensee sail into his hands. And Lord ner was captain. Two, the Foresight, Thomas Howard was cruising between Captain Vavassor, and the Crane, CapFlores and Corvo, the two most west- tain Duffield, were smaller. The Bark erly of the Azores. He had with him Raleigh might pass among the queen's six of the queen's ships, the Bark ships. But the private ships and the Raleigh, belonging to Sir Walter, two victuallers were small craft, good to or three private vessels, and the vic- take merchantmen, but not to fight tuallers-sixteen sail in all. There was galleons. fever and scurvy among his men, as To a sensible officer the one course was commonly the case after a cruise of was to get to sea, and to windward of any length, when large crews were the Spaniards, as fast as possible. If crowded into small ships; when food Don Alonso was allowed to come up on was saved by putting 61x upon the ra- the west side of the island before the tions of four; when the ballast was of English had time to stand out, he shingle or sand; when the galley fire might get the wind of them and pin stood on the ballast, which was soaked them against the land. Although the in bilge water enriched by all the drain. Elizabethan seamen enjoy a reputation ings of the vessel.

for desperate valor, their fighting with Cumberland was watching on the the Spanish galleons was commonly coast of Spain. In Cadiz a Spanish very cautious. It was their regular squadron was being fitted for sea under course to get to windward, and then to the command of Don Alonso de Bazan, rely on their heavier guns and better the brother of the Marquess of Santa gunnery, to make the most of a long Cruz, who was to have commanded the bowls fight. The queen had few ships, Armada. It consisted of fifty-three and was very chary of them. Her offivessels, twenty of them warships, and cers knew that they would not easily be the others “urcas,”-victuallers carry- forgiven for losing a vessel; and so they ing food for the galleons and the home- played for safety in battle. The course coming flota. Don Alonso sailed followed by Lord Thomas was, theretowards the end of August and was fore, perfectly consistent with the pracsighted at once by Cumberland's ships. tice of the time; even if it had not been One of them, the Moonshine, com- dictated by the circumstances of this manded by a Captain Middleton, kept particular case. And but for the prescompany with the slow sailing Span- ence of Grenville in the fleet, all the iards till it was sure that they were ships would have got off; there would heading for the Azores. Then Middle- have been no action with the Spaniards; ton stood on to warn Lord Thomas. and the voyage to the Isles of 1591 On the 31st August he found him at the would have been no more memorable north end of Flores at anchor. Some than the voyage of Hawkins and of his men were ashore getting water, Frobisher in 1590, or the later cruises of some of the sick with scurvy had been Essex and Raleigh, and Sir Richard landed. Middleton had headed the Levison. Spaniards by a very little. His mes- It was probably about midday that sage was hardly given before Bazan's the English Squadron began to put to fleet was seen coming on, probably sea, and the last of the queen's ships to round the south end of the island which go was the Revenge. According to stretches from south to north. Lord Monson's version of the story, Grenville Thomas was clearly surprised. He had persuaded himself that the Spanish ships belonged to the long-expected destiny, let us take a look at her. She "tota” from the Indies. But this is is of "the second sort of the queen's clearly impossible. Sir Richard Gren- ships," a vessel of five hundred tons,. ville must have heard Middleton's mes- and is shorter than a clipper of that sage, and must have known that these tonnage. She is also broader in the were not the Indian ships, even if the beam, and built higher. Fore and aft course Don Alonso de Bazan was steer- she has castles, which are shut off from ing did not tell him as much. Raleigh's the space between by solid barriers called report, that his cousin strived to pick cobridges. The space between is called up the men on shore, is no doubt the the waist, and is lower than the castles. correct one. And for two reasons. The If it is invaded by the enemy, the crew Revenge was one of the best sailors can take refuge behind the cobridges, among the queen's ships, and would and clear the deck by their fire. She naturally be chosen when quick work carries a heavy armament of two demi might be required. Then, we may feel cannon, thirty-two pounds; four cannon confident that a gentleman who was petroes or perriers, twenty-four pounds; about to show such a fixed determina- ten culverins, seventeen pounds; six tion not to run when he had picked up demi culverins, nine pounds; five the men, was eminently unlikely to in- sakars, five pounds; and fourteen cur the disgrace of deserting her small pieces-forty-six pieces of ordMajesty's subjects.

nance in all. (Our ships were alAnyhow, the sick being duly on board, ways more heavily armed than the and there being nothing to delay him, Spaniards, and our arms were better.) Sir Richard followed the admiral. One Hercrew is of two hundred and fifty men, little victualler, the George Noble, of but there was not that number availLondon, had remained with the Re- able on the 31st August, 1591. Eighty venge. When the two stood out from or ninety sick were lying on the reeking the anchorage there must have been a ballast below. Many were dead, and great gap between them and the ships Raleigh gives one hundred as the numaround Lord Thomas Howard. The ber of those fit to fight and work. Sir admiral had gained the wind “very Richard Hawkins says that the queen hardly," says Raleigh. He had, in fact, paid wages to two hundred and sixty just had time to cross the route of the men, was by the pay books doth apSpaniards, who were coming up from pear;” but this may mean that she paid the south, and he had worked out to the the families of those who had fallen. west and north. As Don Alonso de The balance of evidence is that the ReBazan held on, he placed himself in the venge is short-handed; not that she is space between the bulk of the English crowded with extra men, as she must squadron and the Revenge with her have been if the queen paid two hunlittle attendant victualler. If Grenville dred and sixty survivors. She has endeavored to reach his admiral by the three masts, with a lateen sail on the course he was following, he must pass mizen, square sails on the main and fore, through the Spanish fleet. This is and a bowsprit, at the end of which what nobody expected he would at- is shipped an upright mast with a small tempt to do in “so great an impossibility square spritsail. She is not painted of prevailing." And Linschoten was black with a white band in the modern told that the men were standing with fashion, but in some bright color, pertheir hands on the sheets, expecting haps in more than one, and is freely the order to go about. And, in effect, carved and gilded at bow and stern and by turning before the wind and running round the portholes. And she flies the to the north-east, Grenville might have English ensign, the red cross of St. headed the Spaniards, and have re- George, and probably also the banner joined his admiral even if it had been of Sir Richard. The reader, by the necessary to round Corvo.

way, must not let Mr. Kingsley perBefore the Revenge goes to fulfil her suade him that the Spaniards of the

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