« EelmineJätka »
they are based, but gives the brief point and frequently the salient words of the judgment. In the appendixes will be found a large number of forms and precedents, followed by a copious and well-arranged index. The table of contents is also very complete, and the table of cases is furnished with references to the leading series of reports. Messrs. H. A. de C. Pereira, E. W. D. Colt-Williams, and Hugh K. Ryan have assisted in various details, and the result is a work which will undoubtedly take a prominent place among standard textbooks.
Partnership Law. By D. F. DE L'HOSTE RANKING, M.A., LL.D., E. E. SPICER, and E. C. PEGLER. H. Foulks Lynch and Co. As a concise and well-planned handbook this volume should find favour both among business men and the Legal Profession. It is particularly well thought out for reference. A synopsis of each chapter is given, and the subject-matter is arranged in sections with headings in black type. Limited partnership is dealt with in a separate chapter, and technical language is avoided as far as possible.
Supplement to Devonshire and Samuel on Land Values. By GEO. H. DEVONSHIRE, M.A., and FRANK SAMUEL, M.A., Barristers-at-law. Stevens and Haynes.
THE supplement brings the authors' Duties on Land Values up to date by adding recent forms, rules governing appeals, and amending sections of the Revenue Act 1911. Mr. R. C. Lane, of Lincoln's-inn, has assisted in preparing examples illustrating the working of the rules made by the commissioners under sect. 3, sub-sects. 2 and 3, of the principal Act.
Notable English Trials: The Trial of Franz Müller. H. B. IRVING, M.A. William Hodge and Co. THIS series is to be uniform with the Notable Scottish Trials, and will present a full and authentic record of the more conspicuous English criminal trials. Mr. Irving, whose work as an actor is well known, has long taken a deep interest in criminology, and considers that full and accurate reports of great criminals must be of some practical value to students. The volume contains Home interesting illustrations, including portraits of judges and counsel.
The eleventh edition of Addison on Contracts (Stevens and Sons) has been edited by Messrs. William E. Gordon, M.A., and John Ritchie, M.A., barristers-at-law. Owing to the fact that eight years have elapsed since the last edition of this wellknown treatise, the work of revision has been heavy. Much new matter has been added, and a good deal that has become obsolete has been reduced or altogether eliminated. Thus we find Marine Insurance rewritten in accordance with the Act of 1906, in the chapter on Parties to Contracts the effect of recent company legislation is incorporated, while that on Contracts for Services contains the provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Act, the Trades Disputes Act, and the Prevention of Corruption Act. The Profession will find this edition entirely worthy of the great reputation earned by its predecessors.
We have received parts 5 and 6 of vol. 6 of the Criminal Appeal Cases, edited by Mr. Herman Cohen (Stevens and Haynes).
The second quarterly number this year of the American Journal of International Law contains: The Succession of States, by Amos S. Hershey; Fortification of the Panama Canal, by Richard Olney; The International Court of Prize, by James Brown Scott; French
Nationality Laws, Imposing Nationality at Birth, by D. O. McGovney: part 2 of Francis Lieber, his Life and Work, by Ernest Nys; part 2 of Studies in the Eastern Question, by G. Scelle; and the History of the Department of State, VII., by Gaillard Hunt. It is accompanied by the usual supplement.
The Green Bag for May contains: Captain Micajah Woods. by R. T. W. Duke, jun.; Some Observations on the Proposition to Elect United States Senators by the People. by John R. Dos Passos; and The Common Fund and Co-Equal Right Theory of Capital and Labour.
The Canadian Law Times for May contains: Notes on Imperial and International Affairs, by Charles Morse, K.C.; Free Institutions, by K.C.; The Late Lord Collins, by E. C. Robinson; Implied Warranty of Authority: Options of Purchase contained in Leases; Undertakings given by Solicitors; and Canadian Mining Law, by J. M. Clark, K.C.
Frederick William Maitland's Collected Papers. Edited by H. A. L. Fisher. Three volumes. University Press, Cambridge. Price 30s. net. Arunachalam's Digest of the Civil Law of Ceylon. Vol. 1: Persona Natural and Juristic. Stevens and Haynes, Bell-yard, Temple Bar. Price 253. net.
Burdett's Hospitals and Charities 1911. Scientific Press Limited, 28 and 29, Southampton-street, W.C. Price 10s. 6d. net. Palmer on Company Law. Ninth Edition. Stevens and Sons Limited, 119 and 120, Chancery-lane. Price 123. 61.
Shearwood's Bar Examination Questions with Answers. Easter Term 1911. Sweet and Maxwell Limited, 3, Chancery-lane. Price 1s. 6d. net.
LEGISLATION AND JURISPRUDENCE.
MR. CHURCHILL'S Bill for dealing with the problem associated with the Osborne judgment does not go as far as would commend itself to the trade union officials, and it may therefore turn out in the end to be unacceptable to the Labour Party. Its fate would then be obvious. The Bill requires a resolution to be passed by ballot and adopted by a majority of voting members to enable a society to establish a political fund, the resolution being one approving the "furtherance of political objects." The Bill further requires payments to be made out of a separate fund towards which members need not contribute unless they so desire. The Registrar of Friendly Sccieties is to satisfy himself that in connection with the ballot each member of a trade union has an equal right of voting, and that the confidential nature of the vote is not impaired. The clause relating to the protection of non-contributors to the political fund provides that such members are not to be excluded from any benefits, or placed in any respect, either directly or indirectly, under any disability or at any disadvantage as compared with other members, except in relation to the control or management of the political fund itself. Contribution to this fund is not to be a condition for admission to a union. The phrase "political objects" covers the expenditure of money on election expenses by a candidate for Parliament or for county councils, borough councils, boards of guardians, or for bodies having power to raise money, directly or indirectly, by means of the rates. Further "political objects" will include holding meetings or distributing literature in support of candidates, maintaining members of Parliament, or any person holding a public office, or matters connected with the registration of electors or the selection of candidates, and generally the term applies to the holding of political meetings of any kind, or to the distribution of political literature, unless the main purpose is the furtherance of statutory objects an expression denoting the objects set out in sect. 16 of the Trade Union Act Amendment Act 1876. In these last few words there rests some ambiguity, and they might be conveniently phrased with some more particularity. Members desirous of being free from political levies will be entitled to exemption on giving notice, and all members are to receive intimation of this right together with a form of exemption from a union which by resolution approves as one of its objects the furtherance of political objects. The Bill is entitled the Trades Union (No. 2) Bill.
A GOOD deal of quiet thought is being expended upon the present administration of the Education (Provision of Meals) Act 1906. The underlying principle is simple enough-it is that the expense of education shall not be thrown away by the physical inability of the child to absorb it. The principles now assumed to underlie are of a much more mixed character, and include political exigencies. The Board of Education in 1910 in a report clearly favoured a medical selection of cases, but in daily practical administration, with everchanging lists, no existing staff of school doctors can adequately.
perform the duties entailed in a medical selection, although this svetem is in conformity with the Act itself. The school care committees now organised adopt varying standards, and the result is that the Act is being somewhat buried under miscellaneous and often inconsistent groups of procedure. Meantime, the effect on parents is not that which the original advocates of the Act predicted. It has been characterised as a rush down Gadarene slopes into the elements of pauperism. More recent figures go somewhat to show that this is an exaggerated description, but the facts undoubtedly indicate that the Act is another of those items of insufficiently considered legislation with which the statute-book hae, during the last few decades, been adorned. These problems overlap, in fact, with those of the Poor Law, and can scarcely be adequately solved until Parliament decides by a comprehensive measure to overhaul the whole subject, and to introduce some organised and practical kosmos amid the existing chaos.
THE Universal Races Congress which will meet in July in the premises of London University will discuss some problems of inter national relationship, and out of these conferences it is not difficult to foresee some results of a far-reaching character. The attitude of mind of "white" to "coloured "nationalities, which has so long been marked by a certain admixture of contempt, can no longer be sustained in view of the changes in processes of thought and action now developing to the knowledge of men engaged in the conduct of public affairs. To-day it is common knowledge that conferences of this description are no mere talking campaigns, but that the discussions soon transform themselves into organised demands for legislation of one kind or another. The claims of "solidarity of nations" are now no mere verbal expressions-they have become real live issues; and in such legislation as that which governs the relationship of France and England in the matter of workmen's compensation we see it actively in existence. Lord WEARDALE'S paper now being circulated in this country by the American Association for International Conciliation shows that the congress of July is one worthy of the consideration of the Legal Profession.
THE debate in the House of Lords on the Parliament Bill shows clearly the great influence in that assembly not merely of the legal element, but of the holders of peerages of legal origin. Viscount Midleton is the holder of a peerage conferred on his ancestor, a Lord Chancellor of Ireland. The Earl of Ellenborough is a descendant of a famous Chief Justice whose acceptance of a seat in a Cabinet while holding the Chief Justiceship was a subject not only of acrimonicu, controversy, but of high constitutional interest. Lord Selborne is a son of a Lord Chancellor; and Lord Ashbourne, a former Lord Chancellor of Ireland, has made a valuable contribution to the discussion. The reticence in a debate, which was so calculated to appeal to students of the Constitution, of the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary is in itself an indication of the growth of the feeling that the holders of judicial offices should not take a prominent part in the discussion of the burning questions of party warfare.
THE Archbishop of Canterbury in his speech in the House of Lords on the Parliament Bill on the 25th ult. referred with justifiable pride to the great position once held by the Lords Spiritual in the Upper House. Before the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII. in 1539, when the abbots and priors sat with the bishops, the Lords Spiritual actually exceeded the temporal lords in power. Even when the abbots and priors had been removed, the bishopa alone formed about one-third of the House of Lords. But while the temporal peers have been multiplied about tenfold since that time, the bishops have only increased from twenty-one to twentysix. They were ejected from Parliament by the Puritans (16 Car. 1, c. 27), but re-established in their former Parliamentary status at the Restoration. Bills or motions in the House of Commons in 1834, 1836, 1837, 1884, and 1899 for relieving the bishops of their legisla. tive duties in the House of Lords have been rejected. The Archbishops of Canterbury and of York claim a prescriptive right to be summoned to the Privy Council, and a similar honour is usually conferred on the Bishop of London. In the 10th Richard II. the Archbishop of Canterbury delivered to Parliament a solemn protest claiming for himself and his successors the right of being present at all the King's councils whether general or special or secret. The
Archbishop of Canterbury appears on the list of Cabinet Ministers during the administration of Sir Robert Walpole, though not as a member of the "interior council": (see Todd's Parliamentary Government of England, ii., pp. 199-200). The active interference of prelates in political affairs has long ceased as being out of harmony with public opinion, but it was maintained for more than a century after the Reformation, and Mr. J. R. Green puts the position forcibly, but quite accurately, when he states that till the Revolution the centre of political influence was not at Westminster, but at Lambeth Palace.
THE reference to the veto of the Crown has been so frequent of late in discussions relating to the retention or the abolition of the veto of the House of Lords in legislation that a long-forgotten ceremonial associated with the withholding by the Sovereign of the Royal Assent to a Bill which has been passed through both Houses of Parliament may be brought to recollection. Lord Mountmorres, in his History of the Irish Parliament, which was published in 1792, commenting on the veto of the Crown on the legislation of the Irish Parliament since the establishment in Ireland of Parliamentary independence in 1782, Fays: "Of the rejection of Bills, it is said there are very few instances of such a refusal by the Crown since 1782, though doubtless the royal negative in both kingdoms (Great Britain and Ireland) is as clear a privilege as any other prerogative. It was ably urged by Mr. Flood, one of the most eloquent and able members that Ireland has ever known, that the royal negative to an Irish Bill should be given in the House of Lords publicly by the Lord-Lieutenant, but this proposition was rejected. The royal negative of "le roi s'avisera," I was informed by an officer of the House of Lords in England remarkable for his knowledge of forms, is accompanied with holding the Bill down and putting it under the table, a motion the reverse of that which takes place upon giving the Royal Assent": (Mountmorres' Irish Parliament, i., pp. 60-61).
A QUESTION suggesting that in the House of Commons, as in the House of Lords, there should be cross benches for those who desire to maintain a political neutrality may well recall the fact that neither in the House of Commons nor in the House of Lords is there any obligation whatever on members to sit in any particular quarter of the House by reason of their political opinions. In the House of Lorde, indeed, under Standing Order No. 4, "the Lords are to sit in the same order as is prescribed by the Act of Parliament (31 Hen. 8, c. 10, in which the precedence of princes of the Blood Royal and of the bishops, peers, and high officers of State is defined), except that the Lord Chancellor sitteth on the Wooleack as Speaker to the House." But this order is not observed with strictness except by the bishops, who always sit together in the upper part of the House on the right hand of the Throne-the bench they occupy being generally referred to as "the right leverend bench." In the House of Commons no place is allotted to any member. Cobbett once took the seat of Sir Robert Peel as Prime Minister on the Treasury Bench and refused to leave it, the Speaker, under whose notice his conduct was brought, being unable to interfere. Members have delivered speeches from benches in opposition to the occupants thereof, as in the case of Rigby, a celebrated party politician of the middle of the eighteenth century. In both Houses of Parliament the political convictions of members are by no means either gauged or misunderstood owing to the quarter of the House in which they happen to sit.
In the House of Lords on the 25th ult., Lord Avebury, in moving the second reading of the Trustees (Bodies Corporate) Bill, described it as a purely technical measure dealing with difficulties which had arisen in the conduct of trustee business.-The Lord Chancellor said there were certain points in the Bill which might require attention in committee, but he recommended their Lordships to grant it a second reading. The Bill was read a second time.
On the motion of the Lord Chancellor the County Courts Bill, having been passed formally through committee in order that certain amendments of which Lord Gorell had given notice might be introduced, was recommitted.
In the House of Commons, Mr. Churchill introduced & Bill to provide for the protection of the public against dangers arising from the navigation of aircraft.
Mr. Hunt asked the Secretary for Foreign Affairs whether, in view of the fact that the draft of the Arbitration Treaty with America had been published, he could now say whether some questions between the United States and the United Kingdom would not be submitted to unrestricted arbitration.-Sir E. Grey: If it is the case as stated by the hon. member that the whole text of the Arbitration Treaty drawn up by the American Government has been published, the hon. member can form his own opinion of the scope of it.
Personally I have not yet seen the fall text of the draft. I cannot say more than I said on Tuesday.-Mr. Hunt: Are we to understand that the right hon. gentleman does not know whether President Ta't has withdrawn his offer of unrestricted arbitration or not?-Sir E. Grey I certainly do not understand that he has withdrawn any offer.-Mr. Hunt: Did he not offer unrestricted arbitration on all matters, including honour, territory, and everything else ?-Sir E. Grey: The speeches of President Taft are on record publicly, and the hon. member can form his own opinion as to the scope of them. I am not aware that he has qualified them in any way.
In the House of Lords, on Monday, the second reading debate on the Parliament Bill was brought to an end.-The Earl of Rosebery affirmed that the Bill would efface one branch of the Legislature without putting anything in its place. If it passed he thought it would be useless to prolong the existence of the House at all. But he believed the country would insist on the restoration to the Constitution of the part eradicated by the Bill.-Viscount Haldane replied that the desire which had prompted the Government to introduce the Bill was the same expressed by Lord Rosebery in 1894, namely, to establish the predominance of the House of Commons. The Marquis of Lansdowne remarked that his refusal to vote against the second reading must not be interpreted as indicating that the Opposition accepied either permanently or provisionally the place which the Bill sought to assign to the House. They would suggest that till the House of Lords was reconstituted it was necessary to devise safeguards for protecting the country against dangerous and ill-considered innovations.-Viscount Morley said the Government would be perfectly willing to discuss any amendment, but as the Opposition were accepting the principle of the Bill it would not do to reproduce all difficulties and objections in committee.-The Bill was read a second time without a division.
In the House of Commons, Mr. Churchill, moving the second reading of the Aerial Navigation Bill, said the Coronation was approaching and great crowds would be in the streets. Other occasions bringing together large numbers of people would also occur before general legislation dealing with aerial navigation could be passed. On all these occasions the presence of aeroplanes flying a short distance above the crowd might cause panic and disaster. They had had lately a sharp reminder of the serious nature of the accidents which could cccur when anything went wrong. This Bill was not put forward as a solution of the difficulties attending the legislative aspects of the new form of locomotion, but only to enable them to prevent foolish and disastrous things happening in the interim before they obtained general legislation. The Bill could not pass unless generally agreed to, and therefore he was prepared to accept a little less than he would otherwise have asked for. He would leave out the first clause altogether and alter the second clause so that the penalties under the Act should only apply to the person acting as aviator. He was prepared to introduce words making it clear that if an aircraft was shown to have drifted over an area through some breakdown or stress of weather that would be a valid explanation. He had been told that aeronauts regarded two years imprisonment and a fine of £500 for an offence a penalty which would seriously affect this new development of science. On the contrary, the Government only desired to shield the public from the consequences of what might happen by the action of a few individuale. They had, however, decided to reduce the penalty from two years imprisonment to six months, and the fine from £500 to £200. He also agreed that a person charged under this Act, if dissatisfied with the decision of a court of summary jurisdiction, should have the right to be tried before a jury.—Mr. A. Lee commented favourably upon the efforts the Home Secretary had made to meet the wishes of those specially interested in this movement. He believed the right hon. gentleman would also recognise that, speaking on behalf of the Parliamentary Committee of the Aerial Defence Committee, they had put forward their representations in a reasonable spirit. They accepted the Bill as a temporary measure, and would assist the right hon. gentleman in passing it into law. Mr. Peto drew attention to the fact that this was legislation for the first time with regard to a novel problem, and suggested that it was rather a questionable precedent for a Home Secretary to make the rules, prescribe areas, and also be the judge of what was dangerous aircraft.-The Bill was read a second time and committed to a committee of the whole House. Mr. Byles asked the Prime Minister whether, having regard to the expenditure of the Board of Admiralty and the War Office upon experiments in air machines, it was contemplated by His Majesty's Government to use the air as well as the land and the rea for the devastating purposes of international war?-Mr. Lloyd George, who replied, said: In view of the developments which are taking place elsewhere, it is impossible for His Majesty's Government to allow themselves to be left behind in this matter.-Mr. Byles further asked the Prime Minister whether he was aware of any international movement to forbid the use of aeroplanes or dirigible balloons as weapons of war; and, if no', would His Majesty's Government inquire into the disposition of other Powers in that matter with a view to avoid the perils and added terrors to humanity which that method of warfare would involve ?-Mr. Lloyd George: The answer is in the negative.
In the House of Lords, on Tuesday, Lord Barnard presented a Bill to consolidate the law relating to railway traffic, and it was read a tirst time.
Lord Willoughby de Broke drew attention to the removal of the name of a Unionist justice from the Commission of the Peace of
Worcester on the ground of non-attendance. He complained that Earl Beauchamp and a paid agent of the Radicals were the only members of the Advisory Committee privy to the recommendation on which the Lord Chancellor acted.-The Lord Chancellor said that two justices (a Conservative and a Liberal) had their names removed under a misapprehension, but they had since been restored to the list.
In the House of Commone, Mr. W. Thorne asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether, in view of the general festivities in connection with the Coronation of Their Majesties the King and Queen, he could state the intentions of His Majesty the King with regard to the use of the Royal prerogative in the liberation of prisoners and the remission of sentences; and whether such remission would apply to the convict Von Veltheim.-Mr. Churchill: There is no intention to grant a general remission of sentences on the occasion of the Coronation.-Mr. Bottomley asked whether, in regard to the particular convict mentioned, the right hon. gentleman would reconsider the case in the event of the victim winning the Derby.Mr. Churchill: I have substantially reduced the sentence, and I cannot hold out any further hope of a reduction.
Mr. Stuart-Wortley asked the Prime Minister whether the attention which the Government were giving to the question of the law and procedure relating to corrupt or illegal practices at elections would be limited to charities and would not extend to the offering of money to induce persons to give evidence.-The Chancellor of the Exchequer: All relevant considerations will be taken into account.Mr. Stuart-Wortley: Will not the practices indulged in by the Liberai Party at Nottingham be included? The Chancellor of the Exchequer: I think that the less said the better about the practices indulged in at Nottingham.-Mr. Stuart-Wortley: Are we to understand that those practices will be excluded from that inquiry?— There was no answer.
The Attorney-General moved the second reading of the Trade Union (No. 2) Bill, which seeks to alter the law as to the use of trade union funds for political purposes.-Mr. F. E. Smith, K.C., argued that the provisions for the protection of minorities were wholly illusory.-Mr. Ramsay Macdonald objected to the minority rights given by the Bill, and said the Labour Party would submit an amendment which would give a minority in favour of political action the same measure of right as the Bill gave to a minority opposed to such action. Mr. Lyttelton, on the understanding that the Government would accept amendments making the machinery for the protection of minorities effective, refrained from opposing the second reading. Mr. Churchill expressed satisfaction with the reception given to the Bill. He aroused a storm of protest on the Opposition side by saying that when class or party issues came before the courte very large numbers of persons came to the opinion that the courts were unconsciously biased.-Mr. Rowland Hunt was sarcastically congratulating the Home Secretary on the fact that he was the judge of the judges when the closure was imposed.-A division was afterwards taken against the second reading, which was agreed to by 219 votes to eighteen.
The Aerial Navigation Bill was read a third time after agreed amendments had been inserted.
The Standing Committee of the House of Commons which is considering the Copyright Bill arrived at a compromise on the 25th ult. in regard to the duration of copyright, which was embodied in clause 3, and the clause as amended was added to the Bill. Clause 4 was also disposed of before the adjournment.-On Tuesday the committee commenced consideration of clause 5, which under certain limitations provides that the author of a work shall be the first owner of the copyright. On sub-sect. 2 of the clause, which deals with the assignment of copyright, Sir J. Simon proposed an amendment which he said would give effect to the conclus on at which the committee arrived last week with regard to the length of copyright. This would introduce a novelty into the law. It was proposed to provide that the living author's power to make a contract should be limited to the period of his own life and twenty-five years afterwards, and that any attempt by the living author to dispose of more copyright than that should be null and void. As regarded the second twenty-five years. the clause suggested that this should be part of the author's personal estate which might be disposed of by his executore. Thus it would be possible for the executors to make a new bargain after the end of an author's life. There would therefore be a property which would be no part at all of the disposable property of the author during his life, but would spring up when he died. Sir W. Anson congratulated the Solicitor-General on the clause which he had drafted, and expressed the belief that it would work out fairly to all parties. The new provision was agreed to, and the clause as amended was added to the Bill.
In the House of Lords, on Wednesday, the Marquis of Lansdowne asked the Government on what day they proposed to take the next stage of the Parliament Bill.-Viscount Haldane said the Government desired to consult the convenience of their Lordships, and subject to that they thought Wednesday, the 28th inst., would be a convenient day.
The Aerial Navigation Bill was brought up from the Commons, and read a first time.
In the House of Commons, Mr. Snowden alluded to the decision of the Government to grant a week next session for the consideration of the Woman's Suffrage Bill, and said the promoters of the measure were not satisfied with that promise. They hoped that if some of the important measures before the House were not proceeded with
the Government might reconsider their decision as to providing facilities for the remaining stages of the Bill this session. With regard to the time promised for next year a week was not sufficient for the committee stage, report stage, and the third reading. Would the Government assist the progress of the measure by moving a resolution allocating the time to be devoted to the respective stages? Unless that were done it would be impossible to get such a contentious measure through in four or five Parliamentary days. He also asked that if the Bill passed through committee the Government should fix the third reading for a date which would enable the measure to be sent to the House of Lords early in the session. Mr. J. A. Pease said some time ago representations were made to the Government that a week would be a reasonable time to devote to the various stages of the Bill, and the Government acted on that representation. If the hon. gentleman was not satisfied with that answer perhaps he would address a question to the Prime Minister.-Mr. Rowland Hunt rose to speak, but J. A. Pease moved the closure, which was at once agreed to, as was the Prime Minister's motion for the adjournment over Whitsuntide.
Sir W. Bull asked the Home Secretary whether in the case of the Aerial Navigation Bill he was prepated to consider the possibility of inserting clauses bringing abetment within the scope of the Bill. so that the organisers of an aviation meeting might be held responsible in case of accident due to the absence of reasonable precautions for safeguarding the public, increasing the penalty in the case of any person who navigates an aircraft recklessly or negligently in a manner which is dangerous to the public, when such person was not a holder of a certificate of efficiency delivered, by execution of the Royal Aero Club, or such competent authority as might from time to time be determined, and allowing no navigator of an aircraft to hold a certificate of efficiency unless he was previously guaranteed in a sum to be determined, say £1000, such guarantee being available for compensation in the case of an accident due to neglect or want of skill on the part of the navigator.-Mr. Churchill: The Bill now before the House is of an interim character, pending general legislation on the subject of serial navigation. The points raised in the hon. member's question will be carefully considered before general legisla. tion is proposed.
Mr. Kebty-Fletcher asked for the Deputy Speaker's ruling on the Home Secretary's remark during the Trade Unions Bill debate of the previous night to the effect that in the opinion of many people the Judges were, unconsciously no doubt, biassed" in regard to certain class and party questions. Mr. Emmott replied that the House could not go back on the incident referred to, but if an appeal had been made to him at the time he would have expressed regret at the observations, which were on the border-line of a breach of the rule against attacking judges. Subsequently, in reply to Mr. Balfour, he gave it as his opinion that the matter could not be raised in any relevant form on the motion for adjournment.-Mr. Churchill, on being informed that he could only make a personal explanation by leave of the House in reply to Mr. Lyttelton's criticisms, resumed his seat with the exclamation, Monstrous misrepresentation!"
The Select Committee on the House of Lords Offices have issued as a Parliamentary Paper  a report with reference to the positions of Reporter of English and Irish appeals and Peerage cases, and Accountant of the House of Lords. Mr. Moorsom, K.C., who has held the first-named appointment since 1881, has intimated that he proposes to retire when the House rises for Whitsuntide. A suggestion by the Lord Chancellor has been adopted and the reporting handed over to the Council of Law Reporting, subject to the condition suggested by Lord Loreburn that the name of be reporter to be employed should be submitted for approval to the Clerk of the Parliaments. The saving on the Estimates to be effected by this arrangement will be over £500 per annum.
It is satisfactory to note that the Commissioner of Police has signified his willingness to take some administrative steps on the lines indicated last week in these columns with a view to mitigating the congestion of traffic in a certain metropolitan area. An effort has been made through influential channels to bring home to the local authorities in Westminster, Hammersmith, and Kensington the urgent need for action so that slow traffic may be kept to the kerb and more opportunity given to the faster traffic to disperse. The Commissioner of Police is willing to supply mounted patrols to watch the drivers of the slow and heavy vehicles and to instruct "point" constables to keep them to the kerb, but his willingness so to do is conditional on notices to drivers being affixed to the lamps on the street refuges. The Kensington Borough Council Works Committee have fallen in with the proposals and are prepared to advise the provision of the notices, so there is some hope that in a short time, with the co-operation of these four agencies, some reform will have been introduced into the condition of the Piccadilly-KnightsbridgeKensington and Hammersmith thoroughfare. Now that the reasons for so much of the traffic problem are being grasped by the
authorities, there is good reason to suppose that in other quarters the difficulty will be faced. Such steps will not end the problem, but they will assuredly do something to mitigate its hardships, and wilb show that much of the congestion is susceptible of a cheap and simple remedy.
A CURIOUS divergence of magisterial opinion has come to light in the course of various summonses charging hawkers with selling picture postcards in the London parks, proceedings alleged to be in contravention of the regulations which prohibit the sale of any "commodity" therein. Some time ago it was held that a picture postcard was not a "commodity," and in consequence some encouragement was given to persistent annoyance in a shape not far removed from begging. Mr. Curtis Bennett has set his face against this, and holds that the word "commodity covers the postcard. The point is not, perhape, quite so clear as it may be thought at first sight, and the dictionary definitions somewhat vary, for the word is one which has somewhat modified its meaning. Its probable significance many years ago would have been something appertaining to a convenience. Thus, Ben Jonson speaks of "the commodity of a footpath"; but amongst a large variety of definitions in the new Oxford Dictionary we find the following: "A kind of thing produced for use or sale; an article of commerce; an object of trade." In its plural form the word gets a still wider significance, for it imports "goods, merchandise, wares, produce." When we come to less concrete things, such as share certificates, the matter is still more difficult; but ke Cleland (36 L. J. 33, Bank.) shows that the phrase "goods or commodities' would not apply to shares in companies so as to make a man a trader for the purposes of the Bankruptcy Act 1849, s. 65.
Bishop Auckland, Tuesday, at 10 Bishop's Waltham, Friday, at 11 Blandford, Tuesday, at 10 Brampton, Thursday, at 10.30 Brecon, Saturday
Brentford, Friday, at 10
Brighton, Thursday (R. By), at
Bromley, Friday, at 9
Exeter, Wednesday and Thursday, at 10
Gateshead, Tuesday and Wednesday, at 10
Gravesend, Thursday, at 9
(By at 10.30), and Friday (J.S.),
Ledbury, Thursday, at 10
Newcastle-on-Tyne, Thursday (R. By) and Friday (J.S. & A..), at
Newport (Mon.), Thursday and
Newton Abbot, Friday, at 10.30
Oxford, Saturday (J.S.), at 11.30
Ringwood, Friday, at 10
Tonbridge, Saturday, at 9.30
Torquay, Saturday, at 10.30
Tunstall, Wednesday, at 9.30
Wirksworth, Thursday, at 10
Wrexham, Thursday (By) and Fri-
• Other sittings are specially fixed if necessary.
SAUNDERS' PRECEDENTS OF INDICTMENTS.-With a Treatise thereon, and a copious Body of Forms. By HENRY ST. JOHN RAIKES, Barrister-at-Law. Third Edition, price is. 6d., post free.-HORACE Cox, "Law Times" Office, Windsor House, Bream's Buildings, E.C. [ADVT.]
WARNING TO INTENDING LESSEES OF HOUSES.-Before purchasing or renting a house it is very important to get an independent report on the drainage, sanitary fittings, & water supply by an expert from the Sanitary Engineering Co., 65, Victoria-st., S. W. Estab. 35 years. Tel. Sanitation London." 'Phone: 316, Westminster. Apply for prospectus. [ADVT.]
COUNTY COURTS, EQUITY, AND BANKRUPTCY CASES.-Published quarterly, price 4s., post free. Comprising the Decisions in Law and Equity, administered in the County Courts; the Appeals from the County Courts; the Judgments in Important Cases decided in the County Courts; and all the Cases in Bankruptcy in all the Courts.HORACE Cox. " County Courts Chronicle" Office, Windsor House, Bream's buildings, E.C.-[ADVT.]
RECLAIMED STOCK AND DIVIDENDS IN THE BANK OF ENGLAND.
[Transferred to the Commissioners for the Reduction of the National Debt, and which will be paid to the persons respectively whose names are prefixed to each in three months from the date given, unless other claimants sooner appear.]
POWLETT (Anne), Upper Titchfield-st, St. Marylebone. W. £713 £2 10s. per Cent. Consolidated Stock, late £2 15s. per Cent. Consolidated Stock, formerly Reduced £3 per Cent. Annuities. Claimant, Charles John Powlett, as the legal representative of said A. Powlett. May 22.
A02429 TO A02440, C00685 TO C00692, D07154 To D07160.-Application to direct the payment of the dividends due Oct. 5, 1898, to Oct. 5, 1899, both dates inclusive, in respect of £2 15s. per Cent. Consolidated Stock certificates numbered as above. Claimant, Adeline Piette, spinster, of Rumigny, Ardennes, France, administratrix with will annexed to the estate of the late Louise Irma Pauline Castillon, formerly of Rumigny, Ardennes, France, widow. May 27.
HEIRS-AT-LAW AND NEXT OF KIN.
Fox (Adam), Chapel-en-le-Frith, who died April 21, 1866. Heir-at-law or other persons entitled to the real estate to come in, by July 5, at chambers of Swinfen Eady and Neville, JJ. Hearing July 12, at 11.30, at said chambers, Room 706
HICKS (Henry), Bethnal Green, who died June 27, 1904. Next of kin or their legal personal representatives, to come in, by July 1, at chambers of Swinfen Eady and Neville, JJ. Hearing July 5, at 11.30, at said chambers, Room 706. RAWSON (George), or, if he died after Jan. 13, 1892, his legal personal representatives, to come in, by June 6, and prove his or their claim, at chambers of Swinfen Eady and Neville, JJ., and enter their names at Room 286, Royal Courts of Justice. Hearing June 7, at 12, at said chambers.
VON ARNIM (Alexina) and HILL (Marion), or other persons claiming. through them to be entitled to the shares of residue bequeathed by the will of William John Stirling to above-named Alexina Von Arnim, wife of Adolf Von Arnim, of Liverpool, and Marion Hill, of. Lachine, Montreal, Canada, widow of Dr. Ninian Hill, to come in, by July 21, at chambers of Warrington and Parker, JJ., Room 293. Hearing July 28, at 12, at said chambers.
APPOINTMENTS UNDER THE JOINT STOCK
NOTICES OF APPEARANCE AT HEARING MUST REACH THE SOLICITORS BY 6.M. CN TIR
A.B. ANIMATED PICTURE CIRCUIT LIMITED.--Creditors to send in, by
GOYT SPINNING COMPANY LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to be heard
June 14, at Royal Courts of Justice. Woodcock, Ryland, and Parker, 15, Bloomsbury-sq, W.C., agents for T. W. Markland and Whitehead, Manchester, sols. for pet. Notices of appearance by June 13, to Woodcock, Ryland, and Parker.
GEORGE STRANGE LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 19, to H. J. Veitch, 10. Walbrook, E.C. F. G. Aylett, Brook House, Walbrook, E.C., sol. for liquidator.
HATRY AND CO. LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 19, to H. J. Veitch, Brook House, 10, Walbrook. J. N. Mason and Co, £2, Gresham-st, E.C., sols. for liquidator.
PAUL SABEL AND CO. LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 26, to J. D. Pattullo, 65, London-wall, E C.
R. MEYER AND CO. LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by July 8, to R. Meyer, 9 and 10, Tokenhouse-vd, E.C.
RIO FRIO SYNDICATE LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by July 8, to A. R. Bennett, 65, Bishopsgate, E.C.
S. ROSEMAN LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to be heard June 7, at
SEVILLES LIMITED, Springhill Mills, Royton.-Creditors to send in. by
W. R. NORMAN LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 19, to H. J.
CREDITORS UNDER ESTATES IN CHANCERY.
GAINES (Alfred James), Covent Garden Market and West Battersea.
KITSON (Albert), Clifton and Brighouse. June 30; J. Ayrton, sol., Brighouse. July 11; Neville, J., at 11 30. LLOYD (Emma Elizabeth), Muswell Hill. June 30: A. G. Eldridge, of Bird and Eldridges, sols., 10. Great James-st, Bedford-row. July 10; the Master, at chambers of Warrington and Parker, JJ., at 1.
CREDITORS UNDER 22 & 23 VICT. a 35. LAST DAY OF CLAIM AND TO WHOM PARTICULARS TO BE SENT. ADAM (James), West Malling. June 30; F. R. Howlett, Maidstone. ALOOF (Alfred Thompson), Brixton-hill. June 30; Lindo and Co., 2 and 3, West-st, Finsbury-cir.
AMSDEN (Ernest), Shirley, and Falcon-st. July 9; Pearce and Sons, St. Bartholomew House. 58, West Smithfield, E.C.
ARROWSMITH (James), Altrincham. July 3; J. Ogden Hardicker, Manchester
AGNEW (Sir William, Bart.), Gt.. Stanhope-st, Mayfair. July 14; the executors, at the offices of Sale and Co, Manchester. BANNISTER (Charles William), Birminghain, or BANNISTER (Elizabeth), Handsworth. June 24; A. R. C'Connor, Birmingham. BUCKLE (Caroline Harriett), Kensington. Aug. 1; the executors, at the offices of Sharp and Symonds, Bournemouth.
BROOKS (Emma), Cambridge July 1; R. C. and S. Burrows, Cambridge. BODEN (Henry Walters), Wilmslow. June 16; Smith and Brooks, Stockport.
CORY (Eleanor Marsh), Stepney. July 11; Greenwell, Higham, and Co., 45, Berners-st, W.
СCOKE (Sarah Elizabeth), Southport. June 15; J. H. Thompson, Barrowin-Furness.
COLE (Mary Jane), Exeter. July 10; Gurney and Craven, Bude
COLEMAN (William). Buckland, Dover. July 5; Mowll and Mowll, Dover. DURANT (Mary Jane), Crown Hill, Devon. June 30; Rooker, Matthews, and Co., Plymouth.
DENAVIT (Leon Joseph), Paris. June 20; Armitage, Chapple, and Macnaghten, 80, Bishopsgate,_E.C.
DOWNES (Walter), Forden. June 27; C. S. Pryce, Montgomery, North
DAINTON (Samuel Joseph), Kilburn and Wembley. June 30; S. Smith
EVERETT (Zachariah Simeon), Upper Parkstone. June 20; Guillaume and Sons, 9, Salisbury-sq, E.C.
FRANCIS (James), Southampton. June 28; Lamport, Bassitt, and Hiscock, Southampton.
FOSTER (Albert Ernest), Bradford. June 30; R. Newton, Rhodes, and Hall, Bradford.
FINCH (George Austen), Holborn. June 30; G. Turner and Osborn, 78, Leadenhall-st, E.C.
GRIGGS (Joseph). Sherwood. July 10; Moss and Taylor, Loughborough. GOACHER (Annie), Lower Broughton July 7; Brett, Hamilton, and Tarbolton, Manchester.
GIRARDET (Julia), Bournemouth West. June 26; C. Rogers, Sons, and Abbott, 13, Victoria-st, Westminster, S.W.
HARDY (Edwin Houldsworth), Mansfield. June 30; J. E. Alcock, Mansfield.
HOBSON (William Pybus), Shildon. June 27: R. Marquis, Crook.
HCLLAND (Rev. Thomas), Yarm. June 30; Archer, Parkin, and Archer,
HANDS (Richard), Coventry. July 7;
Maddocks, Ogden, and Co.,
JONES (Sarah), Thornton Heath. July 10; Rye and Eyre, 13, Goldensq, W..
KAHN (Gaston), Hammersmith, and 57, Oxford-st. June 28; J. T. Goddard, 5 and 6, Clement's-inn. Strand, W.C.
KELSALL (Joseph, the elder), Audley. June 24; E. Hollinshead, Tunstall. LANGSTEIN (Samuel), East Dulwich, and LANGSTEIN (Sarah Rachael), Southend. June 30; J. J Hands and Lindo, 119, London-wall, E.C. LUTHER (Edward Wentworth), Hove. July 10; A. Tyler, 5, Clement'sinn, W.C.
LEESE (Thomas), Stafford. June 30; W. Leese, at the offices of Great Rex, Warner, and Beswick, Stafford.
LEE (Annie), Loftus-in-Cleveland. June 24; W. Topham, Harrogate. LEVY (Nathaniel). Strand. W.C., and Adelaide-rd, N.W. June 10; Page and Scorer,.2. Clement's-inn, Strand, W.C.
MOORE (Sir George Montgomery John, C.I.E.), Albany-mans, Albert Bridge. S.W. July 1; Vallance and Vailance, 20, Essex-st. Strand. MARSH (William), Bath. July 10: Stone, Thomas, and King. Bath MEREWETHER (Capt. Harry Alworth Fellowes), Shedfield, Botley. July 4; Macdonald and Longrigg. Bath.
MELVILLE (Charles), Leeds. June 30; W. J. Cousins and Fletcher. Leeds. MACROSTY (Alexander), Crieff, North Britain. July 7; Walker, Son, and Field, 61. Carev-st, Lincoln's-inn, W.C.
MCKENZIE (Donald), Tunbridge Wells. June 23; R. Vaughan Gower, Tunbridge Wells.
MONRO (Patrick Alexander Hale), professionally known as Pat Alexander,
MOORE (William). Whitehaven. July 15; Howson, Dickinson, and
OSBORNE (Mary), Tunbridge Wells. July 8; Biddle. Thorne, Welsford, and Sidgwick. 22. Aldermanbury, E.C.
OGDEN (Fanny), Oldham. June 1; Ascroft, Maw, and Shimeld, Oldham. PRICE (Phoebe Maria), Wollaston. June 30; Boote, Edgar, and Co., Manchester.
PICKARD (John Iredale), Leeds. July 1; H. B. James. Leeds.
PAGE (Charlotte), East Dulwich. June 15; H. Saunders French, Cam
PAYNE (George), Whalley Range. Manchester. June 28; T. E. Jones, Payne, and Shorrocks. Manchester.
PORTER (Arthur Dover), Piccadilly, W. June 30; W. P. Richardson. 123, Cannon-st. E.C.
PESTELL (Joseph Thomas), Islington. June 1; A. T. Lewthwaite, 3,
RANDE (Thomas), Chilvers Coton. June 28; Brock, Harris, and Twist,