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and hesitatingly approached his pas- and the noise and bustle of the streets senger.
reach their height. “Well, why were you frightened, “Driver, to the Wiburger suburb." you silly fool? I was-merely joking hears Jona. “Driver!" and you became alarmed. Get in." Jona starts, and from between his
"The Lord be with you, sir,” grum- snow-laden eyelashes sees an officer in bled Klim as he clambered into the cloak and hood. cart. "If I had only known I would “To the Wiburger suburb!" repeats not have driven you, not for a hun- the officer. “Are you asleep?" dred roubles. I am nearly dead with As a sign that he understands, Jona fright.”
gathers up his reins, thereby causing Klim struck the horse-the cart great flakes of snow to fall from the shook-again he struck, the cart horse's back and shoulders. The offiswayed. At the fourth blow the cart cer seats himself in the sleigh. The was fairly in motion.
driver clicks with his tongue, stretches The land surveyor pulled his coat his neck like a swan, and cracks his collar up over his ears. Apparently whip more from force of habit than neither Klim nor the neighborhood in- necessity. The horse stretches out his spired him any longer with fear. neck, bends his wooden legs, and
sways from side to side in an unde
cided manner. SORROW,
From the dark swerving mass be. “To whom shall I tell my sorrow ?”—Russian hind Jona issues a voice, “Where are Song.
you going, you devil's limb? What are Twilight has set in. Great snow you trying to do? Keep to the right. flakes circle slowly round the street You don't know how to drive. Keep to lamps, sinking in thin soft heaps on the right," repeats the officer wraththe roofs, the horses' backs, on fully. men's shoulders and caps. The driver, The driver of another carriage Jona. Potapow, is as white any swears at him. A foot-passenger who ghost. He sits on the coachbox in as wishes to cross the road and knocks up crooked a position as a human body against the horse's head glares furican possibly assume, quite motionless. ously at him as he shakes the snow Apparently, he would not think it nec- from his sleeve. Jona wriggles on his essary to shake the snow off, even if box as if he were sitting on pins and an entire snowdrift fell on him. His needles, Alings bis arms about from little horse stands quite still, also cor- side to side, and gazes helplessly ered with snow. Rawboned and knock- around him as if he failed to underkneed, it is for all the world like one stand where he was or what he was of those gingerbread horses that you doing. buy at the fairs. It is, apparently, "What rogues there in this deep in thought. If you take a horse world!" cries the officer. "All these away from the plough, tear it away people seem determined to collide with from its surroundings, and immerse it you and your horse. There is certainly in this whirl of strange lights, of hur- a conspiracy against you." rying men and incessant noise, it can Jona looks round at his fare and surely not do otherwise than think. moves his lips. He evidently wishes
It is some considerable time since to say something, but only hoarse Jona and his horse have remained in murmur escapes his throat. the same place. They began their day "What?” says the officer. very early in the morning, but nobody Jona forces a smile to his lips, clears had required their services. Now the his throat, and says huskily: "Sir, I evening mist is covering the town. As have lost-my son-died this week, the darkness deepens, the pale light of sir." the street lamps grows more brilliant “Ha! what did he die of?"
Jona turns quite round towards the little brother!
I don't suppose you officer and says, “Who can tell? Prob- could find such a miserable-looking ably of fever. He was three days in thing in the whole of Petersburg." hospital and then died. It was God's “Ho, ho, ho!" laughs Jona. "My hat will."
is just what it is." "Out of the way, Satan!" comes a “It is just what it is, is it? Then voice from the darkness. “Are you hurry your horse a little. Are you gomad, you old dog? Why don't you use ing to drive like this the whole way? your eyes?"
Do you want a knock on the head?" “Drive quicker,” says the fare. “At "My head aches,” said of the this rate we shall not arrive till to others. "Yesterday, Waska and I morrow. Hurry your horse."
went to Dumanskij's and drank three The driver stretches out his neck, bottles of brandy." raises himself on the box, and swings "I cannot understand why people his whip with dubious grace. Once or tell such lies," retorted the other, antwice he glances round at his passen- grily. "You lie like a newspaper.” ger, but the officer has closed his eyes, "May the Almighty punish me if it and is evidently not inclined to play is not true." the part of listener. After his fare has “It is as true as the saying that lice got out at the Wiburger Street, Jona sneeze." draws up in front of an inn and "Ho, ho, ho!" laughed Jona, "what mains crouching motionless on the merry gentlemen! God keep you in box. The snowflakes adorn him and health!" his horse with a transparent coat of “The devil fly away with you!” exwhite. An hour passes, and yet an- claimed the humpback, wrathfully. other. Three young men pass by on “Will you drive properly, or not, you the pavement, wrangling with one an- old donkey? Do you call that driving? other, and stamping loudly with their Why don't you whip up your horse? galoshes; two of them are tall and Now then, you old rascal, again-a thin, the third is short and hump- good hard blow." backed.
Jona feels the moving body behind “Drive to tne Police Bridge," cries him, and notices how the humpback's the humpback. “There are three of voice shakes. He hears the abuse ler. us-twenty kopecks.
elled at him, sees the young men, and Jona draws up his reins and clicks the feeling of utter loneliness and deshis tongue. Twenty kopecks is barely olation begins to give way little. a third of the fare; but just now he The humpback goes on abusing him cares for nothing. Whether it is until he can do so no longer, and be. rouble or whether it is five kopecks, it gins to cough. The two others conmatters nothing to him so long as he verse about certain Natalia Pegets listeners.
trovna. Jona turns and looks at them. The young men get into the sleigh, A slight pause occurs in the conversapushing and scolding, all three trying tion; he seizes the opportunity, and to sit down on the seat, which only once more looking round he mulholds two-they dispute as to who murs: shall sit and who stand.
“This week I lost-this week my son After a good deal of grumbling and died." word-bandying, it is settled that the "We must all die,” sighed the hump. humpback, being the smallest, shall back, wiping his lips as he stopped stand.
coughing. “Get on, get on. Really, “Now then, get on,” cries the hump- gentlemen, I can no longer put up with back in husky tones as he stands be- this pace. When are we likely to reach hind the driver, his breath coming our destination?" short and thick on Jona's neck.
“Give him the whip-hit him on the “Go on-what a queer hat you have, neck!"
“Are you asleep, old fool? I shall overflow, it would overwhelm the soon belabor you with my fists. If one world, although at present it is quite talks gently to people of your kind one invisible. Sorrow oft hides itself in would have to walk. Do you hear, old such unostentatious guise that it house? Or don't you care a kopeck for passes entirely unobserved even in all I say?"
broad daylight. Jona sees a man-serJona hears, much more than he feels, vant with a sack in his hand, and dethe blow on the neck which
cides to begin conversation with panies the words."
him: "Ho, ho!" he laughs. “What merry "My friend, what time is it?" be gentlemen! God send you
good asks. health!''
“Ten o'clock. What are you doing Without regard for his age or his evi- here? Drive on!" dent distress of mind they abuse him Jona drives about ten paces further and strike him; but he heeds it not off, sits crouched upon his box, and and, indeed, is rather pleased than abandons himself to his grief-he is at otherwise, for it distracts his attention last convinced of the futility of his atfrom the grief which gnaws at his tempts to get sympathy from his felbosom and oppresses him. One nail low men. But scarcely five minutes drives out another. If you tread on have elapsed before he gathers up his the tail of a cat who has toothache, she reins, shivering as if in a sudden acfeels better directly.
cess of pain. He can no longer bear it. “Driver, are you married ?" asks one "Home,” thinks he, “I must go home.” of the tall young men.
And as if the horse had guessed his “I? Ho, ho, what merry gentlemen! thoughts, it breaks into a trot. Hall Only one wife remains for me-Mother an hour later, Jona is sitting by the big Earth. Ho, ho, ho! that is to say, the dirty stove. On the shelf above, on grave! My son is dead, and yet I am the floor below, on the benches around, alive. It is a queer thing that Death everywhere men sleeping. The should have mistaken the address. atmosphere is stale and close. Jona Instead of coming to me, he went to looks at the sleeping figures, scratches my son.” And Jona turned round to his ear, and regrets having returned so relate to the young men how his son early. "I have not even earned the died, when the humpback declared, price of a feed of oats," thinks he, with a sigh of relief, that, thank God, "that is why I am so sad. A man who they have arrived at last.
attends properly to his business, He receives his twenty kopecks, and whose horse is well fed, and whose looks after the young men long after own stomach is full, is always happy. they have vanished into a dark A young driver rises from the corner trance. Once more he is alone, and of the room, coughs sleepily, and goes once more begins the feeling of utter to the water-jug. loneliness. The grief that has been
thirsty, brother?" asks lulled for so short a time begins afresh Jona. to gnaw his heart-strings, and threatens "As you see, I am thirsty." to break them. Jona's eyes, full of "Ah, well, I hope you will enjoy your grief, follow restlessly the masses of drink. But, brother, do you know that people who flit past him on both sides my son is dead? In hospital this of the street. Amongst all these thou- week. You may perhaps have heard sands is there not one w is prepared of it. It is quite a his ry." to listen to him? Nothing is so beau- Jona watches the effect of his words, tiful as human sympathy. But every. but fails to perceive that they make body rushes past, leaving him alone any impression. The driver has corwith his sorrow. His sorrow is im- ered up his head and is already asleep measurable, passing all bounds-if his again. The old man sighs and breast were to burst, and his sorrow to scratches his ear. The thirst for sym
pathy is as strong in him as
From The Cornhill Magazine. the thirst for water in
GHOSTS AND RIGHT REASON. driver.
The editor has asked me to say someIt is nearly a week since his thing about ghosts and the ghostly: I died, and he has not yet had an oppor- therefore venture to make an appeal in tunity of talking over the misfortune favor of a rational treatment of the with anybody. It is a thing to be dis- topic. It is certainly an objection to all cussed calmly, soberly. One must tell such studies that they seem to lower how the son fell sick, how he suffered, the logical tone of most inquirers. One what he said before he died, how he scarcely knows whether believers or died. His funeral must be described, unbelievers are the more prejudiced as well as the visit to the hospital to and the less reasonable. One devotee fetch away the dead man's clothes. of modern science bids us reject the
Away in a little village lives his or whole theme, because it may produce a phan child. Anissja-she must be recrudescence of superstition! This is talked over. Is all this then little or worthy of "the dreadful consequences nothing to talk about? The listener argufiers," as Professor Huxley called should sigh and groan, breathe broken some of his orthodox opponents. We words of sympathy. Women make cannot reject Darwinism because it is particularly good listeners. Although wrested into an excuse for immortality they are mostly fools, still they gen- by M. Daudet's "Strugforlifeur," or M. erally begin to cry at once.
Bourget's "Disciple;" nor can we "I had better to my horse," fuse to examine evidence for the thinks Jona. “It will be time enough called "ghostly" because it may ento sleep afterwards."
courage other fools in other follies. He dresses and goes to the horse's Truth is to be sought heedless of consestall. He thinks about oats, hay, and quences; so the scientific people keep the weather. When he is alone he telling us. dare not think of his son. To talk On the other side, even scientific reaabout him to some one else is all very soners, eminent in their own field, well, but alone, to think of him, to re- when engaged ghostly territory call his presence—that is beyond his often neglect all rules of logic and comstrength.
mon sense, if they are inclined to be. "Are you feeding?" says Jona to his lieve. They prefer the unestablished, horse, as he sees its eyes shining in the unverified, barely conceivable, abnordarkness. “Well, eat away. When mal explanation to a well-understood we can no longer pay for oats we must vera causa, and think it more likely that eat hay. Yes, I am too old for driving. a lady went to church "in the spirit" My son ought to bave driven, not 1. than that she went in cab! They He was a right good driver-he should even err about plain matters of geograhave been alive now.” Jona is silent phy, through a recklessness which, in for a little while and then begins again. other speculations, would never tempt "So it is, dear little mare, Kusmu them. Ionitsch is no more—he desired to live If the Scribes and Pharisees (and longer-but he died without further Sadducees) of Science, on both sides, do ado. Suppose you had a foal, and that thus err, who can marvel at the blunyou were that foal's real live mother? ders of Publicans and Philistines, and -your foal desired to live long, but it Spiritualists? Whenever ghosts are died. Would you not be sad about spoken of certain elderly fallacies are it?"
invariably reproduced. The mare munches away, listens and (1) "Nobody ever knew any one who breathes gently on her master's hand. had seen a ghost; we only meet people With a sudden inspiration, Jona re- who know somebody who
one." lates everything to his little mare. Taking "ghost" merely as a popular de
scription of an undetermined phenom- than they are. Besides, in scientific enon, this is absurd. I generally reply, works on hallucination we do not find “Now you see in me, simple as I sit that hallucinations
frequently here, somebody who has seen what you caused by dyspepsia. call a ghost." I choose the following (4) “It was all a trick." Now there example of this fallacy from an essay are examples of "spiritual manifestaby Mr. Goldwin Smith (the Forum, tions” so-called caused by trickery, but July, 1896): "It cannot be necessary to this proposition cannot be converted discuss such fictions. The only case, so into “Trickery causes all spiritual man. far as we are aware, in which there is ifestations.” anything like first-hand evidence, is There are real diamonds, though that of the warning apparition to Lord paste exists; nay, there would be no Lyttelton, which may be explained as paste if there were no diamonds.
In the masked suicide of voluptuary each case we have to go by the evisated with life.”
dence. As a “rider” to No. 4 we have, How can a “warning apparition” be “Eusapia took in a crowd of scientific “a masked suicide”? In any case we people; therefore the whole subject is have the apparition only at second nonsense." Distinguo, Eusapia did hand, from people (such Rowan take in some scientific people; others reHamilton) to whom Lord Lyttelton told served their judgment, and finally dethe story. At something more like first tected an imposture of which they had hand we have the death-bed wraith of always publicly recognized the sympLord Lyttelton himself, which came toms. from Epsom into Mr. Andrews's bed- As an example of recklessness of eviroom at Deptford! But why trouble dence, on the sceptical side, I may say with an old set of testimonies? Mr. Gold- that I was accused, by a scientific jourwin Smith will find plenty of signed nal, of having examined, and been deand attested accounts of "ghosts" at ceived, by Eusapia. I never went near first hand, from well known, honorable, her; I am not a conjuror or a scientifie and living witnesses, in the publica- person; my evidence would not count. tions of the Society for Psychical Re- I only said that Mr. Maskelyne should search. Evidence cannot be more for inspect the lady. But a scientific permal, more contemporary, or more "at son took it for granted that I was one first hand.” How happens it then that of her victims, and said so. Moreover Mr. Goldwin Smith knows first- a society devoted to a very wide range hand evidence, or "anything like it," of topics, many of them strictly scienexcept in Lord Lyttelton's case? There tific, cannot be exploded by a mistake is absolutely no reason for suspecting made by one or two members in an outthat Lord Lyttelton committed suicide, lying theme. One member of one sosave that the theory gets rid of the ciety may say, "There is a bogey," as ghost. And that is superfluous; his one member of another society may lordship's mental condition at the time say, "There is not a God," but the two makes his ghost story "not evidential." societies need not share the burden of Of this I give evidence (not first-hand) these hasty conclusions. in the “Life of John Gibson Lockhart." (5) “But I don't any
in (2) "Ghosts are only seen after din- ghosts. What purpose do they serve?" ner." This is contrary to all the evi- This is perhaps the commonest fallacy dence. “After dinner," besides, does of all. I don't see any use in argon, but not mean with us what it meant when that is no argument against its existthe venerable jest was first invented. ence. What purpose does the sensible We do not get drunk at dinner any universe serve? Plenty of things exist
-everything, in fact-I really do not (3) “Ghosts are the results in- know why. digestion.” In that case they ought to (6) "But ghosts are so foolish. Why be very much more common phenomena do they behave like that?" Really, as