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university. I had been taught to ad- known him then, have hardly known mire Tennyson by my young friends at him at all. During the day he was Oxford, many of whom were enthusias- often very silent and absorbed in his tic worshippers of the poet. My friends own thoughts, but in the evening he often forgot that I had been brought took an active part in the conversation up on German poetry, and that though of his friends. His pipe was almost inI knew Heine Rückert, Eichendorff, dispensable to him, and I remember Chamisso, and Geibel, to say nothing one time when I and several friends of Goethe, Schiller, Bürger, and even were staying at his house, the question Klopstock, their allusions to Tennyson, of tobacco turned up. I confessed that Browning, nay, to Shelley and Keats, for years I had been a perfect slave to often fell by the wayside and were en- tobacco, so that I could neither read nor tirely lost on me.

write a line without smoking, but that However, I soon learnt to enjoy Ten- at last I had rebelled against this nyson's poetry, its finish, its delicacy, slavery, and had entirely given up its moderation-I mean, the absence of tobacco. Some of his friends taunted all extravagance; yet there is but one Tennyson that he could never give up of his books which has remained with tobacco. “Anybody can do that,” he me a treasure for life, his "In Memo- said, "if he chooses to do it.” When riam.” To have expressed such deep, his friends still continued to doubt and true, and original thought as is con

to tease him, "Well,” he said, “I shall tained in each of these short poems in

give up smoking from to-night.” The such perfect language, to say nothing very same evening I was told that he of rhyme,

indeed triumph. threw his pipes and his tobacco out of Tennyson was very kind to me, and the window of his bedroom. The next took a warm interest in my work, par- day he was most charming, though ticularly in my mythological studies. somewhat self-righteous. The second I well remember his being struck by a day he became very moody and capmetaphor in my first essay

com- tious, the third day no one knew what parative mythology, published in 1856, to do with him. But after a disturbed and his telling me so. I had said that night I was told that he got out of bed the sun in his daily passage across the in the morning, went quietly into the sky had ploughed a golden furrow garden, picked up one of his broken through the human brain, whence pipes, stuffed it with the remains of the sprang in ancient times the first germs tobacco scattered about, and then, havof mythology, and afterwards the rich ing had a few puffs, came to breakfast, growth of religious thought.

all right again. Nothing was said any "I don't know," he said, "whether the more about giving up tobacco. simile is quite correct, but I like it.” I

He once very kindly offered to lend was of course very proud that the great me his house in the Isle of Wight; but poet should have pondered on any sen

mind,” he said, "you will be watched tence of mine, and still more that he from morning till evening.” This was should have approved of my theory of

in fact his great grievance, that he seeing in mythology a poetical inter- could not go out without being stared pretation of the great phenomena of na

at. Once taking a walk with me and ture. But it was difficult to have

a my wife on the downs behind his house, long discussion with him.

He was

he suddenly started, left us, and ran fond of uttering short and decisive sen- home, simply because he had descried tences: his yes was yes indeed, and his two strangers coming towards us. no was no indeed.

I was told that he once complained It was generally after dinner, when to the queen, and said that he could smoking his pipe and sipping his whis- no longer stay in the Isle of Wight, on key and water, that Tennyson began to account of the tourists who came to thaw, and to take a more active part stare at him. The queen, with a kindly in conversation. People who have not irony, remarked that she did not suf



fer much from that grievance, but present during the heat of the battle, Tennyson, not seeing what she meant, and to inspire those who stood near replied, “No, madam, and if I could his place to great deeds of valor? clap a sentinel wherever I liked, I Browning was neither of Cambridge should not be troubled either."

nor of Oxford, but his genius was much It must be confessed that people were more akin to Oxford than to Cambridge, very inconsiderate. Rows of tourists and towards the end of his life, particusat like sparrows on the paling of his larly after his son had entered Balliol garden, waiting for his appearance. College, he was very often seen amongst The guides were actually paid by sight- us. Though he was not what we call seers, particularly by those from a scholar, his mind was saturated with America, for showing them the great classical lore, and his appreciation of poet. Nay, they went so

far to Greek poetry, Greek mythology, and dress up a sailor to look like Tennyson, Greek sculpture was very keen. He and the result was that, after their could not quote Greek verses, but he trick had been found out, the tourists was steeped in the Greek tragedians would walk up to Tennyson and ask and lyric poets. Of course this classihim, “Now, are you the real Tenny- cal sympathy was but one side of his son?" This, no doubt, was very an- poetry. Browning was full of symnoying, and later on Lord Tennyson pathy, nay of worship, for anything was driven to pay a large sum for some noble and true in literature, ancient or useless downs near his house, simply modern. And what was most delightin order to escape from the attentions ful in him was his ready response, his of admiring travellers.

generosity in pouring out his own Why should not people be satisfied thoughts before anybody who shared with the best that a poet is and can his sympathies. For real and substangive them, namely his poetry? Few tial conversation there was no one his poets are greater than their poetry, and equal, and even in the lighter afterTennyson was not one of them. Like dinner talk he admirable. His many great poets, such as Victor Hugo, health seemed good, and he was able for instance, the worship that was paid to sacrifice much of his time to society. him by many who came to see him was He had one great advantage, he never painful to him and to his friends. Ten- consented to spoil his dinner by maknyson frequently took flight from his ing, or, what is still worse, by having intending Boswells, and was the very to make a speech. I once felt greatly last man to appreciate the "Il parle” aggrieved, sitting opposite Browning at by which in Paris all conversation was one of the Royal Academy dinners. I husbed whenever Victor Hugo was had to return thanks for literature and present at a dinner and spoke to his scholarship, and was of course rehearsneighbor, possibly only to ask him for ing my speech during the whole of dinthe menu.

ner time, while he enjoyed himself People have learnt after his death talking to his friends. When I told what a possession they had in Tenny- him that it was a shame that I should son. He may not rank among the be made a martyr of while he was engreatest poets of England, but there joying his dinner in peace, he laughed, was something high and noble in him and said that he had said No once for which reacted on the nation at large, all, and that he had never in his life even though that influence was not made a public speech. I believe, as a perhaps consciously realized. Anybow, rule, poets not good speakers. after his death it was widely felt that they are too careful about what they there was nobody worthy to fill bis wish to say. Still I felt it was haril on place; and why was it not left empty, me, and I became more and more conas in the Greek army, where, we are vinced of the etymological identity of told, a place of honor was left open for honor and onus. At last my turn came. a great hero who was supposed to be Having to face the brilliant society



which is always present at this dinucr, murdered some of the poems I liked including the Prince of Wales, the min. best, they sighed and groaned and isters of both parties, the most eminent poured out strange interjections, meant artists, scientists, authors and critics, to be indicative of rapture. I had, of course, learnt my speech by There is a definiteness in Tennyson's heart, and was getting on very well, poetry which makes it easy to recite when suddenly I saw the Prince of and even to declaim his poems, while Wales laughing and saying something many of Browning's compositions do to his neighbor. At once the thread of not lend themselves at all to viva voce my speech was broken. I began to repetition. There is always a superthink whether I could have said any- abundance of thought and feeling in thing that made the prince laugh, and them, and his mastery of rhyme and what it could have been, and while I rhythm proved a temptation which he was thinking in every direction, I sud- could not always resist. One often denly stood speechless. I thought it wished that some of Browning's poems was an eternity, and I was afraid I could have passed through the Tenny. should have to collapse and make tlic sonian sieve, to take away all that is greatest fool of myself that ever was. unnecessary in them, and to moderate I looked at Browning, and he gave me his exuberant revelling in language. a friendly nod, and at that moment y Still his friends know what they posgrapple-irons caught the last cable and sess in his poetry. When they are sad, I was able to finish my speech. When he makes them joyful; when they exit was over I turned to Browning and ult, he tones them down; when they are said, “Was it not fearful, that pause;" hungry, he feeds them; when they are "Far from it," he said, "it was excel. poor, he makes them rich; and, like a lent. It gave life to your speech. true prophet, he knows how to bring Everybody saw you were collecting fresh water out of the rocks, out of the your thoughts, and that you were not com monest events in our journey simply delivering what you had learnt through the desert of life. It is a pity by heart. Besides, it did not lasi hali that his poetry does not lend itself to a minute.” To me it bad seemeil at translation. Perhaps he is too thorleast five or ten minutes. But after oughly English, perhaps his sentences Browning's good-natured words I felt are too labyrinthine even for German relieved, and enjoyed at least what was readers. Anyhow, Browning is kuown left of a most enjoyable dinner. much less abroad than Tennyson, and

The best place to see Browning was if translatableness is a test of true Venice, and I think it was there that poetry, his poetry would not stand that I saw him for the last time. He was test well. staying in one of the smaller palaces To have known such men as Tenny. with a friend, and he was easily per- son and Browning is indeed a rare forsuaded to read some of his poems. I tune. It helps us in two ways. We asked him for his poem on Andrea del are preserved from extravagant adSarto, and his delivery was most sim- miration, which is always stupid; and, ple and yet most telling. He was a far on the other hand, we can enjoy even better reader than Tennyson. His insignificant verses of theirs, as coming voice was natural, sonorous, and full from our friends and lighting up some of delicate shades; while Tennyson read corner of their character. There are in so deep a tone, that it was like the

where personal acquaintance rumbling and rolling sound of the sea with the poets actually spoils our taste rather than like a human voice. His for their poetry, which we might otheradmirers, both gentlemen and ladies, wise have enjoyed; and to imagine that who thought that everything he did one knows a poet better because must be perfect, encouraged him in has once shaken hands with him, is a that kind of delivery; and while to me fatal mistake. It would be far better it seemed that he had smothered and to go at once to Westminster Abbey,


one our





and spend a few thoughtful moments cupy the coast towns; to call upon at the tombs of such poets as Tennyson Greece to let Europe take the island in or Browning, for there, at all events, charge-such were the successive or there would be no disappointment. simultaneous steps taken by the F. MAX MULLER. Western Cabinets. Perhaps they

ought to have been a little quicker, and to have peacefully, but resolutely, cut off the way from Greek intermeddling by blockading the ports of the king

dom. Their policy is perfectly consoFrom The Nineteenth Century. nant with the best traditions of THE CRETAN QUESTION.

century. They have a right to ask the Who knows if this Cretan crisis, public not to deliver itself up wholly which has burst out at the most un to hysterics, but to try to judge a great toward season, just when the powers complex situation, not with its nerves were about at last to take in hand, only, but with its

and after such procrastination, the work science, and in relation to the whole of reform at Constantinople, may not duty of civilized nations. be, nevertheless, a blessing in dis- Nobody is more convinced than I am guise? Undoubtedly it is a just re- of the greatness and of the legitimacy ward for the incredible supineness of the future of Hellenism. I see in it with which diplomacy has let time fly the heir-apparent to a great part of the after the settlement of the 25th of Au- succession of the Sick Man.

I am gust, 1896. There is, besides, a broader happy to think a time will come when Nemesis taking vengeance that these fair lands of eastern Europe and pusillanimous policy which dares only western Asia, now blighted by the to deal piecemeal with the Eastern despotism or anarchy of the Ottoman problem, and which, anxious to make system, will once more prosper inder the task more easy by balancing and the enlightened and liberal governshuffling and trimming, has not taken ment of the offspring of Solon and to heart the lesson of the Hydra of Perikles. What is more, I

perLerna and of her innumerable heads fectly disposed to admit, not only the only to be cut down at a blow.

justice of the hope and dreams of HelHowever, if the powers understand lenes, of that Great Idea which their this last teaching of events, if they statesmen and simple citizens so pasare firmly resolved at once to maintain sionately entertain, but the perfect the beneficent, necessary agreement right of an enfranchised nation to go between themselves which is just now to the assistance of enslaved and sufthe only bulwark of peace, and to take fering brethren and to strike a blow time by the forelock in order to give for their salvation. The memories of Crete the measure of self-government the War of Independence, of the heroic to which it is entitled, and which achievements of Canaris, Botzari, and would more than satisfy the immediate their fellows, of Missolonghi and aspirations of its citizens, I, for one, Chios, of the Philhellenism of shall see in this emergency, at one mo- fathers, of Byron and Chateaubriand, ment so threatening for the tranquil- of the romanticism and of the Orility of the world, a providential inter. entales, are not so very far from ference in a most complicated business. that we can wholly shake them off. Let us keep or

cool. Only let us try to look facts in the face headedness. The problem is certainly and not to be taken in by catchwords pot insoluble. The powers have, by and phrases and mere humbug. instinct and unpremeditatedly, put Is it or is it not certain that, Crete their finger on the true means of solu- once occupied by the marines of the tion. To act unanimously; to forbid to European navies, the powers will the Porte the sending of troops; to oc- never give it back to the tender mercies






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of immediate Turkish administration? Dynastic considerations, the fear

of Is it or is it not true that, though the revolution, are all very well; but it is, Cretans have a perfect right to what after all, a little too much to ask the has been justly called the irreducible whole of Europe to endanger its most minimum of necessary liberties, it sacred interests in order to preserve would be a monstrous madness to put either Greece or the Greek royal famthe peace of the world in peril in order ily from such perils. to gratify, I do not even say their own There is something highly significant aspirations, but the pretensions of a in seeing the family courts—I mean neighboring people, to that luxury, in- the sovereigns most nearly related or corporation with the kingdom of allied to the Greek dynasty-display Greece? Is it or is it not true that the sternest, or rather the harshest, Greece at the present time does not severity in their proposals against furnish any perfect guarantee of being King George and his policy. Russia able to govern as it ought to be gov- and Germany have proposed, if Greece erned this Ireland of the Ægean Sea, proves obdurate, to blockade the Pi. with fierce racial and religious

ræus. Such a proposal comes best, if flicts, and with a Mahometan minority it is to come at all, from the high and exposed to the bate and vengeance of mighty personages who have it rightly a Christian majority? Is the bank- at heart to repudiate any solidarity ruptcy of Greece a favorable indica with the freaks of a near relation. tion of its ability to administer the However, the powers are not at all embarrassed finances of Crete? And, obliged to go immediately to such exfinally, is it not a fact that the recent tremities. Their policy has two faces, massacres in Crete have been not of two correlative parts. If it forbids but by Christians, not by but of Ma- Greece to annex Crete, it promises hometans? Let us purge our minds of Crete freedom and Home Rule. It is cant. The powers have a perfect right difficult to see why they should not use to forbid Greece the annexation manu the liberal and generous part of their militari of Crete. They have a perfect policy in order to expedite the prohibiright to insist on the recall of Prince tive and austere part. Everybody George and the flotilla. They have a must grant it as much better to conperfect right, in case of obstinate con vince than to constrain, and to get the tumacy, to have recourse to coercion free assent of Greece to the European and to blockade the Piræus. Nothing, liberation of Crete than to impose by in fact, would be worse, not only for threats and measures of coercion Europe itself, but for the happy and sulky abstention on the kingdom. peaceful solution of the Eastern crisis, Lord Salisbury, in asking the Cabithan for the powers to be defied and nets to declare their intentions relafooled by a small state, their ward and tively to the formation in Crete of a their spoiled child.

new Samos or a new Cretan Roumelia, Therefore we cannot feel or express before proceeding to threaten or coerce any anger against the courts who have Greece, has only put into words what initiated a policy of stern and severe was in the mind of three at least of the reprehension against the Hellenic gov- allied powers. Europe does not at all ernment. Of course we understand wish to humiliate to exasperate perfectly well the secret motives which Greece. On the contrary, she wants to have taken off their feet, not only a do all that is possible to spare the susstatesman like M. Delyannis, whoin ceptibilities of Hellenism, without his experience of 1886, when he burnt compromising the preservation of his fingers in trying to light a great peace. Let us hope the powers will conflagration, ought, perhaps, to have soon agree on their basis of action, and made more prudent, but even a man so that Greece will not by a mad obstiwise, so loyally devoted to the highest nacy frustrate the well-meaning efduties of his station as King George. forts of her well-wishers.



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