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the afternoon. At this time, while the of the vehicle, were discernible. It sun is yet hot, all shutters are closed, was all done so quickly, with such and the business of life, the haggling in military completeness of detail, that the market-place, the bustle of the bar- the carriages had passed through the rack-yard, the leisurely labor of the great doorway, and the troopers, fields are suspended. It

about merely a general's escort, had clattered four o'clock; indeed, the city clocks after them before the few onlookers were striking that hour when the two had fully realized that these carriages in the inn yard at Ciudad surely travellers of some note. Real were made ready for the road. The ostler hurried to the street Father Concha, who never took an ac- watch them go. tive part in passing incidents while his “They are going to the north," he old friend and comrade was near, sat said to himself, as he saw the carriages in a shady corner of the patio an:l turn in the direction of the river and smoked a cigarette. An affable ostler the ancient Puerta de Tuledo—"they go had, in vain, endeavored to engage him to the north, and assuredly the general in conversation. Two small children has come to conduct her to Toledo." had begged of him, and now he was Strange to say, although it was the left in meditative solitude.

hour of rest, many shutters in the nar“In a short three minutes,” said the row street were opened, and more than ostler, "and the excellencies can then one peeping face was turned toward depart. In which direction, reverendo, the departing carriages. if one may ask?"

“One may always ask, my friend," replied the priest. "Indeed, the holy books are of opinion that it cannot be overdone. That chin-strap is too tight."

From The New Review, “Ah! I see the reverendo knows

"AT FLORES IN THE AZORES." horse."

When Sir Richard Grenville, with “And an ass," added Concha.

curses and threats to hang any man who At this moment the general emerged laid hands on a rope, rejected the adfrom the shadow of the staircase, vice to "cut his mainsail, and cast which was open and of stone. He was about, and trust to the sailing of the followed by Estella, as it would appear, ship,” he knew he was going to do a and they hurried across the sunlighted feat of which the world would talk. patio, the girl carrying her fan to He was not mistaken. It talked in his screen her face.

own time, not always with admiration, “Are you rested, my child ?” asked and it has talked since, not always Concha, at the carriage door.

wisely. His story, never quite forgotThe lady lowered the fan for a mo- ten, became a puzzle, and was then rement and met his eyes. A quick look vived for purposes of

edification. of surprise flashed across Concha's Raleigh's "Report of the Fight about face, and he half bowed. Then he re- the Isles of Azores" told the tale intellipeated his question in a louder voice. gibly to his own generation; which en

"Are you rested, my child, after our joyed “Tamburlaine" and the Battle long journey ?"

of Alcazar, and, therefore, understood “Thank you, my father, yes."

him. But that generation itself has And the ostler watched

with open come to need interpretation. “The mouthed interest.

Honorable Tragedy of Sir Richard The other carriage had been drawn Grenville," which Gervase Markham up to that side of the courtyard where founded on the report, is but a wild the open stairway was, and here also whirl of words in ottava rima. It can the bustle of departure and a hurrying explain nothing to any man, except that female form, anxious to gain the shade Gervase Markham was an educated

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person, who knew that heathen gods tinued by Kingsley, who "went to and goddesses ought never to be left out

Froude for history,” fed by Mr. Arber of an heroic poem, and that decency re

with his reprints of Markham and of quired him to call Sir Richard "Thetis Raleigh's Report, and completed by paramour.” Then Sir William Monson, Tennyson's "Ballad of the Fleet.” Sir of the “Naval Tracts,” could see nothing Richard Grenville again became a hero, in the Grenville's fate more worthy of but strangely altered. He reappeared remark than this:-that it “truly veri- in Froude as “a godly and gallant genfied" "the old saying, that a wilful man

tleman, who had never turned his back is the cause of his own woe.” Monson upon an enemy, and was remarkable in was the forerunner of the modern naval that remarkable time for his constancy officer. “Now, Mr. O'Farrall,” said and daring.” He makes a sufficiently O'Brien, “I only wish to point out to romantic figure in "Westward Ho!" and you that I trust neither I, nor any one

in the "Ballad of the Fleet" he “makes in this ship, cares a fig about the whiz- his gesture" in an imposing way. zing of a shot or two about our ears, Tennyson's men and women rarely do when there is anything to be gained by more than make a gesture. But this it, either for ourselves or for our coun- new Sir Richard, who is only “goodly try; but I do care a great deal about and gallant,” or has been too obviously losing even the leg or the arm, much

influenced by Mr. Maurice, working more the life, of any of my men, when through Mr. Kingsley, is, though merito. there's no occasion for it; so in future, rious, not credible. He who lectures recollect it's no disgrace to keep out of

so wisely in "Westward Ho!" on elethe way of a battery, when all the ad- mentary morals, and who says in the vantage is on their side.” That is the "Ballad of the Fleet”voice of the modern naval officer, and of But I've ninety men and more that are common sense. Cochrane listened to it

lying sick ashore, when in 1805, and in these same waters

I should count myself the coward, if I round the Azores, he saved the Pallas left them, my Lord Howard, from a French squadron by running, To the Inquisition dogs, and the devildoms and also by a miracle of cool seaman

of Spain, ship. There was not a little of Gren- is too mild and too modern for the part ville in Cochrane, but if he had repeated the real man played in the world. If Grenville's defiance he would have been Grenville's aim had been to save his a pure madman, doing that for which the men, he would have cut his mainsail, code of honor of his time held no ex- and cast about, and trusted to the sailcuse. The difficulty has been to see ing of the ship. It was his clear duty; that both men were right in their time. and, if that was his purpose, he was Southey, who ought to have known fool and madman when “he utterly rebetter, for he had translated “Amadis fused to turn from the enemy ... perof Gaul,” and “Palmerin of England," suading his company that he would was puzzled by Grenville. Southey has pass through the two squadrons in deput it in print that Sir Richard “cannot spite of them, and enforce those of be justified for entering into the action Seville to give him way.” in which he lost his life;" but Southey If we want to understand how he added that "he supported it so bravely came to do what he did, and yet was that he raised the character of the neither fool nor madman, we must look British Navy, and thereby well entitled at the man in his own place. First, himself to the place which he contin- then, Sir Richard Grenville belonged to ues to hold in its annals."

a race to which a good fight and its own An act of madness redeemed by valor, honor were far more than the lives of but an example to be avoided-that was men-much more than their own, and the judgment of common sense on the incomparably more than their follow"fight about the Isles of Azores.” Then He was the son of Sir Roger Grencame a reaction, begun by Froude, con- ville, who was lost in the Mary Rose at Spithead during the French invasion of right to sacrifice the lives of his follow1545, and the grandson of Sir Richard ers if he could thereby earn honor for Grenville, who was Marshal of Calais himself and his house. Their honor was to Henry VIII. Through those two, to die with their lord. and a long line of gentlemen of Corn- The little known of him, and of his wall and Devon, he claimed to go back actions before 1591, goes to show that to Rolf the Ganger, and through him this was his code. He was born about and another long line of Norse jarls to 1540, and in 1566 applied for leave to go Odin. One does not ask a gentleman to abroad to fight against the Turks in prove a pedigree like that by charter Hungary. It has been said that he and seisin. The Grenvilles justified fought at Lepanto in 1571; but in 1570 their Norse blood by their characters. and in the following year he was memThe race did not end, nor even culmi- ber of Parliament in England, and we nate, in Sir Richard of the Revenge. He cannot believe in Lepanto, though one was the grandfather of Sir Bevil Gren- would wish to believe if one could. For ville, who headed the western rising for his religion, we know that in 1570 he the king in the Civil War, and fell fight- made a declaration of his submission to ing against the Parliament at Lans- the Act for Uniformity of Common downe. Sir Bevil Grenville, again, was Prayer and Service. He filled the office grandfather to the Grace Grenville who of sheriff, and, in fact, played his part was mother of the great Carteret of the as a country gentleman. He went beeighteenth century—the wit, scholar, yond it, and entered the life of advenstatesman, and magnificent great noble. ture of his time when he joined Sir It was a race of chiefs and fighting men Humphrey Gilbert in his colonizing which kept its quality of aristocratic schemes. There was kinship between valor, and its passionate individuality, Grenville and the Gilberts and Raacross centuries. The Norse nobles leighs. He made two voyages to the who would not submit to Harold Fair- West Indies and Virginia in 1585 and hair, would have understood Carteret 1586, landing in the Spanish islands to thoroughly. They drank mead out of levy contributions, taking prizes, and horns, and listened to the Skalds. He showing the Spaniards the unpleasant drank burgundy, and quoted Homer. side of their maxim: that there was But these are trifles, and in essentials no peace beyond the Line. Once he they were much the same stamp of took a prize by boarding her on a raft man. Sir Richard, who stood nearer made of cases, which sank immediately the Middle Ages, and amid the equally after he and his men had reached the sudden and wonderful expansion of deck. The colonists, whom he carried character, passion, and faculty in the to Virginia, and his fellow-adventurers whole people which marks the great with Raleigh took a view of him which queen's reign, had a chance of keeping is worth considering. Froude in hand. even closer to the original Viking type. Ralph Lane complained to Waisingham We must not expect to find him such a that he was "of an intolerable pride, man as Monson in his age, or many ex- and an insatiable ambition." and that cellent officers since, who have been he, Lane, desired to be freed from the abundantly brave, but cool, sensible, place in which Grenville was “to carry looking to the good that was to be got any authority in chief." Linschoten, for self or country by fighting, and by who was at the Azores when the fight "good" meaning the practical, material took place, heard probably that he was advantages. He was a noble in a wider “of nature cruel, so that his own people than the technical English sense; one hated him for his tyranny and feared whose blood was purer than others, him much." Linschoten tells strange who inherited with it the claim to lead, tales of his ways: "He was of so hard the obligation to set an example, the a complection, that as he continued disposition to prefer death in battle, among the Spanish captains while they and the firm conviction that it was his were at dinner or supper with him, he wvuld carouse three or four glasses of her council. With such a man ambition wine, and in a bravery take the glasses might direct itself towards making a between his teeth and crush them in splendid end. pieces and swallow them down, so that In 1591 Grenville, who had never yet oftentimes the blood ran out of his held an important command for the mouth, without any harm at all unto queen, was chosen to go as vicehim." It can be done; but one does not admiral to Lord Thomas Howard on a see the Sir Richard Grenville of "West- voyage to the Isles.

LIVING AGE. VOL. XIV. 743

ers.

These voyages ward Ho!" doing this act on drunken were common both with the queen's “bravery." Yet, if we do not believe ships and with private adventurers, and Linschoten for this, why is he to be very often the two combined. The obaccepted as a witness for the last ject was to wait for the Spanish treasspeech, which yet is too like life, too ure ships, which put in at the Azores much beyond the Dutchman's power for water and stores on the way home. of invention, to be rejected ? It may In 1590 an English squadron had shock the faith of some who imagine cruised round the Azores to no purpose, him consumed by horror of the "devil- and had returned without a prize. doms of Spain" to hear of Grenville's Philip had not recovered from the loss dinners and suppers with Spanish cap- of the Armada, and had been contains; but nothing is more probable. strained to order his ships not to sail In the intervals of fighting, noble ene- from America, for he knew that the mies could and did meet and hunt to English would be in wait, and he could gether, and carouse. Grenville was on afford no protection. It was a disaspleasant terms enough with the Span- trous necessity; since it went far to stop iards in his voyage of 1585—between his supplies, and it exposed his ships to one piece of plunder and another. The the ravages of the "teredo," the boring Spanish hidalgo and the English gen- worm of tropical seas. So by 1591 he tleman had more in common with each could wait no longer for his treasure, other than either had with the plebeians and he had reconstructed a squadron in on his own side. When Götz of the Iron Spain. Still, he ordered the convoyHand, being then about to fall upon a the flota-to come late: partly because caravan, saw the wolves come out of he hoped that the ships of Lord Thomas the wood and begin to worry the sheep, Howard would be constrained to return he stood up in his stirrups and shouted, home by want of provisions, partly be“Good luck to us all, gentlemen!" The cause he wanted time to complete the brave Götz had a share of the saving squadron which was to meet the conquality of humor. It has been denied

voy and see it safe back to Spain. But to such as cannot feel happy with a Lord Thomas was kept well supplied fighting man, till they have diluted him with provisions from home by means to the point at which he becomes fit to of victuallers. These were armed, and be presented to a young ladies' board- very capable of taking prizes, but not a ing-school.

match for a heavy galleon; most of What, then, we know of Sir Richard them being of from ninety to one hunGrenville is this: that he was proud to dred and twenty tons. Meanwhile, ana degree which some found intolerable, other English squadron, belonging to ambitious, fierce, of a heavy hand on the Earl of Cumberland and other adhis subordinates, and of a soaring valor. venturers, was prowling on the coast In 1591 he was about fifty, and his am- of Spain. So in August the position bition had not been satisfied, for he was was this. The flota was on its way not among the great men about the home, having left the Gulf of Florida, queen. One whose voice was sure to be and having stood to the north till it was always for war would have no friend on the fortieth parallel, well out of the in Burleigh, and Elizabeth, though she easterly trade winds, and above the might like him well enough as courtier Sargasso Sea. It was badly bored by and captain, would keep him aloof from the worm; in need of docking-which it

could not get in the West Indies; over- had never expected to have to deal with laden with accumulations of merchan- a fighting fleet from Spain. Of the dise. It had already suffered heavy ships with him four were of the second loss from storms. And now it was roll- rank of the queen's vessels-his own ing along before the westerly winds of flagship, the Defiance, the Revenge, the the North Atlantic; as helpless a mass Bonaventure, commanded by Captain of booty as any admiral could wish to Crosse, the Lion, of which George Fensee sail into his hands. And Lord ner was captain. Two, the Foresight, Thomas Howard was cruising between Captain Vavassor, and the Crane, CapFlores and Corvo, the two most west- tain Duffield, were smaller. The Bark erly of the Azores. He had with him Raleigh might pass among the queen's six of the queen's ships, the Bark ships. But the private ships and the Raleigh, belonging to Sir Walter, two victuallers were small craft, good to or three private vessels, and the vic. take merchantmen, but not to fight tuallers-sixteen sail in all. There was galleons. fever and scurvy among his men, as To a sensible officer the one course was commonly the case after a cruise of was to get to sea, and to windward of any length, when large crews were the Spaniards, as fast as possible. If crowded into small ships; when food Don Alonso was allowed to come up on was saved by putting six upon the ra- the west side of the island before the tions of four; when the ballast was of English had time to stand out, he shingle or sand; when the galley fire might get the wind of them and pin stood on the ballast, which was soaked them against the land. Although the in bilge water enriched by all the drain. Elizabethan seamen enjoy a reputation ings of the vessel.

for desperate valor, their fighting with Cumberland was watching on the the Spanish galleons was commonly coast of Spain. In Cadiz a Spanish very cautious. It was their regular squadron was being fitted for sea under course to get to windward, and then to the command of Don Alonso de Bazan, rely on their heavier guns and better the brother of the Marquess of Santa gunnery, to make the most of a long Cruz, who was to have commanded the bowls fight. The queen had few ships, Armada. It consisted of fifty-three and was very chary of them. Her offivessels, twenty of them warships, and cers knew that they would not easily be the others "urcas,"-victuallers carry- forgiven for losing a vessel; and so they ing food for the galleons and the home- played for safety in battle. The course coming flota. Don Alonso sailed followed by Lord Thomas was, there. towards the end of August and was fore, perfectly consistent with the pracsighted at once by Cumberland's ships. tice of the time; even if it had not been One of them, the Moonshine, com- dictated by the circumstances of this manded by a Captain Middleton, kept particular case. And but for the prescompany with the slow sailing Span- ence of Grenville in the fleet, all the iards till it was sure that they were ships would have got off; there would heading for the Azores. Then Middle- have been no action with the Spaniards; ton stood on to warn Lord Thomas and the voyage to the Isles of 1591 On the 31st August he found him at the would have been no more memorable north end of Flores at anchor. Some than the voyage of Hawkins and of his men were ashore getting water, Frobisher in 1590, or the later cruises of some of the sick with scurvy had been Essex and Raleigh, and Sir Richard landed. Middleton had headed the Levison. Spaniards by a very little. His mes- It was probably about midday that sage was hardly given before Bazan's the English Squadron began to put to fleet was seen coming on, probably sea, and the last of the queen's ships to round the south end of the island which go was the Revenge. According to stretches from south to north. Lord Monson's version of the story, Grenville Thomas was clearly surprised. He had persuaded himself that the Spanish

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