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sult the religion of persons, with the intention of thereby insulting the religion any class.

of any class of persons, or with the knowledge that any class of persons is likely to consider such destruction, , damage, or defilement as an insult to their religion, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term

which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with botlı. Disturbing a religi: CCXCVI. Whoever voluntarily causes disturbance to ous assembly.

any assembly lawfully engaged in the performance of religious worship, or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which

may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both. Trespassing on burial CCXCVII. Whoever, with the intention of wounding places, &c.

the feelings of any person, or of insulting the religion of any person, or with the knowledge that the feelings of any person are likely to be wounded, or that the religion of any person is likely to be insulted thereby, commits any trespass in any place of worship or on any place of sepulture or any place set apart for the performance of funeral 'rites or as a depository for the remains of the dead, or offers any indignity to any human corpse, or causes disturbance to any persons agsembled for the performance of funeral ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or

with fine, or with both. Uttering words, &c., CCXCVIII. Whoever, with the deliberate intention of

tent to wound the wounding the religious feelings of any person, utters any religious feelings word or makes any sound in the hearing of that person, or of any person.

makes any gesture in the sight of that person, or places any object in the sight of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

with deliberate in.

CHAPTER XVI.

OF OFFENCES AFFECTING THE HUMAN BODY,

Culpable homicide.

Of Offences affecting Life. CCXCIX. Whoever causes death by doing an act with the intention of causing death, or with the intention of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, or

with the knowledge that he is likely by such act to cause death, commits the offence of culpable bomicide.

Illustrations, (a) A lays sticks and turf over a pit, with the intention of thereby causing death, or with the knowledge that death is likely to be thereby caused. Z, believivg the ground to be firm, treads on it, falls in, and is killed. A bas committed the offence of culpable homicide.

(6) A knows Z to be behind a busb. B does not know it. A intend. ing to cause, or knowing it to be likely to cause Z's death, induces B to fire at the busb. B fires kills and Z. Here B may be guilty of no offence, but A has committed the offence of culpable homicide.

(c) A, by shooting at a fowl with intent to kill and steal it, kills B, who is behind a busb, A not knowing that he was there. Here, although A was doing an unlawful act, he was not guilty of culpable homicide, as he did not intend to kill B, or to cause death by doing an act that he knew was likely to cause death.

Explanation 1.-A person who causes bodily injury to another who is labouring under a disorder, disease, or bodily infirmity, and thereby accelerates the death of that other, shall be deemed to have caused his death.

E.cplanation 2.--Where death is caused by bodily injury, the person who causes such bodily injury shall be deemed to have caused the death, although by resorting to proper remedies and skilful treatment the death might have been prevented.

Explanation 3.—The causing of the death of a child in the mother's womb is not homicide. But it may amount to culpable homicide to cause the death of a living child, if any part of that child has been brought forth, though the child may not have breathed or been completely born.

CCC. Except in the cases hereinafter excepted, culpable Murder. homicide is murder, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death ; or

2ndly.If it is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury as the offender knows to be likely to cause the death of the person to whom the harm is caused; or

3rdly.-If it is done with the intention of causing bodily injury to any person, and the bodily injury intended to be inflicted is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death; or

4thly. - If the person committing the act knows that it is so imminently dangerous that it must in all probability cause death, or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and commits such act without any excuse for incurring the risk of causing death or such injury as aforesaid.

Illustrations... (a) A shoots Z with the intention of killing him. Z dies in consequence. A commits murder.

(b) A, knowing that Z is laboring under such a disease that a blow is likely to cause his death, strikes him with the intention of causing bodily injury. Z dies iu consequence of the blow. A is guilty of murder, although the blow might not have been sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause the death of a person in a sound state of health. But if A, not knowing that Z is laboring under any disease, gives bim such a blow as Would not in the ordinary course of nature kill a person in a sound state of health, here A, although he may intend to cause bodily injury, is not guilty of murder, if he did not intend to cause death, or such bodily injury as in the ordivary course of pature would cause death.

(c) A intentionally gives Z a sword-cut or club-wound sufficient to cause the death of a man in the ordinary course of nature. Z dies in consequence. Here A is guilty of murder, although he may not havo intended to cause Z's death.

(d) A without any excuse fires a loaded cannon into a crowd of persons and kills one of them. A is guilty of murder, although he may not have had a preineditated design to kill any particular in

dividual. When culpable homi Ecception 1.-Culpable homicide is not murder if the ofcide is not murder. fender, whilst deprived of the power of self-control by grave

and sudden provocation, causes the death of the person who gave the provocation, or causes the death of any other per- . son by mistake or accident.

The above exception is subject to the following provisos :

First.—That the provocation is not sought or voluntarily provoked by the offender as an excuse for killing or doing harm to any person.

Secondly.That the provocation is not given by anything done in obedience to the law or by a public servant in the lawful exercise of the powers of such public servant,

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Thirdly. That the provocation is not given by anything

done in the lawful exercise of the right of private defence. h.

Explanation.- Whether the provocation was grave and sudden enough to prevent the offence from amounting to murder is a question of fact.

Illustrations. (a) A, under the influence of passion excited by a provocation given by 2 intentionally kills Y, Z's child. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was not given by the child, and the death of the child was not caused by accident or misfortune in doing an act caused by the provocation.

(6) Y gives grave and sudden provocation to A. A, on this provocation, fires a pistol at Y, neither intending nor knowing himself to be likely to kill Z, who is near him, but out of sight. A kills Z. Here A bas not committed murder but merely culpable homicide.

(c) A is lawfully arrested by Z, a bailiff. A is excited to sudden and violent passion by the arrest, and kills Z. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was given by a thing done by a public servant in the exercise of his powers,

(d) A appears as a witness before Z, a magistrate. Z says that be

does not believe a word of A's deposition and that A has perjured him:-self. A is moved to sudden passion by these words, and kills Z. This ? is murder.

(2) A attempts to pull Z's doge. Z, in the exercise of the right of private defence, lays hold of A to prevent him from doing so. A is moved to sudden and violent passion in consequence, and kills Z. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was given by a thing done in the exercise of the right of private defence.

U Z strikes B. B is by this provocation excited to violent rage. A, a by-stander, intending to take advantage of B's rage and to cause 1: bim to kill Z, puts a kuife into B's hand for that purpose. B kills Z - with the knife. Here B may have committed only culpable homicide,

but A is guilty of murder.

Exception 2.-Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, in the exercise, in good faith, of the right of private defence of person or property, exceeds the power given to

him by law and causes the death of the person against whom Is he is exercising such right of defence without premedita

tion, and without any intention of doing more harm than is necessary for the purpose of such defence.

Illustration. in Zattempts to horse-whip A, not in such a manner as to cause griev

ous burt to A. A draws out à pistol. Z persists in the assault. A

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believing io good faith that he can by no other means prevent himsel from being horsewhipped, shoots Z dead. A has not committed murder, but only culpable homicide.

Exception 3.-Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, being a public servant or aiding a public servant, acting for the advancement of public justice, exceeds the powers given to him by law and causes death by doing an act which he in good faith believes to be lawful and necessary for the due discharge of his duty as such public servant and without ill-will towards the person whose death is caused.

Escception'4.-Culpable homicide is not murder if it is committed without premeditation, in a sudden fight, in the heat of passion, upon a sudden quarrel, and without the offender's having taken undue advantage or acted in a cruel or unusual manner.

Explanation. It is immaterial in such cases which party offers the provocation or commits the first assault..

Exception 5.—Culpable homicide is not murder when the person whose death is caused, being above the age of eighteen years, suffers death or takes the risk of death with his own consent.

Illustration. A, by instigation, voluntarily causes Z, a person under eighteen years of age, to commit suicide. Here on account of Z's youth, he was incapable of giving consent to his own death. A has therefore abotted

murder. Culpable homicide by CCCI. If a person, by doing any thing which he intends

causing the death of a person other or knows to be likely to cause death, commits culpable hothan the

person micide by causing the death of any person whose death he whose death was intended. neither intends, nor knows himself to be likely to cause, the

culpable homicide committed by the offender is of the description of which it would have been if he had caused the death of the person whose death he intended or knew him

self to be likely to cause. Punishment for mur CCCII. Whoever commits murder shall be punished der.

with death or transportation for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

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