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that public confidence in the Bench was increasing, because the practice had grown up of late of taking the judges to preside over commissions and perform other work outside their ordinary duties. The practice was not, he thought, a desirable one, because the judges were taken from their ordinary work, and thus delay and expense were entailed upon suitors, and it also imposed upon the judges duties which exposed them to criticism which Was based very often upon party venom and rancour, from which they should be protected. It was as essential to the public interest that there should be an able, an independent, and a fearless Bar as that there should be a Bench possessing these qualifications. The Bar worked at present under very different conditions from those which prevailed in former yeare. The localisation of our judicial system had involved changes, and the true test was what was best for the public. It was well that the judicial system should adapt itself to the wants, he would even say to the wishes, of the public, and, as that seemed to take the form of decentralisation, he imagined that the members of the Bar must adapt themselves to that view. One of the consequences of decentralisation had been to bring the members of the Bar into local courts where they had not exclusive right of audience; but he was sure that the Bar would have no need to fear an extension of decentralisation of that kind, because, whatever might be the state of things-and although he was glad to see members of his own branch of the Profession who had the ability and the opportunity to resort to advocacy taking that class of work-he was perfectly sure that in the long run the great preponderance of all the best business would undoubtedly be enjoyed by members of the Bar. Another result of the localisation of our judicial system had been the establishment of local Bars at various provincial centres. That was a necessity in the case of all the great centres of industry and population, and they had seen evidence that these local Bars were the training ground for the central Bar. As for the solicitor branch of the Profession, he might safely say that in its sphere it was as essential to the due administration of justice as either of the other branches. When a man wanted advice he went to his solicitor, in whom he found, as a rule, not merely a man of law, but a trusted friend.

Mr. Justice Eve, in returning thanks for the Bench, said that it Was strange and paradoxical that in 8 community where most, if not all, of the chief offices of the State were served by lawyers; where parties, whatever their political opinions, vied with each other in finding capable lawyers to represent and expound their views, there should have grown up in recent days a distrust and underrating of the value of legal institutions and a practice reprehensible in the extreme of uttering against the profession which was responsible for the administration of justice in this country criticism which was often unfair and of making aspersions which occasionally were unjust. Such criticism was often prompted only by a desire to say something which would provoke a responsive cheer from the prejudiced and the ignorant. It might be said that the persons who pursued these tactics met with their reward in that their weapons recoiled upon them, and he agreed that there was much consolatory truth in that; but he did not believe that that counteracted all the mischief that flowed from the evil conduct to which he had alluded. Signs were not wanting that respect was waning for institutions which all in that room, at any rate, believed to lie at the very founda. tions of justice; and, although it might well be that the change of attitude towards these institutions and principles was partly due to a want of knowledge of the foundations upon which these institutions had been raised and the principles by which they were supported, he was confident that that attitude was not altogether unconnected with the conduct to which he had referred, and against which he ventured to raise his respectful but his emphatic protest. He did so for two reasons: first, because he was addressing the members of his own profession for the most part; and next because in responding for the Bench he did not forget that he represented all those who did their best to administer justice to their fellow-men in this country, and he wanted to appeal on tehalf of one portion of the community that those present should to the best of their ability support the efforts which were being made to prevent the unpaid magistracy being degraded into the slough of political bias.

Mr. P. Ogden Lawrence, K.C., responded for the Bar, and Mr. Edward F. Turner for the solicitor branch of the Profession.

The Chairman, n proposing the toast of the evening, "The Solicitors' Benevolent Association," called attention to the fact that the association had only 4000 regular subscribers, less than one-tourth of the number of solicitors practising in England and Wales, and less than half the number of members of the Law Society. After making due allowance for those who were unable, for various reasous, to become members, and for those who subscribed to the Law Association, he submitted that such a condition of affairs was not entirely creditable to the Profession. But he felt quite sure. from his own experience during the last few weeks, that the absence from the list of members of many names which ought to appear there was due to inadvertence, and be believed that if those who took an interest in the association would from time to time use their personal efforts the number of members would be materially inoreased. Printed circulars were not productive of any good result, and personal effort was necessary if the membership was to be increased. There were upwards of 600 of the solicitors who held public appointments in England and Wales who were not members of the association. This was not a proper state of things, and he hoped that they might be led to join the associatiou. Since the association was founded in 1858 it had distributed about £166,000 in 7018 grants, an average of £22 148. a grant, but, of course, larger grants were made in the case of members than of non-membere. Most of the members, he imagined, joined the association not su much with the idea of benefiting them

selves as in the expectation of benefiting others, but there were many cases in which members and their families who had needed assistance had been largely benefited by the association, and in which the payment of a few guineas in subscriptions had resulted in relief being given to a very large extent-as much as £1470 in one case-and there were many other cases of a like kind. These were generous results arising from small payments. It should be mentioned that every application was critically and carefully examined by a committee of the directors, and that then the case went before the whole board. The average sum distributed for the last ten years was £6107, and last year it was £6915. But, in order that this standard might be maintained, it was necessary that there should be more annual subscribers, for the present definite revenue was only £4997, which was represented by £2130 from interest on investments, and by only £2884 from annual subscriptions. The rest of the sum distributed was derived from donations at the anniversary meetings, and from certain of the smaller legacies which the directors felt justified in treating as revenue. This was the only association which dealt with country cases, and of the total sum distributed since 1858, about 60 per cent. had been applied in country cases. He expressed the regret of the directors at the loss of the late secretary, Mr. Scott, who had devoted the greater portion of his life to the service of the society. No one who knew Mr. Scott could doubt that the interest of the association was a thing that he really had at heart, and he rendered it very great service.

The toast of "The Guests" was proposed by Mr. Maurice A. Tweedie (Chairman of the Board of Directors). and Lord Mersey, in returning thanks, submitted the health of The Chairman,' Mr. Johnson briefly acknowledging the compliment.

Subscriptions and donations were announced to the amount of nearly £1600, which included: The Chairman, £105; Messrs. Coward, Hawksley, Sons, and Chance, £105; Ashurst, Morris. and Co., £100; J. S. Beale, £52 10s.; W. A. Crump and Son, £52 10s. ; the Law Society, £50; Messrs. H. de H. Whatton, £50; Biddle, Thorne, and Co, £26 5.; the City Solicitors' Company, £21; the Birmingham Law Society, £21; Messrs. Hammond and Richards, £21; Botterell and Roche, £21; Richard L. Harrison, £21; Richard S. Taylor, £21; and R. W. Cooper, £21.


THE third meeting in the Faster Sittings was held on the 11th inst., when a County Court case was heard. The widow and sole dependant of Daniel Gummidge submitted an application under the Workmen's Compensation Act in respect to the loss of her husband, who was alleged to have fallen overboard from the steamship Zingari, owned by the Rover Steamship Company, and been drowned. Mr. Douglas Knocker, who acted as County Court judge sitting as arbitrator, found that the onus of placing liability on the respondents had not been carried out. Stay of execution was granted for twelve days, pending notice of appeal.


MR. SYDNEY G. TURNER (president) presided at the annual dinner of this society, which was held at the Waldorf Hotel on Wednesday last Among the guests were Lord Justice Vaughan Williams, Sir S. T. Evans, His Honour Judge Rentoul, K.C., Sir Frederick Low, K.C., M.P., Mr. W. B. Ferguson, K. C., the Hon. Hugh Law, M.P., Mr. Courthope-Munroe, and Mr. John Pollen. Mauy members of the society were present, amongst others being Mr. Thomas Voeper (vice-president), Mr. Arthur H. Forbes, Mr. J. B. Melville, Mr. Aima Roper. Mr. C. T. Stringer, Mr. T. Durnford, Mr. A. R. Abbey Williams, Mr. R. O. Roberte, Mr. G. F. Kingham, Mr. Freeman King, and Mr. A. K. Ingram.

After the loyal toasts,


Mr. John Pollen proposed the toast of "The Bench," to which Lord Justice Vaughan Williams responded. He said that judges had no right to criticise the Legislature, but to administer the law. referred to the recent election petitions, and he asked did it not make them ashamed of their country that even political contests like these, which took place upon a contested election petition, should result in such wholesale lying as had occurred? It was perfectly shocking. Did they not think that the lies that had been told at these election petitions were utterly inconsistent with our historic notion of the love of truth of Englishmen, whose word in the old days used to be their bond?

Sir S. T. Evans proposed the toast of "The Bar." He said that the Bar was the best training for public life. All the heads of the public offices had been trained at the Bar, amongst others being the Prime Minister, the Irish Secretary, the Minister for War, and the Leader of the House of Lords. The members of the Bar that were not successful in getting on the Bench may be successful in obtaining these other appointments. The Bar had a duty to the Bench, and that duty was entirely carried out.

Mr. W. B. Ferguson, K.C., having responded,

His Honour Judge Rentoul, K.C., proposed the Houses of Parlia ment, to which the Hon. Hugh Law, M.P., responded,

Sir Frederick Low, K.C., in submitting the toast of "The Union Society of London" said that this was the toast of the evening. The society was founded in the year 1835, and since that time they had done very important work and it had now become an institution of London. The society had trained many young men for public speaking and made many crators at the Bar. He observed that many men

who became, and were now noted, had been presidents of the society, amongst others being the present Lord James of Hereford.

Mr. Turner (president), in returning thanks, said that there were three rules which the society observed-first, "To be thoroughly saturated with vour subject"; secondly, "To know how to begin"; and, thirdly, "To know when and how to finish."

Letters of regret were read by the secretary from Lord Halsbury, Mr. Justice Phillimore, His Honour Judge Parry, Sir John Simon, K.C., M.P., and Sir Edward Clarke, K C.


THE annual meeting of this association was held on the 11th inst.,
at the Townhall, Mr. R. Tuck (retiring president) being in the chair.
In presenting the fourth annual report and balance-sheet, the com-
mittee stated that there had been an increase in the membership of the
association, eight new members having been elected during the past
year. As against this, however, one member had resigned, having left
the town. The association had a balance in hand of £9 6s. 1ld.
The amount brought forward to the general purposes fund at the
commencement of the year, after transferring £7 78. to the benevolent
fund, was £5 17. 5d. The excess of receipts over expenditure during
the past year amounted to £3 9s. 6d. The benevolent fund now
amounted to £56 2s. 11d. The committee thanked Messrs. T. H. F.
Lapthorn, J.P., R. H. Wades on. Leonard N. Blake, LL.B, J. C.
Prior, and Arthur B. Casey, F.C.A., for their instructive and
interesting lectures. They also thanked the honorary members for
their continued support and encouragement, and Mr. H. Newell for
his generous annual donation of £1 1s. to the benevolent fund.
During the year the association had been successful in placing
several law clerks in situations. The report was adopted on the
motion of Mr. F. King, seconded by Mr. A. N. Pomeroy.
election of officers resulted in Mr. H. J. Wiltshire being appointed
president, and he accordingly took the chair. Mr. Frank King was
chosen as vice-president, Mr. W. R. Stoakes was re-elected treasurer,
Mr. Harry A. Mathews hon. secretary, and Messrs. T. H. Wiltshire
and C. G. Hollidge auditors. Messrs .F Chandler, H. W. de Gruchy,
A. A. Hodges, W. H Fergusson, E. Merrett, W. Stoakes, F. J.
Thomson, and G. F. Preston were appointed the committee. An
alteration was made in the rules, enabling the association to grant
assistance from the benevolent fund to solicitors' clerks who, by
reason of their being under the age of seventeen years, are not
eligible for membership. A vote of thanks was accorded to the
retiring president and officers.



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This department being open to free discussion on all Professional toples, the Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions or statements contained in it.

COUNTY COURT EXPERIENCES. - Perhaps some of your readers would be interested to hear of two recent experiences of mine at the Wandsworth County Court. On the 6th April last I sent down by post to this court the necessary papers for issuing a default summons. From any other court I should have received the plaint note on the 8th, but in this case it was not issued until the 13th. Again, on the 1st May, being instructed to issue an ordinary summons, I sent down again by post the necessary papers and 31s. fee. The plaint note not arriving even by the 8th, I wrote a letter to the registrar on that day requesting him to look into the matter. No reply to this letter being forthcoming on the Wednesday or the Thursday, I went down to the court, and was told the summons had just been issued. On the 12th (Friday) a reply from the registrar arrives, pleading pressure of work, and stating that " although he is pleased to give every facility by accepting papers by post, it must be understood that all postal work is postponed and preference given to work tendered at the court." The preparation of this plaint note therefore has taken the Wandsworth County Court officials ten days, when any ordinary clerk could do the same well within thirty seconds, and the preference given to work tendered at the court seems to take the form of ignoring work sent by post until serious complaints are made. I trust other solicitors have not been so unfortunate, and, if this is the general practice at this particular court, it is to be

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hoped that the proper authorities will be informed and see that a competent staff of clerks is appointed in the place of what is at present there. N. V. W. The comment in your issue of the 6th inst. by "County Court Judge upon the non-sitting of the King's Bench judges urges me to call attention to the continual inconvenience caused to suitors and Jawyers by the unpunctuality of the County Court judges and regietrare in commencing their sittings in court. This inconvenience is aggravated by the absurd system of compelling all concerned in the day's list to attend at the same hour, whatever may be the position of their case in the list. My experience, gathered in most of the metropolitan County Courts, is that it is no uncommon occurrence for a judge to commence his sitting half an hour after the advertised time. Last week at Lambeth the judge, announced to sit at ten, came iato court at 11.10. One defect in the County Court system is that every judge is a law to himself in such matters, not having, like the High Court judges, at whom " County Court Judge " cavils, a number of colleagues in the same building to keep them up to the mark. COUNTY COURT LITIGANT.

APPOINTMENT OF JUSTICES OF THE PEACE.-Referring to your article, in which you say that you, in common with the rest of the Profession, are fully satisfied that Lord Lore burn "has striven to obtain the best men possible for the posts," if the best method is to delegate the whole of his powers of selection to the Lords-Lieutenant, then everyone would agree with you; but if his duty is to use his own judgment as to the fitness or otherwise of the candidates for the unpaid magistracy, then Lord Loreburn has signally failed in doing his duty so far as the county benches, as distinguished from the borough benches, are concerned. I doubt if Lord Loreburn has during his Chancellorship appointed any justice to a county bench who was not recommended by the Lord-Lieutenant of that county, and I should be surprised to hear that he has refused to appoint any person so recommended. So long as a Lord-Lieutenant can be relied upon for impartial judgment, this plan may have its merits; but in many cases, as in the case of the Isle of Ely, the result is that no Liberal has a chance of being appointed, which is comforting to the Unionist party, but is not quite so satisfactory to our side. We Liberals only ask for a fair chance, and we think we have the right to expect it from a Liberal Chancellor. C. SYDNEY GIDDINS.

THE FINANCE ACT 1910-REVERSION DUTY AND LEASES.-As leases for terms not exceeding twenty-one years are not liable on determina. tion to reversion duty. I do not see that any liability attaches if a lease is made for twenty-one years from the 24th June 1911, another lease for a further term of twenty-one years from 1932, and another for twenty-one years from 1953. I should be glad to know if this is the general opinion, as I have no sympathy with the increase of burdens on property owners. F. C. PEARCE.

THE COUNTY COURTS BILL-Sect. 5 of this Bill as drafted proposes to abolish the default summons for debts under £5. Traders will thus be deprived of the only summary means of recovering debts under that figure. This is a serious hardship, because the ordinary summons which will be available is a very tardy process, apart from the necessity it involves of personal attendances of solicitor and client at the court. It is returnable on a fixed day usually remote; the service may be effected leisurely, and debtors. desiring to do so are able to remove their goods and have opportunities of otherwise defeating the process. The creditor over £5 has the advantage of a swifter process. He will be able to obtain and, where possible, realise his judgment before the proceedings of the smaller debtor under ordinary summons can mature. If the option of making use of the default summons for the recovery of debts under £5 is withdrawn, the whole purpose for which the County Court exists is largely defeated, because a very large proportion of the items sued for in the County Court are under £5. Efforts should at once be made to secure the right of issuing a default summons for any sum, however small. These can be served at unce by the solicitor, and an eye kept on the position from the first, which largely ensures that no opportunity of realising the judgment will be lost. Why the small creditor should be deprived of this advantage it is difficult to imagine, Surely this clause cannot be allowed to pass into law? SMELLIE AND CO.

COUNTY COURT PROCEDURE.-Is it not time that some amendment was made in the archaic rules regulating interpleaders? It is hopeless, I suppose, to expect reduction of the scandalous charges for possession and other fees in the County Court, but let us take the case of a perfectly valid claim to goods seized in which perhaps the claimant has invested his all. He is either required to find probably 103. a day to pay a bailiff who holds walking possession, or submit to the sale of his goods at the instance of a plaintiff who possibly has nothing whatever to lose, and from whom not a penny for possession money or costs or damages can be obtained. To add insult to the injury, a claimant is placed in the position of a plaintiff, and has to find by way of hearing fees 28. in the pound on the value of his own goods to enable the judgment creditor to endeavour to upset his claim. What would be the result if the claimant refused to pay these hearing lees I have not, I fear, followed out, but presumably his claim is struc out. Doubtless in many cases claims are bogus and the judgment creditor is the victim, but, at the same time, the reverse does exist, and there must surely be some method of ear marking goods seized so that they are not lost to whomsoever may win, and the costs could be a first charge against the goods if the claimant is unsuccessful,

the judgment creditor at the outset being in the position of plaintiff and being responsible for any expenses. Is there any possibility of, too, making County Courts business institutions? At one court that I know of. the registrar required personal attendance across London to issue a summons upon which not one penny costs is allowed, and, in addition, uses the stamped addressed envelope sent him, to inform appii. cants by post that he has not a staff to attend by correspondence to matters which require exactly the same clerical attention by post as otherwise. In another, in a case that I heard of recently, the registrar adjourned a case on his own initiative to a date that suited no one, and, when the parties wrote a joint request on the eve of the adjourned hearing for a further appointment, he at the adjournment struck out the case, in the absence of the parties, on the ground of nonpayment of hearing fee (which would have been sent at once had any request been made therefor), and refused either to restore the summons or to allow the plaint fees. VIATOR.


To SECRETARIES.-Reports of meetings should reach the office not later than first post Thursday morning to ensure insertion in the current number.


SIR SAMUEL EVANS took the chair on Tuesday at the annual dinner
of the Law Students' Debating Society, which was held at the
Waldorf Hotel. Among those present were Messrs. Lancelot Sander-
BOD, K.C., M.P., H. J. Johnson (President of the Law Society), Hilaire
Belloc, C. P. Blackwell (hon. treasurer), J. H. Watts, S. A. Guest,
R. A. Gordon, R. P. Croom Johnson, P. B. Skeels, Harvey Clifton.
D. A. Howden, William Cook, Edward Jenks, and R. W. Handley and
G. B. Willis (hon. secretaries).

The loyal toasts having been duly honoured,

Mr. C. P. Blackwell proposed the health of "The Chairman." Sir Samuel Evans, in returning thanks, said it was true, as Mr. Blackwell had said, that he had had the advantage, and a very great advantage he always considered it, of belonging to the other branch -he had never called it the lower branch-of the Profession before he joined the Bar. He did not think that in any country in the world there was such great cordiality as there was between the various branches of the Profession. It was quite impossible to get on without the Bar. They had tried in France to do without the Bar, but they had found it necessary to restore it. In this country the solicitors were members of the Profession: they were officers of the court and therefore amenable to the court. The Bar were in full sympathy with the Bench and the Bench in full sympathy with the Bar, and without the one assisting the other the administration of justice could not be carried on. So far from his having found bis position as a judge a difficult one to fill, as Mr. Blackwell had hinted, it had been in his case one of the easiest. All that was necessary, he had found, was that the holder of the office should possess ordinary common sense; that he should be willing to learn; that he should begin by showing that he knew nothing, and that therefore he wanted to be taught everything: that he was desirous of listening to all the arguments placed before him, and that he was desirous of doing justice to every body as far as he could, and then he would produce, and properly produce, in the minds of everybody who came before him the feeling that, whether a case had been decided for or against the litigant, he had had a perfectly fair, impartial, and patient hearing.

Mr. Hilaire Belloc proposed the toast of The Legal Profession." Mr. Lancelot Sanderson, K.C., M.P., responded. He said that they were proud of the Legal Profession because of the position which it occupied, because of its honourable traditions, and because of the assistance it rendered in the administration of justice. The system in this country was one which, in spite of defects here and there, taking it on the whole, was the best the world had ever seen. He believed that the way in which justice was administered in this country had a great deal more to do with the prosperity of the country than most people imagined, not only because the liberty of the subject and his rights were preserved, but also because the confidence of the great traders of this country and of the great traders of all the other countries in the world was reposed in those who administered justice. And not only was that confidence placed in the judges, but also in the members of the Bar, and the members of the other part of the Profession. In times past the law courts of the country had had to stand between the Crown and the subject, and, from what one could judge, recently it had become again necessary for the Law Courts. aided and assisted by the Profession, to stand between the individual citizen and certain combinations, and also between the individual citizen and certain Government departments, the conduct of which in the opinion of some had savoured of oppression and tyranny. He thought they might congratulate themselves that the Legal Profession had been very much to the fore recently. One had only to look at the front bench on the Government side in the House of Commons for evidence of this. They all knew that the Profession was a very strenuous one. He believed that there was no profession in the world that required-at all events in its earlier stages-80 much pluck, so much determination, so much quiet tenacity of purpose, as the Bar. It had always been a marvel to him why so many men went to the Bar. Many joined the Bar not even knowing the qualities which were essential to success. They had not the slightest idea whether they possessed

them, and the chief consolation was to be found in what the late Lord Collins had told him when he was a junior on the Northern Circuit. Lord Collins said he must not think for a moment that a man must necessarily be a genius to succeed at the Bar; there wer three essentials, the first he ought to be a gentleman, the second that he must be able to speak the Queen's English, and the third that he should have the capacity for hard work. He also remembered that another very eminent member of the Profession, who was also a member of the Northern Circuit, had said to him that only one thing made a man a good lawyer, and that was attending to his practice and putting his back into every single case that came before him and following out each case in all its detaile, looking up the practice in every branch of the law which appertained to the case. They were proud of the Profession, not only because of its honourable traditione, not only because of the great good it did to all members of the community, but because it gave great opportunity for real merit.

Mr R. W. Handley proposed the health of the Law Society. He observed that the Law Students' Debating Society were very greatly indebted to the society for the use of a room for meeting and for the use of the library, and more particularly in that the society gave them the privilege of being represented on the Education Committee of the council by two of their members.

The President of the Law Society (Mr. H. J. Johnson), in returning thanks, remarked that the Law Students' Debating Society had an even longer history than the Law Society as at present constituted, it having been founded in 1838, whilst the Law Society did not receive its present constitution under its charter until 1845. During all those years the two sccieties, each in its own sphere, had been working together for a common end-namely, the qualification of law students for the proper performance of their future professional duties. The Law Society began its educational work about eighty years ago, and ever since that time it had carried on that work under various systems and with varying degrees of success until the present system was inaugurated in 1903. For that system he claimed that it offered to law students a complete curriculum, not only for those who wished to make use of it for purely professional purposes, but aleo for those who might wish to take advantage of it for academical purposes, and the Law Society had no reason to be dissatisfied with the results which had been attained. The educational work of the Rociety was, of course, under the ultimate control of the council. but it had never happened that the council had not adopted the advice of the Education Committee, upon which, as Mr. Handley had stated, the very important interests of the law students were represented by two members of the Law Students' Debating Society. The debating society offered opportunities for that forensic training which was very beneficial to law students, but which was indispensable to those who wished to attain to proficiency in the practice of advocacy either at the Bar or as solicitors in the County Courts. The power of concise and accurate speech was only attainable to any real degree by practice conducted under the discipline of proper rules of debate. Then the great advantages which students obtained from social intercourse must not be lost sight of, and the council of the Law Society had within the last few months decided to spend a large sum of money in altering and extending a portion of their premises for the purpose of giving to the students accommodation outside the class rooms, so that they would be able to meet in libraries and smoking rooms, and enjoy the benefit of social gatherings. It was hoped that by the end of the Long Vacation the council would be able to welcome the students to the new premises.

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Mr. G. B. Willis proposed the toast of The Guests." Mr. Bourchier F. Hawksley returned thanks, and the proceedings terminated.

An excellent entertainment was provided by Miss Jessie Goldsack, Miss Ruby Wilson, Mr. Wilson James. and Mr. Fred Milner, under the direction of Mr. H. Wharton-Welle, L.R. A.M., who acted as accompanist.


LAW STUDENTS' DEBATING SOCIETY.-A special meeting will be held on Tuesday next, the 23rd inst., at 7.15, at the Law Society's Hall, Chancery-lane. Special business will be considered, and matters of importance will come up for discussion.




THE following rules, dated the 24th April 1911, have been made by the Secretary of State under the Prison Act 1898 (61 & 62 Vict. c 41) and the Prevention of Crime Act 1908 (8 Edw. 7, c. 59) for persons undergoing preventive detention :


1. Persons undergoing preventive detention shall be divided into three grades, ordinary, special, and disciplinary. On entering upon preventive detention they shall be placed in the ordinary grade.

2. After every six months passed in the ordinary grade with exemplary conduct a prisoner who has shown zeal and industry in the work assigned to him may be awarded a certificate of industry and conduct. Four of these certificates will entitle him to promotion to the special grade. With each certificate a prisoner will receive a good conduct stripe carrying privileges or a small money payment.

3. A prisoner may be placed in the disciplinary grade by order of the governor as part of a punishment for misconduct, or because he is known to be exercising a bad influence on others, and may be kept there as long as may be necessary in the interests of himself and of others. While in the disciplinary grade he may be employed in association if his conduct justifies association, but he will not be associated with others except at labour.

4. Prisoners will be employed either at useful trades, in which they will be instructed, or at agricultural work, or in the service of the prison, and those in the ordinary and special grades will be allowed to earn gratuity by their work. They will be allowed to spend a portion of their gratuity in the purchase of additions to their dietary, or to send it to their families, or to accumulate it for use on their discharge.

5. A prisoner who is in hospital, or medically unfit for full work, will, on the recommendation of the medical officer, who will certify that the disability was genuine and not caused by the prisoner's own fault, be credited with gratuity in proportion to his earnings when in health or calculated on his general disposition to work, coupled with good conduct.

6. A canteen will be opened in the prison at which prisoners in the ordinary and special grades may purchase articles of food and other small articles at prices to be fixed by the director. The cost of such articles will be charged against each prisoner's gratuity. The privilege of purchasing articles in the canteen may at any time be limited or withdrawn by the governor.

7. Prisoners who have obtained three certificates of industry will be eligible to have a garden allotment assigned to them, which they may cultivate at such times as may be prescribed. The produce of these allotments will, if possible, be purchased for use in prisons at market rates, and the proceeds credited to the prisoner.

8. Prisoners in the ordinary grade may be allowed to associate at meal times and also, after gaining the second certificate, in the evenings. Prisoners in the special grade may also be allowed to associate at meal times and in the evenings, and shall be allowed such additional relaxations of a literary and social character as may be prescribed from time to time.

9. Any of the privileges prescribed in these special rules or gratuity earned may be forfeited for misconduct. A prisoner has no legal claim upon his gratuity, which will be expended for his benefit, or may be withheld at the discretion of the society or person under whose supervision he is placed.

10. It will be the duty of the chaplain and prison minister to see each prisoner individually from time to time during his detention, and to promote the reformation of those under their spiritual charge. Divine service will be held weekly in the prison, and there will be in addition such mission services, lectures, and addresses on religious, moral, and secular subjects as may be arranged.

11. Prisoners shall receive the diets which the directors may prescribe from time to time.

12. Prisoners will be allowed to write and receive a letter and to receive a visit at fixed intervals according to their grade.

13. The board of visitors appointed by the Secretary of State under sect. 13 (4) of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908 shall hold office for three years. Their powers shall not be affected by vacancies. The Secretary of State shall as soon as possible fill any vacancy by making


new appointment. At their first meeting they shall appoint a chairman. One or more of them shall visit the prison once a month, and they shall meet as a board as often as possible. They shall hear and adjudicate on such offences on the part of prisoners as may be referred to them by the directors, and they shall investigate any complaint which a prisoner may desire to make to them, and, if necessary, report the same to the directors with their opinion. They shall have free access to every part of the prison, and may see any prisoner in private, inspect the diets, and examine any of the books. They shall bring any abuses to the immediate notice of the directors, and in cases of urgency they may make recommendations in writing which the governor sball carry out pending the decision of the directors. They shall keep minutes of their proceedings, and make an annual report to the Secretary of State at the beginning of each year.

14. The committee appointed under sect. 14 (4) of the said Act shall meet once a quarter, and shall forward to the directors such reports as may be required for their assistance in advising the Secretary of State as to the prospects and probable behaviour of prisoners after discharge.

15. Any person whose licence has been revoked or forfeited may on bis return to prison be placed and kept in the disciplinary grade for such length of time as the board of visitors shall think necessary. 16. These rules shall come into force on the 1st day of May 1911. W. S. CHURCHILL,

One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State.

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Mr. E. HERBERT DRAPER died last week aged seventy, after a serious operation. He was for many years clerk of the Skinners' Company. Born at Warwick in 1841, he was the eldest son of Edward Draper, of Kenilworth. He was educated at Shrewsbury and Magdalene College, Cambridge, and was called by the Inner Temple in 1870. He worked for over forty years in London. For a time he took an active part in Kensington in improving the administration of the poor law. In 1878 he was appointed clerk of the Skinners' Company, and he held this office until his death. He was thus engaged for thirty-three years in the administration of the large educational and charitable trusts of that ancient society. At his home at Southend-on-Sea he was a justice of the peace, and for many years a councillor of the Borough Corporation, and later of the Essex County Council, where he gave in his spare time valuable and experienced service in educational matters. He married the only child of Thomas Hennell, of Coventry and Kenilworth, who survives him with two sons and a daughter.

Mr. ROBERT LUNN, solicitor, of the firm of Robert Lunn and Son, of Stratford-on-Avon, died suddenly there on Tuesday. Mr. Lunn was for about a quarter of a century town clerk of the borough, resigning about fitteen months ago. He was admitted in 1865, and was a member of the Law Society.

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To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy. ANDERSON, H. W., Christchurch-rd, Brixton-hill. May 9. ASHWELL, ARTHUR T., Queen Anne s-gate, Westminster, solicitor. May 9. BATTSON, B. G., Old Queen-st, Westminster, architect. May 9. BLAKE, E. W., St. Petersburg Hotel, journalist. May 9.

BUGLEAR, CHARLES, Hildyard-rd, West Brompton, credit draper. May 8.
COOPER, EDWARD WILLIAM, Tadema-rd, Chelsea, estate agent. May 9.
GASS, CHARLES EMIL (trading as E. Gass), Long-la, Southwark, baker.
May 8.

PYNE, HENRY CHARLES, late Kingsway, printer. May 10.

May 10.


RIDLEY, CHARLES, Claremont-rd, Cricklewood, manufacturer of window cleaning paste. May 10.

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May 8.

DRAPER, AMBROSE JOHN, Nottingham, grocer Ct. Nottingham. May 8. EVANS, EVAN, Penrhyndeudraeth, miner. Ct. Portmadoc and Festiniog. May 10.

GLOVER, ERNEST CHARLES, Matlock, late nurseryman. Ct. Derby and Long Eaton. May 9.

HICKINBOTHAM, WILLIAM LE LIEVRE, Southampton, boarding-house proprietor. Ct. Southampton. May 8.

HEATH, EDWARD FREDERICK, Great Yarmouth, clerk. Ct. Great Yarmouth. May 10.

JONES, JOHN DAVIES (trading as B. Johnson), Colwyn Bay, outfitter. Ct Bangor. May 10.

JONES, WILLIAM, Blaenau Festiniog, painter. Ct. Portmadoc and Festiniog. May 9.

KAY, JOHN, Warrington, late chip potato dealer. Ct. Warrington.
May 9.

KNAPP, THOMAS, Coventry, plumber. Ct. Coventry. May 8.
LOWES, MARGARET DOROTHY, Matfield, farmer. Ct. Tunbridge Wells.
May 8.

PEARCE, EDWIN JAMES, Leicester, late artificial stone manufacturer. Ct.
Leicester. May 8.

PITT, ROBERT JAMES, Hove, painter. Ct. Brighton. May 10.

POTTER, JOHN GEORGE, and CORTEEN, JOHN WILLIAM, Sheffield, electroplate manufacturers. Ct. Sheffield. May 8.

ROBERTS, DAVID JOHN, Blaenau Festiniog, electrical driver. Ct. Portmadoc and Festiniog. May 9.

SHEWELL, GEORGE DE COEURDOUX, Rochester, haulage contractor.
Rochester. May 9.


STEALEY, JOSEPH, Gatley, sanitary plumber. Ct. Stockport. May 8. SINCLAIR, AUGUSTINE WILLIAM, South Petherton, medical practitioner. Ct. Yeovil. May 6.

SHAW, ALBERT EDWARD, Manchester, late maker-up. Ct. Manchester. May 9.

WILD, JOHN WILLIAM, late Ashton-under-Lyne, cotton mill operative. Ct. Ashton-under-Lyne. May 8.

WILSON, A. E., late Liverpool, commercial traveller for a firm of publishers. Ct. Liverpool. May 9.

WALL, JOSEPH, late Iveston, farmer. Ct. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. May 5.

Amended notice substituted for that published in Gazette, April 28. PEPPER, WILLIAM (trading as J. Pepper and Co), Sydenham, butcher. Ct. Greenwich. April 25.


To surrender at the High Court of Justice, in Bankruptcy. CORONEL, EDWARD (trading as Edward Coronel and Sons), Edgware-rd, cigar merchant. May 12.

GIMBLETT, EDMUND COSLETT, late Marlborough-rd, Upper Holloway, beer retailer. May 12.

HYDE, JAMES (also trading as Wright, Price, and Co., and as H. Perry and Co.), Aldersgate-st, trimming manufacturer. May 11.

To surrender at their respective District Courts BRADSHAW, WILLIAM JAMES, Chalfont St. Peters, builder. Ct. Aylesbury. May 11. BENNETT, PERCY (trading as P. Bennett and Co.), Cardiff, ship store merchant. Ct. Cardiff. May 10. BRATTON, HERBERT EDWARD, Gravesend, mineral water manufacturer. Ct. Rochester. May 13.

BERGSMA, PETRUS ADRIANUS, Saint Mary Church. Ct. Exeter. May 11. CHILDE, RICHARD, Sheffield, drug stores proprietor. Ct. Sheffield. May 11. CARMICHAEL, PETER MAURICE STEWART, Brighton, motor engineer. Brighton. May 12.


DENT, EDWIN JAMES, New Hunstanton, clerk in holy orders. Ct. King's Lynn. May 13.

ENDERBY, FRED, Gayton-le-Marsh, farmer. Ct. Great Grimsby. May 10. FERNIE, RALPH, late Brundall, captain. Ct. Norwich. May 12.

FREWER, SIDNEY (trading as Frewer Brothers), Bury St. Edmunds, coal merchant. Ct. Bury St. Edmunds. May 12.

GRAVENOR, MARY ANN. Tredegar, baker, widow. Ct. Tredegar. May 13.
HUMBLE, EDITH MARY, Malton, draper, widow.
May 13.

LEONARD, EVAN, Aberayron, late licensed victualler.
May 13.

REVELL, JAMES HERBERT, Cheltenham, hotel keeper.

May 11.

Ct. Scarborough.

Ct. Aberystwyth,

Ct. Cheltenham.

RAYSON, JOHN WILLIAM, Leicester, tailor. Ct. Leicester. May 12.
RIDER, THOMAS SOUTHWORTH, Ormskirk, outfitter.

Ct. Liverpool. WILLIAMS, GEORGE, late Buckingham. Ct. Banbury. May 12.

May 11.

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CREED, ANNIE ELIZA, Weston-super-Mare, widow. May 10.


Ct. Bridgwater.

CARLMARK, JOHN DENNIS, West Bromwich, electrical engineer. Ct. West
Bromwich. May 8.

Ct. Stourbridge. May. 6.
CRADDOCK, HARRIET, Brierley Hill, grocer.
DOYKIN, SAMUEL, Nottingham, lace manufacturer.
May 8.

Ct. Nottingham. Ct. Nottingham. May 8. EVANS, EVAN, Penrhyndeudraeth, miner. Ct. Portmadoc and Festiniog. May 10.

DRAPER, AMBROSE JOHN, Nottingham, grocer.

GASS, CHARLES EMIL (trading as E. Gass), Long-la, Southwark, baker.

Ct. High Court. May 8.

GLOVER, ERNEST CHARLES, Matlock, late nurseryman. Ct. Derby and

Long Eaton. May 9.

HICKMOTT, EDWIN, Sevenoaks, draper. Ct. Tunbridge Wells. May 8.

HICKINBOTHAM, WILLIAM LE LIEVRE, Southampton, boarding-house proprietor. Ct. Southampton. May 8.

JONES, JOHN DAVIES (trading as B. Johnson), Colwyn Bay, outfitter.
Bangor. May 10.


WILLIAM, Blaenau Festiniog, painter. Festiniog. May 9.


Ct. Portmadoc and

KEELING, ARTHUR, Sutton-in-Ashfield, builder. Ct. Nottingham. May 10.
KNAPP, THOMAS, Coventry, plumber. Ct. Coventry. May 8.
LOWES, MARGARET DOROTHY, Matfield, farmer.

May 8.

Ct. Tunbridge Wells.

MILLER, ABRAHAM (described in the receiving order and trading as A.
Miller and Sons), Mile End-rd. Ct. High Court. May 9.
plate manufacturers. Ct. Sheffield. May 8.

PEARCE, EDWIN JAMES, Leicester, late artificial stone manufacturer. Ct.
Leicester. May 10.

ROBERTS, DAVID JOHN, Blaenau Festiniog, electrical driver. Ct. Portmadoc and Festiniog.

May 9.

SINCLAIR, AUGUSTINE WILLIAM, South Petherton, medical practitioner. Ct. Yeovil. May 6.

SHAW, ALBERT EDWARD, Manchester, late maker-up.

May 10.

Ct. Manchester.

WILD, JOHN WILLIAM, late Ashton-under-Lyne, cotton mill operative. Ct. Ashton-under-Lyne. May 8.

WALKER, HENRY FRANCIS MOSTYN, Southampton, gentleman. Ct. Southampton. May 10.

WALL, JOSEPH, late Iveston, farmer. Ct. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. May 5.


BRATTON, HERBERT EDWARD, Gravesend, mineral water manufacturer. Ct.
Rochester. May 13.

BENNETT, PERCY (trading as P. Bennett and Co.), Cardiff, ship store
merchant. Ct. Cardiff. May 10.
CHILDE, RICHARD, Sheffield, drug store proprietor. Ct. Sheffield. May 11.
DENT, EDWIN JAMES, New Hunstanton, clerk in holy orders. Ct. King's
Lynn. May 13.

ENDERBY, FRED, Gayton-le-Marsh, farmer. Ct. Great Grimsby. May 12.
FORD, SYDNEY HERBERT, Alsager, farmer. Ct. Macclesfield. May 13.
FREWER, SIDNEY (trading as Frewer Brothers), Bury St. Edmunds, coal
merchant. Ct. Bury St. Edmunds. May 12.
FORSTER, MONICA, Bournemouth, spinster. Ct. Poole. May 12.
GRAVENOR, MARY ANN, Tredegar, baker, widow. Ct. Tredegar. May 13.
HUMBLE, EDITH MARY, Malton, draper, widow. Ct. Scarborough.
May 13.

HOWARD, CHARLES, Abergavenny, cycle dealer. Ct. Tredegar. May 11.
KAY, JOHN, Warrington, late chip potato dealer. Ct. Warrington.
May 13.
LEONARD, EVAN, Aberayron, late licensed victualler. Ct. Aberystwyth.
May 13.

LEVY, JOSEPH (trading as J. G. Pollett and Co.), late Minories, hosier.
Ct. High Court. May 12.

PITT, ROBERT JAMES, Hove, builder. Ct. Brighton. May 11.

PALMER, PERCY HAROLD (described in the receiving order as P. H. Palmer
and Co.), Mincing-la, St. Mary-axe, merchant. Ct. High Court.
May 10.
RIDLEY, CHARLES, Claremont-rd, Cricklewood, manufacturer of window
cleaning paste. Ct. High Court. May 11.
RAYSON, JOHN WILLIAM, Leicester, tailor. Ct. Leicester. May 12.
SOUTHWORTH, Ormskirk, outfitter.
May 11.
SPACKMAN, FRANCIS EDWARD, Lambourn, farmer. Ct. Newbury. May 11.
WILLIAMS, JOHN (trading as John Williams and Co.), Ventnor, iron-
monger. Ct. Newport and Ryde. May 10.

Amended notice substituted for that published in Gazette, April 25. WILSON, JOHN WILLIAM HENDERSON (commonly known and described in the receiving order as William Wilson, late trading as S. E. Glover and Co.), late Latimer-rd, Notting Hill, butchers' supplies merchant. Ct. High Court. April 21.

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BARKER. On the 9th ult., at Perth,
Australia, Alexander
Edward Barker, Crown Solicitor, aged 49.
PEARSON.-On the 6th inst., William Lawrence Wemyss Pearson,
Barrister-at-law, of 3, Hare-ct, Temple, and The Albany, Piccadilly,
in his fifty-seventh year.

PLASKITT. On the 6th inst., at 58, Duke's-av, Chiswick, Joseph Plaskitt,
late of 19, Lincoln's-inn-flds, in his seventy-ninth year.
POWLES. On the 6th inst., at Lowestoft, Louis Diston Powles, Barrister-
at-law, H.M. Probate Registrar, Norwich, aged 68 years.

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