« EelmineJätka »
number of prisoners. The writer remembers a visit, in the company of the chaplain, to the library at Wormwood Scrubbs, and his very considerable surprise at the quantity, quality, and variety of the volumes he examined: science, history, fiction, poetry, philosophy, books of travel, and books on education, including many that his own shelves have never yet been furnished with. English prison memoirs of our own day, from those of Michael Davitt to those of Jabez Balfour, have almost always had something to say on the topic of food for the convict's mind. Mr. Jabez Balfour, in My Prison Life, devotes to it the greater part of a chapter, in which he maintains that the library is "the very best agency for good which is to be found in a convict prison." He himself was librarian orderly at Parkhurst, and had therefore the best possible means of knowing what prisoners read, and some small opportunities perhaps of estimating the effects of the book in the cell of the convict. Even during the period of his own detention of eleven years, he tells us the quality of the prison library underwent a change: "The mawkish, goody-goody stuff has happily been
used up and has not been replaced." He adds:Every moral influence and power does, in fact, manifest itself most effectually in the material conditions and aspects of individual life. This is notably the case in convict prisons. It is literally impossible to overrate the good influence resulting from the circulation of good books among prisoners. It is often the only really successful influence.
As the new report informs Tus, the books supplied to prisoners are divided for administrative purposes into five classes, named, respectively, devotional books, school books, books of moral instruction, books of secular instruction, and "library books." The devotional books are the Bible, the Prayer Book (in the case of Roman Catholics the Garden of the Soul), and the Hymn Bock. These, in the official phrase, form part of the furniture of every prisoner's cell. Then come the school books. These are English History Reading Books (the National Society's), Language Lessons, Arithmetic, and Collins' Clear Type Pronouncing Dictionary. As for books of moral instruction, it would seem that a prisoner can practically be accommodated in accordance with his " religious persuasion." Is he an Anglican ? He can have The Narrow Way and The Traveller's Guide. Is he a Romanist? He can make choice of Think Well on't, the Roman Catholic Penny Catechism, and the Poor Man's Catechism. Is he a Nonconformist? Here are the Pilgrim's Progress (itself the creation of a prisoner) and the Methodist Hymn Book. Jewish prisoners may pick works of moral instruction upon other lines; and to all prisoners alike is offered a volume, the Healthy Home and How to Keep it.
Almost any book that can be brought within the technical descrip. tion of "educational" is at present allowed to any prisoner (not under punishment) at any stage of his sentence. There are many works that come under this definition, ranging from English and foreign grammars tɔ text-books of shorthand, and manuals of shoemaking, carpentry, weaving, blacksmithing, &c. Books in this class, moreover, may be changed as often as a new one is wanted. This, at least, is as the regulations run; but, as the service of the library is not numerous in any prison, we can scarcely suppose (as the committee seem anxious to persuade us) that the orderlies of this department are as ready to the call of prisoners as the assistants are to readers in the British Museum. Naturally, they could not be ; and it is probable that the prisoner gets his book-his exceptional book, we mean-when it is convenient to the staff to wait on him. No prisoner commands anything, and it is never to the interest of a prisoner to give trouble to anybody.
As to the phrase, "library books," this takes in everything not comprehended in the four classes of works connected with devotion, school, morals, and secular instruction. What, then, does the prisoner read in the section of the library proper? He reads very much what we might suppose that he would. Certain months of the sentence having worn themselves out, the prisoner reasonably balanced seeks 80 create for himself in his brief recreative hours a world remote from that of the cell, the quarry, the exercise-yard, the bog, the prison chapel. He turns to fiction, to philosophy, to travel, to poetry to anything that will temporarily shape another scene for him. Though the average level of education of the prison population is below the general average of the nation [say the committee], yet actual illiterates are now few, and nearly every grade and kind of education to be found in the outside world has its representatives to-day in prison. The ordinary demand which has to be met by the library of a large prison is about as varied as that which is catered for by the circulating library of a provincial town, and at one or two prisons would compare favourably with it in point of quality. Prisoners' main desire is naturally for relaxation and entertainment. After a fairly hard day's work this is not surprising, either in prison or out of it. What is somewhat surprising is the extent to which the works of the best English novelists are either spon
taneously asked for by prisoners, or accepted and read with pleasure when recommended by the chaplain. There is always a considerable number of prisoners who read Scott, Dickens, and other standard writers, and even prefer them to other books. A distinction has to be drawn here between the inmates of convict and local prisons. What we may call the "educated demand" is chiefly to be found among convicts. Among local prisoners it is the exception to find persons of any substantial degree of education. In the smaller local prisons they are almost unknown. In the convict prisons, on the other hand, such persons are by no means uncommon. At Dartmoor. for example, beside Dumas, Rider Haggard, and Mrs. Henry Wood, we found Dickens, Thackeray, Scott, and Shakespeare in regular demand; while Pope, Southey, and Chaucer have also their adherents. The traditional vanity of the criminal find its expression even in the requests he makes to the prison librarian. The convict or local prisoner, who would read by preference something with a tang of blood can be induced to turn his attention to the novelist in vogue; and in Dartmoor there was a sudden run on Shakespeare by prisoners who never glanced at a page of him, but had privately received the office that it was the correct thing to have Shakespeare on the shelf. The report goes on :
There is always a certain number of highly educated prisoners for whom even the best of works of fiction are not sufficient. Such men are mostly to be found among convicts, the average quality of whose reading is considerably superior to that of the local prisoner; and especially among the convicts placed in what is known as the "star class, i.e., persons of respectable antecedents. For these even Scott, Dickens, and Thackeray require to be supplemented by historical or philosophic authors of the first rank. Among the convicts at Maidstone there are men who will seldom read novels, but ask for such authors as Froude and Freeman, Macaulay, Burke and Gibbor, Ruskin, Carlyle, Spencer, and Mill. They are usually professional men convicted of serious frauds.
It is an interesting report, though it tells us nothing very fresh. A little more might have been made of the cases of prisoners who give themselves laboriously to the study of shorthand, foreign languages, and curious and unfamiliar trades. These exercises must be inspired by a great variety of motives: motives more or less indifferent, motives honest, motives dishonest. We should know much of certain prisoners if we knew not only what they read, but precisely why they read it. On the surface, however, this is an interesting report. The uavchology of the subject may be introduced by-andbye.
Birmingham, Monday, and Wednesday, at 10 Blackburn, Monday, at 9.30 Blackpool, Wednesday, at 10 Bow, Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday
Bradford (Yorks), Tuesday and Wednesday, at 10
Brighton, Friday (J.S. at 11.30), at 10
Bristol, Monday and Tuesday, at
Carlisle, Thursday, at 9.30 Cheltenham, Friday
Chesterfield, Monday (if
sary), at 9.30
Clerkenwell, Monday and Tuesday
Dewsbury, Monday, Tuesday, and
Diss, Tuesday at 11
Greenwich, Friday, at 10.30
Leighton-Buzzard, Wednesday, at
Llanfyllin, Tuesday, at 10
and Thursday, at
Newport Pagnell, Friday, at lu
Newtown, Monday, at 10
Northwich, Thursday, at 10
Thursday, at 10
Oswestry, Thursday, at 10
Southport, Tuesday, at 10
Sunderland, Thursday (R. By)
Wellingborough, Monday, at 10
Wednesday, Thursday, and Fri-
Whitechapel, Tuesday, Wednesday,
*Other sittings are specially fixed if necessary.
AT the Pilgrims' dinner to the Prime Ministers of the Overseas Dominions on Tuesday at the Savoy Hotel Sir Edward Grey, in proposing "Anglo-American Arbitration," said: This, I think, is a new toast in your proceedings, and the reason of it occupying the place it does this evening is no doubt that the question of arbitration has just entered upon a new and very interesting and hopeful stage. I trust that we have before us a prospect of something which when complete will be a landmark in human history to which we now look forward with hope and expectation, and on which in years to come the world will look back with satisfaction and congratulation. You all know that the initative in launching this proposal was taken by the President of the United States, taken with courage and earnest desire to promote national and in the best sense international welfare. But just as it takes two to make a quarrel, so it takes two to make a treaty, and, as you know, it was not long after the proposal was launched before it was taken up and accepted publicly in this country. That has brought the question within the region of practical politice, never, I trust, to leave it again. That proposal and acceptance have been followed by a demonstration of public feeling, impressive, vocal, eloquent, and essential. Those stages have been successfully passed, and we are now on the point of entering upon another stage, that of actual negotiation. The period of actual negotiation differs somewhat from these earlier stages. It is one, for the negotiator at least, not of eloquence but of silence, or at any rate reticence. I do not mean to say that that applies to anybody except those who are actually engaged in negotiation.
The Government of the United States has drawn up a draft, I gather not a final, but a tentative draft, of an Arbitration Treaty, and it is now on its way to this country, but till the full text of that treaty is received it would be impossible for those who will have to consider the treaty to attempt to discuss it, and even when it is received, I think our comments, our opinions, our suggestions upon it which are to be made on the responsibility of the Government should be made first of all in courtesy to the United States Government itself. But this I would say that from what I gather of the nature of that draft, what I have gathered from the Press, and what I have so far gleaned from other sources, makes me feel sure that it is a great advance which is opening the way to great practical pro. gress in the future settlement of disputes, not by force but by equity. I take it that in welcoming this toast this evening you do so because you know here, as in the United States, that anything like war between the United States and the British Empire would be something so intolerable, so apparently opposite to the deepest sentiboth countries as to be menta and feelings of the people in unthinkable. That makes the ground between our two nations specially favourable for an arbitration treaty of an extended kind.
In any successful arbitration treaty it must be a postulate that there should be no possibility of conflict between the national policies of the nations which are parties to it. If that condition is secured between ue, then in the next place you must have between the two Governments confidence in each and reasonableness and goodwill. The object of an arbitration treaty is to avoid quarrels, not necessarily to multiply arbitration. Reasonableness and good will have been characteristic between us in the last few years, and a number of questions which, without reasonableness and without good will would have given rise to friction and distrust, have been successfully settled between us. I trust that when people look on the question of an arbitration treaty of this kind they will not do so in any narrow spirit. It is said, and there is a great deal of truth in the comment, that an arbitration treaty of this kind between the United States and ourselves would be but to set the seal upon a satisfactory state of things which already exists between us. By all means let us set the seal upon it, but if there are people who think that the treaty is therefore likely to be comparatively valueless, that it is not going to be of any benefit to the two countries themselves, and not going to have any beneficial effect outside the two countries, then I say it is not a proper way of looking at the question. We have never desired that in arbitration negotiations of this kind the 'Government of the United States or we ourselves should show any spirit of narrow or exclusive dealing, If the initiative of President Taft has. as I believe it will, sooner or later, directly or indirectly, a beneficial consequence on other nations outside the two which are specially interested, so much the better do we welcome it. I believe that posterity will say of President Taft, or, of us, or of any nation which labours successfully for this object, they have built even better than they knew at the time. Meanwhile, as far as we are concerned, I rejoice that we are on the point of entering upon negotiations with the United States Government. Mr. John L. Griffiths responded.
The Earl of Halsbury then proposed "Our Guests." He said it had rarely happened that so many nations-for they were nationshad congregated together to congratulate those who had been exercising the office of government in various parts of the earth's surface to such an extent and with such an influence as was exhibited by that assembly.
HEIRS-AT-LAW AND NEXT OF KIN. BRIDGES or BRYDGES (Sarah), Frampton Mansell, who died Jan. 26, 1911, in the will of Mary Ratcliffe, deceased, mentioned. Next of kin living on Jan. 26, or their legal personal representatives, to come in, by June 22, and prove their claims at chambers of Swinfen Eady and
Neville, JJ., and enter their names at Room 286, Royal Courts of Justice. Hearing June 29, at 12, at said chambers. GORDON (Robert, otherwise Robert Huntley), great-nephew of Richard Rudyerd, who died at Whitby, May 8, 1821, or his legal personal representatives, heirs, or assigns, claiming under an inquiry as to who are the persons interested in the hereditaments and premises known as Lambert Hill Farm, Ruswarp, Whitby, to come in, by June 11, and prove their claims at chambers of Warrington and Parker, JJ., and to enter their names at Room 299, Royal Courts of Justice. Hearing June 21, at 11, at said chambers. HOLLINGS (Anina). Chartham Down Lunatic Asylum, who died
March 25, 1907. Next of kin or their legal personal representatives, to come in, by Nov. 22, at chambers of Warrington and Parker, JJ. Hearing Nov. 29, at 12, at said chambers, Room 315. PEMBLE (Thomas), Bredhurst, who died Oct 12, 1909.
Heir or heirs and next of kin or their legal personal representatives, to come in, by June 10, and prove their claims at chambers of Swinfen Eady and Neville, JJ, and to enter their names at Room 286, Royal Courts of Justice. Hearing June 16, at 12, at said chambers.
APPOINTMENTS UNDER THE JOINT STOCK
NOTICES OF APPEARANCE AT HEARING MUST REACH THE SOLICITORS BY 6 M, ON TIR
FULLER'S BOOT COMPANY LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 1, to
GRANDE MAISON D'AUTOMOBILES LIMITED Petition for winding-up to be
G. ASTON AND SONS LIMITED. - Petition for winding-up to be heard
R. J. FERGUSON AND CO. LIMITED.--Creditors to send in, by July 1, to A. D. Brooke, Imperial-chmbrs, Halifax. B. H Richardson, Brighouse, sol. for liquidator.
RYKNIELD MOTOR COMPANY LIMITED-Creditors to send in, by June 12, to J. E. Pritchard, 115, Colmore-row, Birmingham Talbot, Stein, and Evershed, Burton-on-Trent, sols. for liquidator.
ROLLER RINK CONSTRUCTION COMPANY OF GREAT BRITAIN LIMITED -Creditors to send in, by June 1, to J. M Mcintosh, 6, Cherry-st, Birmingham.
SHERERO TRADING SYNDICATE LIMITED.-Petition for winding-up to ba
W. F. GORE AND CO. LIMITED.-Creditors to send in, by June 18, to L. S.
CREDITORS UNDER ESTATES IN CHANCERY.
ADLINGTON (Jethro), Calow. June 21; T. Syms, sol., Manchester.
HAMMOND (Henry), Peterborough. June 30; A. Veasey and Co., sols, Queen's-ho, Queen-st, E.C. July 6; Warrington and Parker, JJ., at 12.30.
CREDITORS UNDER 22 & 23 VICT, a 35.
LAST DAY OF CLAIM AND TO WHOM PARTICULARS TO BE SENT. ARDLEY (Albert Oakley), Peckham, and ARDLEY (Ada Emily). June 24; Bayley, Adams, Hawker, and Noble, Bank-chmbrs, Tower Bridge-rd, S.E. ARMFIELD (Eliza), Edgbaston. June 16; Johnson, Weatherall, and Sturt, 7. King's Bench-walk, Inner Temple, E.C. ARMSTRONG (Robert), Newcastle-upon-Tyne, lately residing at Amble. July 3; R. Brown and Son, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. APPLEYARD (Major-Gen. Frederick Ernest, C.B.), Surbiton. June 20, J. H. Tuppen, 48, Bedford-row. ABBOTT (Henry), Swaton. June 21; B. Smith and Co., Horbling, FolkingJuly 8; Weightman. Pedder, and Co., LiverJune 30; J. and W. J. Drewry and Newbold,
BELL (George), Claughton.
BIRCH (Edward), Newhall.
June 17; Toller, Burgess, and Pochin, June 19; Ranson, Nelson, and Maling,
BAILEY (William), Longsight. June 29;
BROWN (Alfred), Great Yarmouth. May 27; Ferrier and Ferrier, Great
BRENTNALL (Caroline), South Yarra, Victoria. July 4; St. Barbe Sladen
BULMER (William Joseph), West Burton. June 20; S. G. Ward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
CLIXBY (Sarah Ann). Gainsborough. June 30; Clinton and Co., 59-60, Chancery-la, W.C.
COOKE (Rev. Arthur Henry), Liskeard. June 30; C. H. W Shackel!, St. Austell.
CHAMBERS (Benjamin Ellis Coates), Haslemere. June 30; Rodgers and Co., Sheffield.
CRABB (Frederick Thomas), Fallowfield and Manchester. June 20; A. Whitworth, Manchester.
CHAPPELLE (Albert Edward Barnsdall), Ratcliffe-on-Trent, or CHAPPELLE (Harriet), Boston. June 30; H. A. Chappelle, at the offices of Jebb and Tunnard, Boston, Lines. CROSSLEY (John), Oswaldtwistle, and Ansdell, Lytham. June 17; J. R. Reddish, Church, Lancs.
CRICK (Isaac), Ampthill. June 24; Sharman and Trethewy, Ampthill. CLEGG (Thomas), Hampton Court. July 1; Stanton and Hudson, 108A, Cannon-st, E.C.
DEWHURST (Harold), Holborn. June 24; James, Mellor, and Coleman, 12, Coleman-st, E.C.
DAWSON (George Frederick), Bradford. June 30; R. Newton Rhodes and
DE PARADE (Laura), Forest Hill. June 10; Grant, Davies, and Co., Bur-
ELWIN (Robert Symes), Sunderland and Monkwearmouth.
Dixon and Barker, Sunderland.
ENGLAND (Joe), Sheffield. July 5; W. Irons, Sheffield.
FOWLER (Francis), Guisborough. July 1; Buchannan and Richardson, Guisborough.
GEACH (Caroline), Lostwithiel. June 19; M. F. Edyvean, Bodmin. GIBSON (George Henry), High Wycombe. June 18; Rutland and Taylor, High Wycombe.
GAMIE (George), Hove and Winchester. June 30; Brewis and Sons, St. Helens.
GRINT (Eliza), New Southgate. June 19; Godwin and Son, 63, Wcolexchange, E.C.
GARNETT, otherwise BURGESS, née O'NEILL POWER (Annie), Barmouth, who died at Henrietta-st. June 24; Kenny and Stephenson, Waterford, Ireland.
GEORGE (James), Putney. July 18; F. Taylor, 198, Upper Richmond-rd, Putney, S.W.
GALTON (Sir Francis), Rutland-gate, and Haslemere. May 31; Wragge and Co., Birmingham.
GRIEVES (Jemimah Dinah), Ludlow. June 20; Weyman, Weyman, and Estyn Jones, Ludlow.
HILL (Joseph), Heaton. July 10: Greaves and Greaves, Bradford. HAMPSON (Sarah), Radcliffe. July 5; S. Woodcock and Sons, Bury. HAMMOND (Robert), Bowes Park. July 1; Debenham and Sugar, 2, Gresham-bldgs, Basinghall-st, E.C.
HIGLETT (Elizabeth), Pocklington. June 1; H. Syd. Powell, Pocklington. HOLWAY (Albert James), Honiton. June 24; E. W. Hellier, Honiton. HAYWOOD (John), Bournbrook, Selly Oak. June 20; Adcock and Simmons, Birmingham.
June 30; Johnsons,
HUMPHREYS (Jeannette Napoli), West Malling.
June 24; Dickons and Aked, HANNAFORD (Ann), St. Judes, Plymouth. June 19; Kellock and Co.,
Totnes. JOHNSON (Mary Ann), Cobridge. June 15; Paddock and Sons, Hanley. JAUNCEY (Helen), Lisbon, Portugal. June 19; Druces and Attlee, 10, Billiter-sq.
JOHNSON (John Smith), Birtley. June 30; G. A. Carpenter, Durham.
KERN (Frederick Ascan). Denmark Hill. July 19; Clarke, Rawlins, and
LOGIE (Ellen Clementina), Blackheath. June 24; W. B. Styer, 11 and 12,
LATTER (Richard), Bath. June 24; A. E. Withy, Bath.
LIMAN (Jeannette), Manchester. June 30; the executors, at the offices of Sutton, Elliott, Turnbull, Mayne, and Francomb, Manchester. MACKARNESS (John Evelyn), Bletchley. June 30; Charles Russell and Co., 37, Norfolk-st, Strand, W.C.
MORRIS (Charles), Erdington. June 24; G. Pearsall Locker, Birmingham.
MILLWARD (William Henry), Malvern. July 7; Pointon and Evershed, Birmingham.
MILNES (Thomas Henry), Penmaenmawr. June 24; Lane, Clutterbuck, and Co., Birmingham.
MARTINEZ (Elias Nunez), Maida Vale. June 21; Lindo and Co., 2 and 3, West-st, Finsbury-cir.
NEWLING (Maude Alice), Bournemouth. June 30; W. E. Burt, Bournemouth.
NOYES (John), Tunbridge Wells. July 8; Cheale and Son, Tunbridge Wells.
ORME (Francis Heans), Alderley Edge. July 4; Ponsonby and Carlile, Oldham.
ODDY (Amos), Wibsey, or ODDY (Rose). June 12; M. Banks Newell, . Bradford.
PATTINSON (Ann), Applethwaite. June 30; Bolton and Bolton, Kendal. PURCHASE (Frederick Charles), Swansea. June 20; A. Curtis and Son, Neath.
PATEMAN (John), Leicester. June 30; G. Stevenson and Son, Leicester.
SPACKMAN (Louisa), Bromley. June 30; J. H. Hodge, Bromley.
SALTER (William), Folkestone. July 1; H. B. Bradley and Hulme, Folke
SHAH (Aga Shumsudin), otherwise Aga Shumsudin Shah bin Aga Jungee Shah, Bombay, India, and Jermyn-st, S. W. June 25; Latteys and Hart, 138, Leadenhall-st, E.C.
SNOWBALL (John), Scarborough. June 26; Birdsall and Cross, Scarborough.
SQUIRE (Harry Hall), Wellington-ter, Bayswater-rd. June 12; Welman and Sons, 76B, Westbourne-gr, Bayswater, W. SENIOR (William), Oldham. June 30; W. B. Halliwell, Oldham. SIMKIN (John James), Birmingham. June 30; Bickley and Lynex, Birmingham. SHARMAN (John Parker), Cardiff. June 19; W. H. Pethybridge, Cardiff. STANHAM (Edward Moore), Monte Video, Uruguay. June 19; G. R. Hutchinson, at the offices of Bischoff and Co., 4, Great Winchesterst, E.C.
TRUEMAN (Robert), Sunderland. June 20; J. and W. J. Robinson,
TAYLOR (George), Birmingham. June 24; J. H. Frost, Birmingham. TAYLOR (Mary), Lytham, or TAYLOR (Bridget). June 19; L. Sprake and Son, Accrington.
TULL (Elizabeth), Bournemouth. June 20; Guillaume and Sons, Salisbury-sq, E.C.
TAYLOR (Henry Edmund), Whickham. June 20; S. G. Ward, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
WADE (John), Llanelly. June 20; E. Kammerer, Llanelly.
WRIGHT (Matilda), Hackney Downs. July 20; Gilbert Houghton and Sons, 63, Finsbury-pave, E.C.
WATERS (Isabella), Balham. May 27; Hepworth and Co., Coventry House, South-pl, Finsbury, E.C.
WARREN (Henry John), Hayle. June 30; A. H. Thomas, Camborne.
WRIDE (Francis Blake), Southampton, Totton, and Woolston. June 30; Hallett and Martin, Southampton
WOLVERHAMPTON (Right Hon. Henry Hartley, First Viscount, G.C.S.I.). July 1; Fowler, Langley, and Wright, Wolverhampton.
WESTBY (Edmund Wright), Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, and
WOODALL (Henry Mitchell). Wandsworth. June 24; Sloper, Potter, and
PROMOTIONS AND APPOINTMENTS. Information intended for publication under the above heading should reach us not later than Thursday morning in each week, as publication is otherwise delayed.
Mr. ALFRED ASPINALL TOBIN, K.C., M.P., has been appointed to fill the vacancy on the Bar Council caused by the appointment of Mr. Mellor, KC, to be a County Court judge. Mr. Tobin was called by the Middle Temple in 1880, and goes the Northern Circuit. He took silk in 1903.
The Hon. F. L. HASZARD has been appointed Master of the Rolle in Chancery and an Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature of Prince Edward Island in the place of Mr. E. Jarvis Hodgeon, resigned.
Mr. A. A. FISHER, barrister-at-law, has been appointed Junior Judge of the County Court of the County of Renfrew, Ontario, Canada, in succession to the late Mr. Thomas Deacon, and a Local Judge of the High Court of Justice for Ontario.
Mr. CYRUS P. DAVID, barrister-at-law, has been appointed Commissioner of the Port of Spain District Court, Trinidad. Mr. David was called by Gray's-inn in 1889.
THE COUNTY COURTS CHRONICLE AND GAZETTE OF BANKRUPTCY.To enable it to treat more completely of the many matters on which the Judges, Officers, and Practitioners require to be kept regularly informed and to give to it the importance which, as the Journal of the County Courts, and their long-established official organ, it is entitled to assume, it has been greatly improved and enlarged in accordance with the extension of the Jurisdiction of the County Courts under 30 & 31 Vict. c. 142, 46 & 47 Vict. c. 52, 51 & 52 Vict. c. 43, and 53 & 54 Vict. c. 63. The Reports of Cases relating to County Courts Law decided by the Superior Courts are in octavo form, as more convenient for citation in Court. Communications are specially invited to the department of "Queries," which is designed to do for the County Courts what the "Justice of the Peace" does for the Magistrates' Courts. N.B.-The County Courts Chronicle" was commenced with the County Courts. It is recognised as the official organ of the Courts. Monthly, price 18. 6d -HORACE Cox, "Law Times" Office, Windsor House, Bream'sbuildings, E. C.-[Advt.]
HARDWICKE SOCIETY.-LADIES' NIGHT DEBATE.
THE annual ladies' night debate of the Hardwicke Society was held
was a human being she had a right to a vote. But he asked whether they were prepared to give a vote to every inhabitant of India.
Lady Meyer supported the motion. She said that however sympathetic men might be they could not understand the needs of
Mr. A. Wenyon-Samuel asserted that there was no real, genuine interest among the masses of the people in favour of the movement. Mrs. Cobden-Sanderson spoke in favour of the motion.
Miss Gladys Pott, speaking in opposition, said that it was altogether beside the question to instance Australia and New Zealand as places where the women's franchise worked well. No comparison could be drawn between a new country which took up civilisation where an old country such as our own left off, and had only to find a way to prevent certain things instead of having to cure them.
A vote was taken by ballot, the result being that eighty-six votes were given in favour of the motion and 118 against. It was therefore negatived.
Mr. A. M. Langdon, K.C., moved: "That the Parliamentary franchise should be extended to women." He said that within the last forty years there had been a deep and increasing change in the structure of society. Forty years ago the place of woman was in the domestic circle, but things were changed, and the action of woman in society had become very different. One of the most wonderful factors of modern life was the part that woman played therein. In the great manufacturing centres women were largely employed, and they were also taking an enormous part in the superior branches of our organisation. They ran with equal success to the superior race great hospitals and other institutions. Wherever one turned, one found that women had great and important parts to perform, and that they were daily and regularly and satisfactorily performing them. They took a great share in municipal life. But, so far as political life was Concerned, while both sides, Liberals and Conservatives alike, were only too anxious to secure the services of women whenever an election was taking place, yet they could not register a vote for themselves, although they were considered to be quite capable of influencing those who had votes as to the direction in which they should exercise them. Looking outside the United Kingdom, it would be found that woman's franchise existed in New Zealand and Australia, and the effect was not disastrous. Ours was a great democracy, and there was fund a large and increasing body of opinion that demanded that women should take part in the government of the country to the extent of saying who should be their representatives to advocate their views in Parliament. But whilst the political associations made use of the (services of hundreds of women to bring up voters to the poll, they themselves were considered unworthy and unfit to vote.
Mr. Albion Richardson, M.P., opposed the motion. He said that the Government had been returned at three elections, and no candidate was asked by any body of the electors to give a pledge to vote in favour of a measure of women's suffrage being carried in those Parliaments. Upon a matter of this great importance it was certainly the duty of the Government to see whether there was any external evidence of the wishes of the electors of the country upon the matter. He was quite content, if the view of the country was fairly taken, to abide by the decision that would be arrived at, but what he protested against was that the Government should give facilities for the passage of such a measure in spite of the fact that it must be aware that the great majority of the electors who returned the present Parliament were strongly opposed to any such law. He had received a large number of deputations upon the subject since the present Parliament met, and when he asked of them what they thought would happen if the question were submitted to a referendum, the answer invariably was that, of course, it would be rejected, but that that was not the way to look at it. He argued that that was precisely the right way to look at it, and he thought the Government would be guilty of a gross dereliction of its duty and a gross breach of trust if it were, without taking the opinion of the electors, to pass such a measure into law. A canvass had been made by one society opposed to women's suffrage, and in all large centres where the question had been put it had resulted in answers being given in the proportion of two to one against women's suffrage being conceded. There was undoubtedly strong evidence that the, country was opposed to the Bill being passed. The suffragists pointed to the fact that the great meetings they held were crowded, but he argued that people did not go to them because they were in favour of women's suffrage, but to see something odd-and they generally saw it. The referendum would be a fair solution, and if the ladies in favour of the measure really believed they had the country behind them they would not object to it. The reading of the Bill in favour of women's suffrage was carried in the House of Commons by a large majority, but a still larger majority voted against facilities being given for its passage. With regard to the statement that man-made law was unjust to women, he said that during the last thirt years the attitude of the Legislature to women had been one long caress. He asserted that during the Armenian troubles some years ago, when Mr. Gladstone was in power, if women had had the vote it would have been impossible to prevent a great European war.
Mrs. Despard asserted that if the vote were granted it would not mean in any way that men would be governed by women. could say that men and women were treated equally well in the matter of wages, for instance, when each did exactly the same work. The interests of women and children would be more fully considered if women had the franchise. There was no opposition from working men to the suffrage being granted to women, but they were in favour of it.
Mr. A. MacCallum Scott, M.P., said he had never heard an argument in favour of women's suffrage, and could not conceive what it could be. He imagined that the argument was that because a
NATIONAL INSURANCE AGAINST SICKNESS.
A MEETING of the Medico-Legal Society was held at 11, Chandos street, Cavendish-square, W., on Tuesday, the president, Sir John Tweedy, LL.D., taking the chair. Among the members of the Lega Profession present were Messrs. H. Wippell Gadd, R. Henelowe Wellington, M. Wimpfheimer, W. C. Williams, Close, Singleton, Major Greenwood, and Messrs. W. A. Brend and Roland Burrows (hon. secs.). Dr. J. Smith Whitaker (medical secretary to the British Medical Asssociation) delivered an address upon National Insurance against Sickness," in the course of which he referred in detail to the National Insurance Bill now before Parliament, which he said was obviously an outcome of the reports of the Poor Law Commission. The Government had followed the German example must contribute to an insurance in insisting that workmen in and be the administration must contributors to thereof. The were the fund (a) employed persons (these included all manual labourers, and, with certain exceptions, all other employees receiving less than £160 per annum); (b) volunteers-i.e.. persons who derived their income, however much, wholly or mainly in return for work which they do. The contributions were broadly 4d. per head from men and 3d. from women, with 3d. in each case from their employers and a subsidy of 2d. from the State. The benefits included payment during sickness and aleo medical attendance; this had not been defined, but it was understood to include minor operations. Drugs and medicines would also be supplied, and probably this was meant to cover accessories, although nothing definite had been stated on this point. There were also maternity benefits for women workers and the wives of men workers. Sanatoria were to be established, at present for tuberculous patients only, but there was power to extend this provision to sufferers from other diseases. There were to be Insurance Commissioners, with an Advisory Committee, upon which it had been stated officially medical men would be represented, but it was important that this should be definitely laid down in the Bill. The sick payments and medical benefits would be administered through approved societies and local health committees, the latter having to administer any sanatoria that were established. Both the approved societies and the local health committees would have the duty of engaging medical men and arranging for the supply of drugs. Approved societies might make a profit on the working of the scheme, which must be spent in providing additional benefits for their members. There was nothing in the Bill of a definite nature as to agreements that were to be made with medical men. They might be paid by fixed salaries, by capitation fees, or by fees for work done. It was highly desirable that the last-named method should be adopted, and that the work should be thrown open to all medical men in the particular localities. The authorities had estimated that the sum available for medical estimated benefits would be £1,200,000, which, divided by the number of insured persons, gave an average of 63. per head There was per annum. a primary objection to any intervention of the State between doctors and patiente, but it being generally recognised by medical men that come such intervention was inevitable. The scheme, however, carried intervention further than was either necessary or wise. Many of those earning under £160, or between £100 and £160 a year, were well able at present. to pay for their own medical attendance, and did so There was no necessity to provide persons earning more than £100 a year with ordinary medical attendance-they were able to provide this for themselves. Their advantages occurred in the provision of special treatment, which they had to seek now in institutions, and there was nothing in the Bill to alter this state of things. The relations of the medical profession to the friendly societies had not been satisfactory in the past, and there was a danger in extending them to one-third of the whole population. The Bill directly encouraged friendly societies to economise at the expense of their medical officers. As to remedies, it was suggested (a) that there should be an income limit to recipients of medical benefits-this might be put at £160 a year, but preferably at £100; and (b) that there should be free choice of doctors by the patients. As to the remunera. tion, nothing but experience could determine what was adequate, but it must not be settled on the lines of a hard economic burden. Mr. H. Wippell Gadd called attention to the provisions of clause 46 of the Bill, in which the liability of local authorities, water
companies, &c., who were said to have caused sickness in localities administered or supplied by them, was to be assessed by an inspector appointed by the Secretary of State or the Local Government Board. He urged that this was a dangerous extension of the modern practice of allowing officials to usurp the functions of judge and jury. The Bill as drafted left the door open for the supply of drugs being undertaken by central dispensaries set up for that purpose, which would probably be outside the scope of the Pharmacy Acts and the Sale of Food and Drugs Act; whereas if it were provided that the supply of drugs should be by pharmacists in the different localities, their quality might be more efficiently controlled.
Mr. Singleton pointed out that clause 11 provided that any compensation under the Workmen's Compensation Act should be taken into account in fixing the amount of benefits to be paid, and prevented settlements being made without the consent of the friendly societies.
Mr. M. Wimpfheimer, speaking as a member of the public and of a sister profession, the average income of which was said to be £78, thought that possibly medical men were not hardly treated if they were likely to receive an income of £300 a year. In Germany there was free choice of doctors in the large towns. The medical men who undertook the treatment of the State-insured patients attracted, as consequence, the paying patients, because they insisted upon being treated by the men who had most experience. In country districts the patient insisted on his right of free choice, and, wherever he could scrape together sufficient money, he took the doctor from outside rather than go to the Local Government doctor. Having regard to the fact that the question had not been settled satisfactorily in Germany, it was a good thing that the medical profession were attacking the Bill at the outset.
Major Greenwood said that clause 51 provided that no distress or execution should be made on an insured person during the time when he was in receipt of sick benefit, or for fourteen days after.
UNITED LAW SOCIETY.
AT a debate held at the Inner Temple Lecture Hall on Monday, the 15th inst., Mr. E. S. Cox Sinclair moved: "That the rule of evidence, established by the Criminal Evidence Act 1898, which allows a prisoner to be cross-examined as to his previous convictions or bad character, if he attacks the character of any of the witnesses for the prosecution, is unfair to the prisoner, and should be amended." Mr. G. C. Peevor opposed. The motion was carried by a majority of four votes.
At a debate held at the Inner Temple Lecture Hall on Monday, the 22nd inst., Mr. H. S. Wood-Smith moved : That the case of Woodbridge v. Bellamy (103_L. T. Rep. 852; (1911) 1 Ch. 326) was wrongly decided." Mr. R. Turnbull opposed. The motion was lost by hve
THE BLUE BAG.
THE fifth meeting of the Easter Sittings was held on Thursday, the 25th inst., at 745 pm., when a King's Bench action was tried: 'Jones and his wife, who had partaken of supper at the restaurant of Gourmet Bros., claimed damages for the wife's subsequent illness, which was diagnosed as ptomaine poisoning caused by eating_unsound fish." Mr. Montague Shearinan. KC, acted as judge. The last meeting of the sittings will be held on Thursday next, at 7 45, when an action in the King's Bench Division for the recovery by a contractor of money sent to him but not received will be tried. A. B. Shaw will be the judge.
should demand a very close personal scrutiny, especially in cases of 'sudden death,' before he issues a certificate of death or sanctions the burial of any person on whom he has been in attendance. Perhaps there are times when pressure of work makes us somewhat lax in these respects, but it behoves us to be extremely careful, more particularly in cases such as those referred to. The association [for the Prevention of Premature Burial] is doing a good work, and we are glad to have this opportunity of speaking a word in favour of its propaganda.' Further information (printed) on this very important question will be sent by the present writer on receiving a stamped addressed envelope. JAS. R. WILLIAMSON.
100, Cheddington-road, Upper Edmonton, N.
COUNTY COURT EXPERIENCES.-I should like to supplement the experiences of your correspondent "N. V. W." in the Wandsworth County Court. On the 20th Jan. last I sent the necessary papers for the issue of an ordinary summons and 93. fee. On the 26th Jan, having received no reply, I wrote asking how the matter stood. Op the 27th Jan. the plaint note was issued. A. D. M.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
This column is intended for the use of members of the Legal Profession, and therefore queries from lay correspondents cannot be inserted. Under no circumstances are editorial replies undertaken.
None are inserted unless the name and address of the writer are sent, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of bona fides.
7. SETTLEMENT ESTATE DUTY.-A testator, whose will has recently been proved, bequeathed various pecuniary legacies, including one which is settled upon several persons in succession, giving rise to a claim for settlement estate duty. The will contains the following clause: "I direct that all the legacies bequeathed by this, my will shall be paid free of duty." Is this direction sufficient to throw the obligation for payment of the settlement estate duty as well as the legacy duty upon the residuary estate ? EXECUTOR.
(Q. 5.) STAMP DUTY.-If the surrender is made in court, it is considered to be made by the delivery of the seisin and not by any instrument, and no duty is cast on the steward to see that any stamp under sect. 4 (3) of the Finance (1909-10) Act 1910 is impressed. It is, however, the duty of the vendor to supply the particulars under sect 4 (1), and, if there has been any previous agreement, the stamp under sect. 4 (3) can be impressed on it. As regards surrenders made out of court, the authorities hold that there is an instrument hy which the sale is effected, and that it is the duty of the steward to see that one of the stamps under sect. 4 (3) has been impressed. If the surrender is made in pursuance of any deed, that deed must be duly stamped: (see secte. 17, 65, and 66 of the Stamp Act 1891, and Beot. 4 (3) of the Finance (1909-10) Act 1910). A copy court roll is not an instrument under sect. 4 (2), and it is not necessary to have a stamp under sect. 4 (3) impressed upon it; but it seems to me desirable, when the transaction is in court, that the copy court roll should bear the stamp under sect 4 (3), and the authorities have Do objection to this course being adopted. M. H.
This department being open to free discussion on all Professional topics, the Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions or statements contained in it.
CHINESE OATH.-Your note on the China man's oath in the last issue reminds me of a case which occurred in the " eighties" of last century in one of the Scottish sheriff's court-Dundee, I believe. The sheriff, addressing a Chinese witness, asked, "How will you be sworn, John ? " The Chinaman replied something in this way (I cannot bind myself verba ipsissima): "Brakee saucer, blow em out matchee, smell em bookee; all the same. John speak truth." The sheriff observed that John seemed an honest fellow, and I believe the man affirmed. OLD SQUARE.
PREMATURE BURIAL.-The following brief extract from a leading article under the title "The Dangers of being Buried Alive in the Medical Times of the 22nd April may interest the reflective readers of your instructive journal: It is self-evident, as Dr. Hooker points out, that the danger of premature burial is one to which everyone of us is more or less liable. In the present lax condition of our burial laws there is no reason indeed wby premature burial should not frequently occur. There is, on the other band, every reason to suppose that it is actually not infrequent.' Such being the case, we deem it our duty to bring this matter before the attention of our readers. We consider that it is the duty of every medical practitioner to see to it that none of his patients suffer premature burial.